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[INDEX SUPPLEMENT to the ATHENAEUM with No. 4212, July 18, 1908. 



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ATHENAEUM 



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LITERATURE, SCIENCE, THE FINE ARTS, MUSIC, 

AND THE DRAMA. 

JANUARY TO JUNE, 

1908. 




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PRINTED BY JOHN EDWARD FRANCIS, ATHENAEUM PREB8, BREAM'S BUILDINGS, CHANCERY LANE. 

PUBLISHED AT THE OFFICE, BREAM'S BUILDINGS, CHANCERY LANE, E.C., 

BY JOHN C. FRANCIS AND J. EDWARD FRANCIS. 

SOLD BY ALL BOOKSELLERS AND NEWSMEN IN TOWN AND COUNTRY. 
AGENT8 FOR SCOTLAND, ME88R8. BELL & BRADPUTE AND MR. JOHN MENZIES, EDINBURGH. 



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SUPPLEMENT to the ATHKN-SIUM with No. 4212, July 13, 1908. 



INDEX OF CONTENTS. 

JANUARY TO JUNE, 1908. 



LITERATURE. 

Reviews. 

Abbott'3 (E. A.) Notes onNew Testament Criticism, 189 ' 

Indices to Diatessarica, 668 
Aberdeen University, Record of its Quatercentenary, 

540 
Abraham's (G. D.) The Complete Mountaineer, 351 
Acton's (Baron) History of Freedom, ed. Figgis and 
Laurence, 68 ; Historical Essays and Studies, ed. Figgis 
and Laurence, 220 
Adams's (Rev. J.) Sermons in Syntax, 319 
Adcock's (A. St. J.) The World that Never Was, 445 
Ade's (G.) The Slim Princess, 757 
Ady's (C M.) A History of Milan under the Sforza, ed. 

Armstrong, 316 
Afghan War, Second, 1878-80, 158 
Agnew's (G.) The Night that brings out Stars, 380 
Aitken's (R.) The Golden Horseshoe, 474 
Albanesi's (Madame) Drusilla's Point of View, 724 
Aldington's (M.) Songs of Life and Love, 99 
Alexander's (A. B. D.) A Short History of Philosophy, 321 
Alexander's (B.) From the Niger to the Nile, 38 
Allan's (A.) The Advent of the Father, 190 
Almanach du Drapeau, 13 
Almanach Hachette, 13 

Alpens's (Marchioness d') House of the Lost Court, 445 
Annesley's (M.) The Door of Darkness, 784 
Annuaire Statistique, 321 

Applin's (A.) The Butcher of Bruton Street, 634 

Aristotle : De Anima, tr. and ed. Hicks, 506; The Works 

of, Part I. The Parva Naturalia, tr. Beare and Ross; 

Part II. De Lineis Insecabilibus, tr. Joachim— By 

Mauthner, tr. Gordon, 507 

Arnold-Forster's (Right Hon. H. O.) English Socialism of 

To-day, 158 
Askew's (A. and C.) Not Proven, 283; The Path of 

Lies, 318 
Austin's (M.) Santa Lucia, 664 
Ayscough's (J.) Marots, 568 
Bacon, J. M., Life by his daughter. 727 
Bacon's Essays, ed. Mary A. Scott, 571 
Bacon's (J. D.) Ten to Seventeen, 449 
Baer & Co.'s (Messrs. J.) Catalogue of Sixteenth-Century 

Books, Part III., 353 
Bailey's (H. C) The God of Clay, 473 
Bailey's (J. C.) The Claims of French Poetry, 33 
Barbour'sJJ.) The Bruce, tr. Eyre-Todd, 539 
Bargy's (H.) France d'exil, 253 
Baring-Gould's (S. ) Devonshire Characters and Strange 

Events, 40 ; Lives of the British Saints, Vol. I., 351 
Barlow's (G.) The Triumph of Woman, 11 
Barlow's (J.) Irish Neighbours, 40 
Barr's (R.) Young Lord Stranleigh, 724 
Barrett's (R. M.) EUice Hopkins : a Memoir, 287 
Barron's (P.) The Hate Flame, 664 
Barzini's (L.) Pekin to Paris, tr. Castelvecchio, 38 
Bax's (E. B.) The Roots of Reality, 160 
Bazin's (R ) The Nun, 318 
Bearne's (Mrs.) A Sister of Marie Antoinette : Life Story 

of Maria Carolina, Queen of Naples, 94 
Becke's (L.) The Call of the South, 448 
Begbie's (H.) Tables of Stone, 505 
Bell's (M.) Weeds and Wild Flowers, 415 
Belloc's (H.) On Nothing and Kindred Subjects, 320 
Benjamin of Tudela, The Itinerary of, Critical Text, &c, 

by Adler, 159 
Bennett's (A.) The Statue, 476 
Bennetts (W. H.) The Religion of the Post -Exilic 

Prophets, 319 
Benson's (E. F.) Sheaves, 155 

Berlin Oriental Seminary, Transactions for 1907, 160 
Bernhardt'8 (G. de) The Handbook of Treaties relating 

to Commerce, 286 
Bianquis's (J.) L'CEuvre des Missions protestantes a 

Madagascar, 192 
Biddulph's (Col. J.) The Pirates of Malabar, 251 
Binyon's (Mrs. L.) Nineteenth-Century Prose, 284 
Birkhead's (A.) The Master-Knot, 445 
Birmingham's (G. A.) The Bad Times, 283 
Black's (C.) Caroline, 187 
Blackmore s (R. D.) Lorna Doone, Introduction and 

Notes by Snowden Ward, 536 
Blackwood's (A.) The Listener, and other Stories, 39 
Bland's (A.) The Happy Moralist, 320 
Bloundelle-Burton's (J.) The Last of her Race, 318 
Boer War, Official History, Vol. III., 694 
Boigne, Comtesse de, Memoirs of the, ed. Nicoullaud, 

Vol. III., English Translation, 126; Vol. IV., 572 
Bone's (G.) Children's Children, 9 
Bonnal's (General) La premiere Bataille, 223 
Book of the Duke of True Lovers, tr. Kemp-Welch, 

I '.allada rendered by Binyon and Maclagan, 601 
Book-Prices Current, ed. Slater, 127 
Bookseller. The, Jubilee Number, 128 
Boston's (T.) A General Account of my Life, 755 



Boulting's (W.) Tasso and his Times, 287 

Bovet's (M. A. de) Veuvage blanc, 665; Apres le 

Divorce, 784 
Bowen's (M.) The Sword Decides, 506 
Box's (Rev. G. H.) Religion and Worship of the Syna- 
gogue, 319 
Boyd's (M. S.) Her Besetting Virtue, 350 
Braddon's (M. E.) During Her Majesty's Pleasure, 693 
Braithwaite's (W. S.) Book of Elizabethan Verse, 284 
Brassey's (T.) Work and "Wages : Part II. Wages and 

Employment, 191 
Bridges's (J. H.) Essays and Addresses, 696 
Brightwen's (E.) Last Hours with Nature, ed. Chesson, 

759 
Brodrick's (M.) The Trial and Crucifixion of Jesus 

Christ of Nazareth, 666 
Brooke's (S. A.) A Study of Clough, Arnold, Rossetti, 

and Morris, 691 
Browning, Robert, Life and Letters of, by Mrs. S. Orr, 

revised by Kenyon, 669 
Bruce, Master Robert, Minister of the Kirk of Edin- 
burgh, by Macnicol, 540 
Brummell, Beau, and his Times, by De Monvel, 535 
Bryan's (G. H.) The Elements of the Geometry of the 

Conic, 72 
Buckrose's (J. E.) The Wolf, 506 
Burdett's (Sir H.) Hospitals and Charities, 1908, 509 
Burfree's (L. J.) The Search for the Western Sea, 758 
Burgess's (G.) The White Cat, 222 
Burke's Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage, 128 
Burnet, Bishop, Life of, by Clarke and Foxcroft, 121 
Burrows, Montagu, Capt. R.N., Autobiography of, ed. 

by his Son, 689 
Burt, Thomas, Life by Watson, 255 
Caetani's (Prince L.) Annali dell' Islam, Vol. II., 379 
Caine's (W. R. H.) Cruise of the Port Kingston, 320 
Calvert's (A. F.) Toledo, 352 
Cambridge Modern History, Vol. V., ed. Ward, Prothero, 

and Leathes, 722, 762 
Campbell's (W. S.) The "Passer-by" in London, 446 
Campbell - Bannerman, Sir Henry, by O'Connor — 

Speeches, 602 
Carducci's (G.) Poems, 415 
Carrick's (H.) The Muse in Motley, 157 
Carrington's (PitzRoy) The Pilgrim's Staff, 99 
Carter's (M. E.) Groundwork of English History, 72 
Cassell's (Messrs.) People's Library, 227 
Castle's (A. and E.) Flower o' the Orange, &c, 448 
Catholic Who's Who, ed. Sir F. C. Burnand, 160 
Chadwick's (W. E.) Pastoral Teaching of St. Paul, 189 
Chambers's (R. W.) The Tree of Heaven, 695 
Champneys's (A. L.) Public Libraries. 127 
Chapman's (A. B. W.) The Commercial Relations of 

England and Portugal, 509 
Charlton's (R.) The Virgin Widow, 505 
Chatelaine of Vergi, tr. Kemp-Welch, 601 
Chaucer's Canterbury Tales: The Nun's Priest's Tale, 

ed. Pollard, 72; The Prologue, &c, done into English 

by Prof. Skeat, 98 
Chenier, A., Poesies choisies, ed. Derocquigny, 71 
Chesterton's (G. K.) The Man who was Thursday, 350 
Chips from a Bookshelf, ed. Browne, 571 
Church's (Rev. A. J.) Memories of Men and Books, 661 
Churchill's (W.) Mr. Crewe's Career, 723 
Clarke, William : a Collection of his Writings, ed. 

Burrows and Hobson, 287 
Clarke's (T. E. S.) A Life of Bishop Burnet, 121 
Clegg's (T. B.) The Bishop's Scapegoat, 757 
Clergy Directory, The, 128 
Clyde, The, River and Firth painted by M. Y. and 

J. Y. Hunter, described by Munro, 95 
Cobb's (T.) The Chichester Intrigue, 350 
Coke's (D.) The Pedestal, 693 
Cole's (S.) Rachel Chalfont, 350 
Coleridge's (C-) Miss Lucy, 444 
Coleridge's (M. E.) Poems, Memoir by Newbolt, 99 
Coleridge (S. T.) : Biographia Literaria, ed. Shawcross — 

The Poems of, ed. E. H. Coleridge, 247 
Colles's (B..) The Complete Works of George Darley,287 
Collins's (J. C.) Voltaire, Montesquieu, and Rousseau 

in England, 471 
Combes's ( L. de) The Finding of the Cross, tr. Cappa- 

delta, 667 
Compayre's (G.) Jean Frederic Herbart, tr. Findlay, 

571 
Connold's (E. T.) Gleanings from the Fields of Nature, 

759 
Connolly's (J. B.) The Crested Seas, 40 
Continuation Schools in England and Elsewhere, ed. 

Sadler, 69 
Conway s (R. S.) Virgil's Messianic Eclogue, 66 
Cook's (S. A.) Critical Notes on Old Testament History 

188 
Cook's (T. A.) The Cruise of the Branwen, 726 
Cooper's (E. H.) The Marquis and Pamelii, 380 
Coppee, F., Poesies choisies, ed. Delbos, 71 



Correspondance de Dostoi'evski, traduit du Russe par 

J. W. Bienstock, 99 
Cotterill's (C. C.) Human Justice for those at the 

Bottom, 127 
Courlander's (A.) Eve's Apple, 187 
Courtney's (W. L.) The Literary Man's Bible, 12 
Crawford's (F. M.) The Primadonna, 505 
Crispe's (W.) Corry Thorndike, 634 
Crockett's (S. R.) Deep Moat Grange, 476 
Crockett's (W. S., Footsteps of Scott. 541, 603, 638 
Crockford's Clerical Directory for 1908, 449 
Cromer's (Earl of) Modern Egypt, 345, 376 
Cullum's (R.) The Watchers of the Plains, 445 
Cunninghame's (A.) The Love Story of Giraldus, 9 
Curio's (R. H. P.) Aspects of George Meredith, 449 
Danby's (F.) The Heart of a Child, 349 
Dan Riach, Socialist, 505 
Dante, In the Footprints of, by Toynbee, 255 
Darley. G., Complete Works, ed. Colles, 287 
Dasent's (A. I.) John Thadeus Delane, Editor of The 

Times : his Life, &c, 501 
Davenport's (C.) The Book: its History and Develop- 
ment, 449 
Davidson's (L. C.) The Lost Millionaire, 445 
Davies's (W. H.) The Autobiography of a Super-Tramp, 

728 
Davitt, Michael, by Sheehy-Skeffington, 761 
Dawson's (W. ) The Scourge, 444 
Deakin's (D.) The Young Columbine, 252 
Dearmer's ( vj .) The Alien Sisters, 413 
Debrett's Peerage, Baronetage, Knightage, 128 ; House 

of Commons and the Judicial Bench, 159 
Deeping's (VV.) Bertrand of Brittany, 724 
Deland's(M.) R. J.'s Mother and some other People, 695 
Delane, John Thadeus, Life, &c, by Dasent, 501 
De La Pasture's (Mrs. H.) The Grey Knight, 505 
Deledda's (G.) Ashes (Cenere), 634 
Demonstration Schools Record, ed. Findlay, 568 
De Morgan's (W.) Somehow Good, 252 
Dent's (Messrs.) Everyman's Library, 256, 787 
Derbyshire, Old, Memorials of, ed. Cox, 782 
Dewsnup's (E. R.) The Housing Problem in England, 10 
Dickberry's (F.) Phantom Figures, 9 
Dickens, Charles, The Works of, National Edition, 12, 

636, 671 
Dictionaries : A New English, ed. Murray, Bradley, 
and Craigie, 184, 692 ; Hungarian and English Lan- 
guages, by Yolland, 254 ; An Anglo-Saxon, based on 
the Collections of Bosworth, Supplement by Toller, 
Part I., 475; A New French-English, English-French, 
by Payen-Payne, 571 
Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels, ed. Hastings, 

Selbie, and Lambert, 668 
Dictionary of National Biography, Reissue, 381 
Diehl's (A. M.) An Actor's Love Story, 350 
Diehl's (C.) Figures byzantines, Deuxieme Serie, 783 
Ditchfield's (P. H.) Charm of the English Village, 728 
Diver's (M.) The Great Amulet, 600 
Dod's Peerage, Haronetaye, and Knightage, 128 ; Parlia- 
mentary Companion, 159 
Donovan's (Dick) In the Face of Night, 664 
Dorrington's (A.) And the Day Came, 284 
Dostoi'evski, Correspondance de, traduit du Russe par 

J. W. Bienstock. 99 
Doughty's (CM.) Wanderings in Arabia, ed. Garnett, 536 
Dow's (E. W.) Atlas of European History, 72 
Drake's (A. E.) Discoveries in Hebrew, so., Languages, 

475 
Drayton's (M.) Minor Poems, ed. Brett, 98 
Drewitt'e (F. D) Bombay in the Days of George IV., 

313, 450, 574 
Drummond's (M.) ElementB of Psychology, 127 
Dunning'e (H. W.) To-day on the Nile, 447 
Duntzer's (H.) Life of Goethe, tr. Lyster, 449 
Durland's (K.) 'I ho Red Reign, 192 
Dutch Self-Taught, 478 
Dyott's Diary, 1781-1845, ed. Jeffery, 8 
E. A.'s Spring in London, 414 
Earlston's ( P.) The Place Taker, 284 
Eaton's (Dr. J.) Grant. Lincoln, and theFreedmen, 226 
Eccott's (W. J.) The Red Neighbour, 600 
Edgar's (VI. G.) A Treasury of Ballads— Treasury of 
Verse for Little Children — Treasury of Verse for 
Boys and Girls, 284 
Edwards's (G. M.) Altera Colloquia Latina, 572 
Eliot's (Sir C- ) Turkey in Europe, 416 
Ellesmere's (Earl of) The Standertons, 283 
Elwin's (Father) Indian Jottings, 37 
Kmmett's (K. P.) The Silver /one, 252 
English Catalogue of Books, 256 
Erasmus against War, 73 

Escott's (T. H. S.) The Story of British Diplomacy, 781 
Espinosas (Friar A. de) The Guanches of Tenerife, tr. 

and ed. Sir 0. Markham, 219 
Factory and Shop Acts of the British Dominions, com- 
piled by MiBs V. R. Markham, 100 



IV 



TH E AT1I KNiEUM 



[81 I'l'LKMKNT t<; the AT1I1 N 1 IS! »ltl, So. 4212. July II 



Jam.akv to June 1908 



Furor*! (R.) The Wa-yi ol Rebellion, 146 

Farriiigton'- (II. M.) The <i:iU-s that Shall not Prevail, 

476 

Father ami Son, 6, 4 r > 

Fenn's (<;. M.) Sir liilton'e Sin. 418 

Frrrar. Nicholas, The Life and Tunes of, hy Sttpton.351 

Ptttenhtifl zur I'.tten VeiWHIIIIllllllg deutscher Philolo- 

gen, feo., 1907, 363 

Field's (M.) Wild Honey from Various Thyme, 414 
1'iiullater'n (Mi and J.) Orossriggs, BOO 
Piaher'i (II. A. L ) Botwparttem. '-'7!' 
Fisher's (.1.) The LiveB of the British Saints, Vol. L, 851 
Fletcher's (J. S.) The Ivory God. and other Stories, 39 ; 
Mothers in [artel, 349 j A Hook about Yorkshire, 789 
For vlv Name's Sake, tr. Leggatt, I'M 
Forb.-s's (Hon. Mrs. W. K. D.) Leroux, 473 
Ford's (S.) Shorty McCabe, 187 
Forrester's (11.) Rupert Brett, 53S 
Forster's (R. H.) A Jacobite Admiral. 168 
Fowler's (W. \V.) Virgil's Messianic Eclogue, 66 
Foxcroft's (H. C.) A Life of Bishop Burnet, 121 
Fragment of an Uncanonieal Gospel from Oxyrhyncbus, 

ed. Grenfell, 867 
Francke's (Rev. A. H.) A History of Western Tibet, 415 
Frazer's (J. G.) Adonis, Attis, Osiris, Second Edition, 

12, 1!) 
Futrelle's (J.) The Chase of the Golden Plate, 693 
G. B. S. Calendar, The, selected by Nixon, 193 
Gallon's (Tom) Tinman, 47G 
Gardenhire's (S. M.) Purple and Homespun, 758 
Gascoigne's (G.) The Posies, ed. Cunliffe, 98 
Gaskell's (Lady C. M.) Prose Idyls of the West Riding, 39 
Gautier, Theopbile. Stories by, tr. Hearn, 695 
Gawain, Sir, and the Lady of Lys, tr. Weston, 12 
Gerard's (D.) Restitution, 757 
Gerard's (M.) A Gentleman of London, 693 
Ghamat's (K. E.) My Friend the Barrister, 474 
Gibbs's (P.) The Romance of George Villiers, First 

Duke of Buckingham, 595 
Gibson's (M. D.) Forty-One Facsimiles of Dated Chris- 
tian Arabic Manuscripts. 288 
Gilbert riermer, Introduction by Masefield, 445 
Gilcbrist's (R. M.) The Gentle Thespians, 350 
Gissing's (A.) Second Selves, 97 
Glasgow's (E.) The Ancient Law, 380 
Godfrey-Faussett's (M.) The Dual Heritage, 784 
Godfrey's (E.) English Children in the Olden Time, 470 
Goethe, Life of, by Diintzer, tr. Lyster, 449 
Goethe's (J. W. von) Poetry and Truth from my own 

Life, tr. Smith, 761 
Goldring's (M.i Dean's Hall, 600 

Gordon's (A. R.) The Early Traditions of Genesis, 188 
Gordon's (S.) The New Galatea, 474 
Gore's (C.) The New Theology and the Old Religion, 183 
Gorst's (Sir J.) New Zealand Revisited : Recollections 

of the Days of my Youth, 226 
Gottschalk's (Mr. P.) Catalogue of Books, 353 
Graham's (F.) Kathleen, 506 

Graham's (Mrs. H.) The Disinherited of the Earth, 538 
Graham's (H. G.) Literary and Historical Essays, 567 
Grand's (S.) Emotional Moments, 508 
Grant, Lincoln, and the Freedmen, by Eaton, 226 
Grant's (C.) The Small Holdings and Allotments Hand- 
book, 255 
Grant's (Mrs. C.) Quaker and Courtier, 477 
Graves's (C. L.) Humours of the Fray, 157 
Greek Versions of the Testaments of the Twelve 

Patriarchs, ed. Charles, 533 
Grey, Lady Jane, and her Times, by Taylor, 409 
Greyfriar, The, 13 

Gribble'8 (F.) George Sand and her Lovers, 126 
Griffith's (G.) John Brown, Buccaneer, 318 
Griffiths's (Major A.) Thrice Captive, 569 
Grimshaw's (B.) In the Strange South Seas, 38 
Grove's (Lady) The Social Fetich, 72 
Guide to Greece, Constantinople, &c, 570 
Gunter's (A. C.) Dr. Burton's Success, 98 
Guyot's (J.) Le Poete J. Fr. Regnard en son Chasteau 

de Grillon, 697 
Guyot's (Y.) Histoire des Rapports economiques de la 

France et de l'Angleterre, 761 
Gwynn's (S.) The Glade in the Forest, 40 
Haile's (M.) James Francis Edward, the Old Chevalier, 

65 
Hainsselin's (M. T.) The Isle of Maids, 473 
Hall's (K. M.) Nature Rambles in London, 759 
Hamilton's (C.) Keepers of the House, 693 
Hamilton's (Col. R.) The Second Answer, 693 
Hanauer's (J. E.) Folk-lore of the Holy Land, ed. 

Pickthall, 217, 258 
Hannay's (R. K.) The Archbishops of St. Andrews, 

Vol. L, 538 
Harper's (C. G.) The Manchester and Glasgow Roads, 

255 ; The North Devon Coast, 446 
Harris's (M. C.) The Tents of Wickedness, 284 
Harrison's (F.) My Alpine Jubilee, 1851-1907, 449; 

National and Social Problems, 601 
Hartog's (P. J.) The Writing of English, 67 
Harvey's (E.) The Agricultural Holdings Act, 1906, 255 
Hawtrey's (V.) Rodwell, 283 
Hazlitt's (W. C.) Roll of Honour, 352 
Headlam's (W.) A Book of Greek Verse, 7 
Heilborn's (E.) Josua Kersten, 569 
Henderson's (Col. D.) The Art of Reconnaissance, 223 
Henderson's (M. S.) George Meredith, 227 



Sanson's (Canon II. 11.) The National Chunk 

Herbert, Jean Frederic, by Compefre, tr. Pindley, . r .71 
Herkless's (J.) The Archbishops of Bt. Andrews, Vol. I., 
588 

Herring's (P.) Dragon's Bilk, 724 

llewison s lJ. K ) The Covenanters, i 

Hewlett's (M.) The Spanish Ja.le, 257, 633 

Hevwood's (N. A.) Oddities of the Law, 509 

Hickey's (E.) Lois, 637 

Highroads of History, Books I. -VI. ,571 

Hill's (J.) The Book Makers of Old Birmingham, 787 

Ilinke's (W. J.) A New Boundary Stone of Nebuchad- 
nezzar I. from Nippur, 725 

llinkson's (H. A.) Father Alphonsus, 222 

Hislam's (P. A.) The Admiralty of the Atlantic 378 

Histoire Sociahste (1789-1900), Vol. XL, ed. Bourgeois, 
223 

Historians' History of the World, ed. Williams 
Vols. I.-XII., 281 

History of the Incas, by P. S. de G&mboa ; and The 
Execution of the Inca Tupac Amaru, by Capt. B. de 
Ocampo, tr. and ed. Sir C. Markham, 123 

History of the War in South Africa, Vol. III., 694 

Hodder's (R.) The Armada Gold, 222 

Hodgetts's (E. A. B.) The Court of Russia in the Nine- 
teenth Century, 668 

Hodgson's (W. H.) The House on the Borderland, 600 

Hoffmann, E. T. W., Stories by, 695 

Holding's (T. H.) The Camper's Handbook, 446 

Hole's (W. G.) New Poems, Book I., 413 

Holland's (Clive) Old and New Japan, 635 

Hood, Thomas : his Life and Times, by Jerrold, 441 

Hope's (A. R.) Dramas in Duodecimo, 40 

Hope's (G.) The Honour of " X.," 757 

Hope's (J. F.) A History of the 1900 Parliament, 191 

Hopkins, Ellice : a Memoir, by Barrett, 287 

Housman's (L.) Stories from the Arabian Nights, Draw- 
ings by Dulac, 158 

Howarth's (E. G.) West Ham, 10 

Howells's (W. D.) Fennel and Rue, 537 

Hubbard (Mrs. L.) jun.'s A Woman's Way through 
Unknown Labrador, 758 

Hueffer's (F. M.) The Fifth Queen Crowned, 473 

Hugo's (Victor) Selected Poems, ed. Eve, 72 

Hume's (F.) The Sacred Herb, 98 

Humphreys's (A. L.) Salt and Sincerity, 287 

Hundred Great Poems, A, annotated by Cross, 127 

Hunt's (V.) White Rose of Weary Leaf, 317 

Hunter's (C. B.) The Eloping Maharani, 254 

Hurst's (E. H.) Mystery Island, 252 

Hustled History, 73 

Hutton's (E.) Studies in the Lives of the Saints, 351 

Hutton's (M. A.) The Tain : an Irish Epic told in 
English Verse, 157 

Hyamson's (A. M.) History of the Jews in England, 442 

Illingworth's (J. R.) The Doctrine of the Trinity, 188 

Inchbold's (A. C.) Lisbon and Cintra, 287, 354, 383 

Inglese imparato da Se, 478 

Innocent the Great, by Pirie-Gordon, 351 

Iota's The Magic of May, 757 

Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela, Critical Text, &c, by 
Adler, 159 

Itinerary of John Leland in or about the } ? ears 1535-43. 
Parts IV. and V., ed. Toulmin Smith, 540 

J. J. B.'s Joseph Redhorn, 413 

Jacob's (V.) The History of Aythan Waring, 155 

J a cobi 's (M. P.) Stories and Sketches, 40 

James Francis Edward, the Old Chevalier, by Haile, 65 

Japanese Self-Taught and Grammar, 478 

J ebb's (C.) A Star of the Salons: Julie de Lespinasse, 
503 

Jerrold's (W.) Highways and Byways in Kent, illust. 
Thomson, 34 ; The Book of Living Poets, 285 ; 
Thomas Hood : his Life and Times, 441 

John's (G.) A Voice from China, 785 

Johnson's (A. T.) In the Land of the Beautiful Trout, 
256 

Johnston's (R. F.) From Pekin to Mandalay, 721 

Journal of Education, Vol. XXIX., 71 

Karsten's (R.) Studies in Primitive Greek Religion, 73 

Keatinge's (M. W.) Suggestion in Education, 70 

Kelly's Handbook to the Titled, Landed, and Official 
Classes, 128 

Kempson's(F. C.) The Future Life and Modern Diffi- 
culties, 188 

Kent's (C. F.) Israel's Laws and Legal Precedents, 188 

Kernahan's (C.) The Red Peril, 318 

Kidd's (D.) Kafir Socialism and the Dawn of Individual- 
ism, 726 

Kipling's (A. W.) The New Dominion, 381 

Koebel's (W. H.J The Anchorage, 187 

Laboulaye's (K) Yvon et Finette : Conte bleu, 572 

Ladd's (Dr. G. T.) In Korea with -Marquis Ito, 635 
Lafage's (L.J La Chevre de Pescadoire, 508 

Laidlaw's (J.) Studies in the Parables, and other Ser- 
mons, 188 
Landon's (P.) Raw Edges, 695 
Landor's (A. H. S.) Across Widest Africa, 38 
Lang's (A.) The King over the Water, 65 
Lang's (L. L.) The Imbeciles, 1S7 
Langdon's (Mrs. A. H.) The Writing of English. 67 
Larymore's (Mrs. C.) A Resident's Wife in Xigeria, 38 
Latham's (C.) In English Homes, Vol. II., 446 
LathburV's (F.) The People Downstairs, 634 
Lathrop s (E.) Sunny Days in Italy, 447 



Laud, by Mackintosh, 
Larliee i (BL) Histoire de France 
Louis XIV. (1648-86), 821 



Vol. VII. Part II.. 



Law, John, of Laurletoa, by WiatotvGIynn, '.«i 
Uwiti (Rev. J, P.) The Life of our Lord, 190 
Lawson's (W. R.) John Bull and his Schools, 70 
Layton's (Messrs.) The Handy Newspaper List, 
Leaves from a Life, 2K<J, 324 
Leblanc* (it.) The Seven of Hearts, tr. A. T. 

Mattos, 508 
Lee's (S.) Four Quarto Editions of Plays by Shake- 
speare, 761 
Lee- Warner's (Sir W.) Memoirs of Field-Marshal 

Henry Wylie Norman, 7P» 
Leith's (W. C) Apologia Diffilentis, 282 
Leland, J., Itinerary, Parts IV. and V., ed. Toulmin 

Smith, 540 
Le Queux's(\V.) The- Pauj.tr of Park Lane, 283 j The 

Lady in the Car, 634 
Lespinasse, Julie de, by Jebb, 503 
Letters of the Wordsworth Family, ed. Knight. 629 
Letters from an Egyptian to an English Politician 

the Affairs of Egypt, 602 
Letters from the Raven, ed. Bronner, 573 
Lewis's (A. S.) Forty-One Facsimiles of Dated Chri- 

Arabic Manuscripts, 288 
Liberal Year- Book for 1908, 13 
Library, The, 256, 541, 544, 574, 869 
Liege and the Ardennes, Paintings by Forestier, Te-.t 

by Omond, 787 
Linguistic Survey of India, Vol. IX. Part III., ed, 

Grierson, 411 
Lister's (Hon. R.) Report upon the French Coloniee,286 
Literary Year-Book for 1908. 41 
Lockwood's (L. E.) Lexicon to the English Poetical 

Works of John Milton, 255 
Lodge's Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage, ed. Sir A. 

Vicars, 128 
London's (Jack) Love of Life, and other Stories, 448 ; 

Before Adam, 633 
Longueville, Madame de, and her Times, by Williams, 250 
Loring's (A.) The Forefront of the Battle, 723 
Low's (Canon G. J.) A Parson's Ponderings, 192 
Lowell's (A. L.) The Government of England, 7 
Lowndes's (Mrs. B.) The Pulse of Life, 318 
Lucas's (R.) Colonel Saunderson, M.P., 668 
Lucas's (St. J.) The Oxford Book of French Verse, 33 
Lucy's (H. W.) Memories of Eight Parliaments, 285 
Ludwig the Second, King of Bavaria, by Tschudi. tr. 

Hearn, 153 
Lyde's (Prof. L.) A Military Geography of the Balkan 

Peninsula, 286 
Macartney, George, Earl of, Life by Robbins, 375 
McCarthy's (J. H.) The Duke's Motto. 380 
Macaulay, Lord, Marginal Notes, ed. Trevelyan, 786 
Macaulay's (G. C.) James Thomson, 597 
M'Conachie's (Rev. W.) Close to Nature's Heart, 760 
Macgowan's (Rev. J.) Sidelights on Chinese Life, 785 
McKenzie's (F. A.) The Tragedy of Korea, 476 
Mackintosh's (W. L.) Laud, 351 

Maclaren's (I.) Graham of Claverhouse, 155, 193, 289 
Macleod's (Fiona) From the Hills of Dream, 414 
MacMahon'8 (E.) The Heart's Banishment, 9 
Macnamara's (R. S.) The Trance, 473 
Macnaughtan's (S.) Three Miss Graemes, 505 
Macnicol's (D. C.) Master Robert Bruce. Minister cf 

the Kirk of Edinburgh, 540 
McNulty's (E.) Mrs. Mulligan's Millions, 350 
Macpherson's (H.) A Century of Political Development, 

352 
Mahan's (Capt A. T.) From Sail to Steam, 151 ; Seme 

Neglected Aspects of War, 2S6 
Maitland, Frederic William, by Smith, 443 
Makower's (S. V.) Perdita : a Romance in Biography, 

315 
Mallock's (W. H.) A Critical Examination of Socialism, 

191 
Malvery's (O. C.) The Speculator, 98 
Mann's (Mrs. M. E.) A Sheaf of Corn, 254 
Manor Court Rolls in Private Hands, Part I., ed. Hardy, 

13 
Mansel-Pleydell's (K.) A Voice from Oblivion, 75S 
Manucci's (N.) Storia do Mogor, tr. Irvine, 690 
Manure's (M. de) Histoire de la Republique 1876-9, dSi 
Marchmont's (A. W.) A Millionaire Girl, 476 
Marden's (P. S.) Greece and the .Egean Islands, 39 
Marginal Notes by Lord Macaulay. selected by Sir G. O. 

Trevelyan, 786 
Margolioutli's (D. S.) Cairo, Jerusalem, and Damascus, 

illus. Tyrwhitt. 152 
Maria Carolina, Queen of Naples, bv Mrs. Bearne, 94 
Marriott's (C.) The Kiss of Helen, 506 
Marsh's (R.) The Coward behind the Curtain, 634 
Marshall's (A.) Many Junes, 380 
Masefield's (J.) An English Prose Miscellany, 284 
Maugham's (W. S.) The Explorer. 9 
Mayor's (J. B.) Virgil's Messianic Eclogue, 68 
Meade's (L. T.) Sarah's Mother. 350 
Meakin's (A. M. B. ) Woman in Transition, 386 
Mellone's (S. H.) Elements of Psychology, 127 
Melville's (L.) Bath under Beau Xash, 159; The Beaux 

of the Regency, 630 
Mtinoires et Correspondance de Louis Rossel, 573 
Meredith, Georg> , by Henderson, 227 ; Aspects of, by 
Curie, 449 



SUPPLEMENT to the ATHENAEUM with No. 4212, July 18, 1908] 



January to June 1908 



INDEX OF CONTENTS 



Merejkowski's Pliny the Younger— Montaigne— Calderon 

— Ibsen, tr. Mounsey, 787 
Michaelowitch's (Grand Duke M.) Never Say Die, 665 
Mijatovich's (C.) Servia and the Servians, 569 
Millais's (J. G.) Newfoundland and its Untrodden 

Ways, 759 
Milton, J., Lexicon to English Poetical Works, by Lock- 
wood, 255 
Mirrour of the Blessed Lyf of Jesu Christ, tr. Love, ed. 

Powell, 786 
.Mitchell's (Very Rev. J.) Significant Etymology, -175 
Mitchell's (G. W.) An Introduction to Latin Prose, 72 
Mitford's (C. G.) The Paxton Plot, 283 
Mitra's (S. M.) Indian Problems, 540 
Moberly's (L. G.) A Tangled Web, 222 
Mockler-Perryman's (Lieut. -Col.) A Military Geography 

of the Balkan Peninsula, 286 
Modernism, The Programme of, tr. Lilley, 346 
Moffett's (Cleveland) A King in Rags, 253 
Molmenti's (P.) Venice, tr. Brown, 352 
Montgomery's (K. L.) Colonel Kate, 222 
Monvel's (R. B. de) Beau Brummell and his Times, 535 
.Moore's (F.) An Amateur Adventuress, 601 
More Society Recollections, by an English Officer, 761 
More's (Sir T.) Utopia, tr. Robinson, ed. Cotterill, 571 
Morris's (Rev. M. C. F.) Nunburnholme : its History 

and Antiquities, 93 
JVIurat's (Prince) Lettres et Documents pour servir a 

l'Histoire de Joachim Murat, ed. Le Brethon, 761 
Murdoch's (G. W.) Gold the God, &c, 695 
Murdock's (H.) Earl Percy's Dinner-Table, 416 
Murray's (G.) The Rise of the Greek Epic, 596 
Naval Annual, 1908, ed. Brassey, 694 
Navarchus's The World's Awakening, 224 
Nelson's (Messrs.) Sixpenny Guides, 759 
New Editions, Reprints, &c, 12, 13, 41, 128, 227, 353, 

381, 382, 417, 446, 447, 449, 476,478, 637, 697, 759, 787 
JNew Encyclopaedia of Social Reform, ed. Bliss and 

others, 761 
Newnham-Davis's (Lieut. -Col.) The Gourmet's Guide to 

Europe, 447 
New Order, The, ed. Lord Malmesbury, 508 
Newspaper Press Directory, 256 
Newte's (H. W. C) The Master Beast, 1888-2020, 10 
New Zealand Official Year- Book for 1907, 226, 696 
Nicholson's (R. A.) Literary History of the Arabs, 248 
Nicoll's (M. J.) Three Voyages of a Naturalist, 446 
Nobili's (R.) A Modern Antique, 350 
Noble's (E.) The Grain Carriers, 187 
Nojine's (G.) The Truth about Port Arthur, tr. Capt. 

Lindsay, 508 
Nolhac's (P. de) Petrarque et l'Humanisme — Petrarch 

and the Ancient World, 410 
Norman, Field-Marshal Sir Henry Wylie, Memoirs of, 

by Lee-Warner, 719 
Norris's (W. E.) Pauline, 784 
Noyes's (A.) Forty Singing Seamen, and other Poems, 

156 
Oakstone's (A.) A Knight-Errant in Turkey, 569 
O'Connor's (T. P.) Sir Henry Campbell- Bannerman, 

602 
Oesterley's (Rev. W. O. E.) Religion and Worship of the 

Synagogue, 319 ; Evolution of the Messianic Idea, 662 
Ogilvie's (W. H.) My Life in the Open, 447 
Old Testament and Semitic Studies, ed. Harper, Brown, 

and Moore, 504 
•Onions's (O.) Pedlar's Pack, 695 
Oppenheim's (E. P.) The Missioner, 601 
Orczy's (Baroness) Beau Brocade, 187 
Original Chronicle of Andrew of Wyntoun, ed. Amours, 

539 
Orr's (Mrs. S.) Life and Letters of Robert Browning, 

revised by Kenyon, 669 
Osmaston's (F. P. B.) Poems and Lyrics, 414 
Oxford Higher French Series, 71 
Oxyrhynchus Papyri, The, Part V., ed. Grenfell and 

Hunt, 35 
Page's (G.) The Edge o' Beyond, 757 
Paget's ( Mrs. G.) Going through the Mill, 351 
Paillares's LTmbroglio macedonien, 570 
Palmer's (W. S.) The Church and Modern Man, 346 
Pappadopoulos's (J. B.) Theodore II. Lascaris, Empereur 

de Nicee, 783 
Parrish's (R.) Prisoners of Chance, 724 
Pascal's Pensees, Maximes et Reflexions, ed. Baker, 572 
Pascoe's (C. E.) No. 10, Downing Street, Whitehall, 662 
Patrick's (D.) The Statutes of the Scottish Church, 5, 45 
Paul, by Wrede, tr. Summis, 189 
Pease, Edward, the Father of English Railways, The 

Diaries of, ed. Sir A. E. Pease, 154 
Pease's (H.) The Burning Cresset, 473 
Peile's (J. H. F.) The Reproach of the Gospel, 665 
Pell, Albert, The Reminiscences of, ed. Mackay, 192 
Pellissier's (C.) Anthologie des Foc-tes franrais du XIX. 

Siecle, 285 
Pemberton's (Max) Wheels of Anarchy, 413 
Petrarch and the Ancient World, by N»lhac, 410 
Philips' ABC Pocket Atlas-Guide to London, 446, 512 
Phillips's (8.) New Poems, 156 
Phillpotts's (Eden) The Mother, 221 ; The Human Boy 

Again, 353 ; The Statue, 470 
Pinkerton's (R. H.) The Elements of the Geometry of 

the Conic, 72 
Pirie-Gordon's (C. H. C.) Innocent the Great, 351 
Pitfield's (A.) Princess of the Sandhills, 283 



Pognon's (H.) Inscriptions semitiques de la Syrie, &c, 

Part I., 319 
Pollitt's (M.) A Noble Vagabond, 694 
Pontifical Services, Vol. III., Descriptive Notes by 

Eeles, 100 
Portman's (L.) The Progress of Hugh Rendal, 9 
Post Office London Directory, 1908, 100 
Potts's (H.) His Final Flutter, 476 
Powell's (Rev. A. H.) The Ancient Borough of Bridg- 
water — Bridgwater in the Later Days, 471 
Praed's (Mrs. C.) Stubble before the Wind, 254; By 

their Fruits, 474 
Pratt's (E. A.) The Licensed Trade, 10, 43 
Prelooker's (J.) Heroes and Heroines of Russia, 227 
Prevost's. (M.) Lettres a Francoise mariee, 256 
Price, Henry Pringle, The Excursions of, 320 
Price's (E. C.) A Princess of the Old World, 508 
Printer's Pie, 1908, 603 
Pugh's (E.) The Enchantress, 634 
Pulcheria, Empress, Life and Times, by Teetgen, 786 
Qui Etes-Vous ? 382 

Rabelais, Francois, by Tilley, ed. Jessup, 125 
Raine's (A.) Neither Storehouse nor Barn, 505 
Ralli's (C.) Julian Steele, 634 
Ramsay's (R.) The Key of the Door, 784 
Ramsay's (W. M.) The Cities of St. Paul, 667 
Randall's (F. J. ) Love and the Ironmonger, 156 
Read's (D. H. M.) Highways and Byways in Hampshire, 

566 
Record of an Aeronaut : being the life of J. M. Bacon, 

by his Daughter, 727 
Record of the Celebration of the Quatercentenary of the 

University of Aberdeen, ed. Anderson, 540 
Records of the Sheriff Court of Aberdeenshire, Vol. III., 

ed. Littlejohn, 539 
Redlich's (J.) The Procedure of the House of Commons, 

tr. Steinthal, 122 
Rees's (J. D.) The Real India, 415, 483 
Regnard, J. F., le Poete, by Guyot, 697 
Remington's (J. S.) The Education of To-morrow, 70 
Review of Historical Publications relating to Canada, 

Vol. XII., ed. Wrong and Langton, 573 
Reynolds's (Mrs. F.) St. David of the Dust, 317 
Rhodes's (K.) Sweet Life, 252 

Richardson's (Mrs. A.) Women of the Church of Eng- 
land, 351 
Richardson's (F.) The Worst Man in the World, 318 
Ridding, George, Schoolmaster and Bishop, by Lady 

L. Ridding, 565 
Rippmami's (W.) Specimens of English, Spoken, Read, 

and Recited, 571 
Rita's The Millionaire Girl, &c, 449 
Rives's (H. E.) The Castaway, 381 
Robbins's (H. H.) Our First Ambassador to China. 375 
Roberts's (M.) Capt. Spink, and other Sea Comedies, 254 
Robins's (E.) Come and Find Me, 412 
Rodd's (R.) The Hand on the Strings, 476 
Romilly's (Lady A.) The Coming Dawn, kc, 414 
Rooper, Thomas Godolphin, Selected Writings of, ed. 

Tatton, 71 
Rosenkrantz's (Baron P.) The Magistrate's Own Case, 

155 
Rossel, Louis, Memoires et Correspondance de, 573 
Rouire's (Dr.) La Rivalite anglo-russe au XIX. Siecle 

en Asie, 321 
Rowley Letters from France and Italy, 37 
Royal Treasury of Story and Song, 571 
Royce's (J.) The Philosophy of Royalty, 756 
Runciman's (Sir W.) Looking Seaward Again, 254 
Russell's (C. H. St. S.) Elegeia: Passages from Latin 

Elegiac Verse, 72 
Russian and Bulgarian Folk-lore Stories, tr. Strickland, 

73 
Russo-Japanese War: The Truth about Port Arthur, 

by Nojine, 508 
Sabatini's (R.) The Shame of Motley, 724 
Sachau's (Dr.) Archiv fiir das Studium deutscher 

Kolonialsprachen, Vol. VI., 256 
St. Barbe's (R.) The Golden Fleece, 98 
St. Francis of Assisi, The Writings of, by Countess de 

la Warr, 728 ; The Lives of, by Brother Thomas, tr. 

Howell, 786 
St. Paul's Epistles to the Thessalonians, ed. Milligan, 314 
Sand, George, and her Lovers, by Gribble, 126 
Sand's (G.) Les Maitres Sonneurs, 71 
Sargent's (A. J.) Anglo - Chinese Commerce and 

Diplomacy, 785 
Sarmento's (General J. E. de M.) The Anglo-Portu- 
guese Alliance and Coast Defence, tr. Capt. Custance, 

224 
Saunderson, Colonel, M.P., by Lucas, 668 
Schmid's (C. von) Easter Eggs, 449 
Schrenck's (K. von) Jesus and His Teaching, tr. 

Warschauer, 190 
Schubert's (H. von) Outlines of Church History, tr. 

Canney, 667 
Schwann's (D.) The Spirit of Parliament. 157 
Scott, Sir Walter, Footsteps of, by Crockett, 511, 603, 

638 
Scott's (E. F.) The Apologetic of the New Testament, 

190 
Scott's (J. R.) Beatrix of Clare, 318 
Scott's (R. P.) The Call of the Homeland, 266 
Scullard's (H. H.) Early Christian Ethics in the West, 

from Clement to Ambrose, 185 



Sculptures and Inscriptions of Darius the Great on the 
Rock of Behistiln in Persia, 725 

Searcy's (A.) In Australian Tropics, 448 

Select English Classics, 571 

Shakspeare : Sonnets, and A Lover's Complaint, Intro- 
duction by Hadow, 12, 45; Warwickshire Contem- 
poraries, by Stopes, 36, 78, 102, 104; Merchant of 
Venice, ed. Hudson, 571 ; Four Quarto Editions, 
described by S. Lee, 761 

Shanachie, The, ed. Hone, 227 

Sheehan's (Canon) Short Stories. 254 

Sheehy-Skeffington's (F.) Michael Davitt, 761 

Sherren's (W.) The Insurgent. 506, 546 

Shiel's (M. P.) The White Wedding, 97 

Shield's (A.) The King over the Water, 65 

Shillington's (V. M.) The Commercial Relations of 
England and Portugal, 509 

Shore's (W. T.) The Pest. 187 

Short Studies in English Literature, 571 

Sidgwick's (Mrs. A.) Home Life in Germany, 754 

Sillery's (Major C.) A Curtain of Cloud, 222 

Silver's (A. P.) Farm - Cottage, Camp, and Canoe in 
Maritime Canada, 758 

Silverston's (C. J.) The Education of Eve, 538 

Sinclair's (U.) The Metropolis, 413 

Simonyi's (Dr. S.) Ungarische Sprache : Geschichte 
und Charakteristik, 253 

Skipton's (H. B. K.) The Life and Times of Nicholas 

Skrine's (J. H.) What is Faith? 666 

Smedley's (C.) The Daughter, 445 

Smith's (A. L.) Frederic William Maitland. 443 

Smith's (B. T. K.) How to Collect Postage Stamps, 73 

Smith's (G. A.) Jerusalem, 631 

Snell's (F. J.) The Devil of Dulverton, 737 

Sneyd-Kynnersley's (E. M.) H.M.I. : Passages in Life 

of one of H.M. Inspectors of Schools, 723 
Socialism : The Socialist Movement in England, by 
Villiers, 320 ; The Case against Socialism, 507 ; 
Problems and Perils of Socialism, by Strachey, 695 
Sociological Papers, Vol. III., 40 
Sorenson's (E. S.) The Squatter's Ward, 569 
Spender's (J. A.) Comments of Bagshot, 319 
Spenser's Foure Hymnes, ed. Winstanley, 413 
Spielmann's (Mrs. M. H.) My Son and 1, 665 
Spyridis's (G.) Living Greek Language compared with 

the Ancient, 570 
Stacpoole's (H. de Vere) The Blue Lagoon, 155; The 

Cottage on the Fells, 569 
Staley's (Very Rev. V.) Liturgical Studies, 728 
Starr's (F.) In Indian Mexico, 602 
Statesman's Year-Book, 1908, ed. Keltie and Renwick, 

669 
Stebbing's (W.) The Poets : Geoffrey Chaucer to Alfred 

Tennyson, 1340-1892, 284 
Stephens's (R. N.) Clementina's Highwayman, 221 
Stevenson's (J. G.) A Lifted Veil, 446 
Stewart's (B.) The Land of the Maple Leaf, 447 
Stirling's (A. H. A.) A Sketch of Scottish Industrial and 

Social History, 571 
Stopes's (C. C.) British Freewomen: their Historical 
Privilege, Third Edition, 12; Shakespeare's Warwick- 
shire Contemporaries, 36, 78, 102, 104 
Stiachey's (St. L.) Problems and Perils of Socialism, 695 
Strain's (E. H.) A Prophet's Reward, 538 
Stratton's (A. W.) Letters from India, 602 
Straus's (R.) The Little God's Drum. 600 
Strindberg's (A.) Die Gotischen Zimmer : Familien- 

schicksale vom Jahrhundertende. tr. Scheriug, 318 
Strolls in Beechy Bucks, 759 

Suffolk Records and MSS. : Index, by Copinger, 41 
Sutherland's (W.) Old-Age Pensions, 127 
Sweet's (H.) The Sounds of English, 476 
Swete's (H. B.) The Appearances of our Lord after the 

Passion, 189 
Swift's (B.) The Death Man, 252 
Swinburne's (A. C.) The Duke of Gandia. 169 
Swinburne's (Major T. R.) A Holiday in the Happy 

Valley : with Pen and Pencil, 'M 
Swynnerton's (Rev. C.) Romantic Tales from the Panjab. 

with Indian Nights' Entertainment, ti'.t? 
Symons's (A.) Cities of Italy, 185 
Syrett's (N.) Anne Page, 634 

Tangerine : a Child's Letters from Morocco, ed. Walt- 
ham, 39 
Tas80 and his Times, by Bouiting, 287 
Taylor's (1. A.) Lady Jane Grey and her Times, 409 
Teetgen's (A. B.) Life and Times of the Empress Pul- 
cheria, 786 
Tempany's (G. H.) A Comedy of Moods, 381 
Temple, Sir William, upon the Gardens of Epicurus, 573 
Tennyson, Evcrsley Edition, Vols. V. and VI., 696 
Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, tr. Charles, 533 
Thomas's (W. J.) The Harp of Youth, 571 
Thomson, James ('The Seasons'), by G. C. Macauluv, 

597 
Thomson's (W. 11.) The Log of a Liner. 166 
Thomson's (W. S. ) English Composition and Essay 

Writing, 72 
Thorburn's (S. S.) India's Saint and the Viceroy, 318 
Thurston's (E. T.) Sally Bishop, 222 
Thurston's (K. C.) ThoVly on the Wheel. 380 
Tilley's (A.) Francois Rabelais, ed, Jeamp, 125 
Townley's (H.) The Splendid Coward, 688 
Toynbee's (P.) In the Footprints of Dante. 



VI 



THE ATHEN^UM 



[SUPPLKMliNT to the ATIIhN.l.lM with No. 421*. July Va. 1908 

January to .Jim 190ft 



Tozer's (!!.) A Daughter of Belial, 47) 

Tracy's (L.) Th« Wneel O 1 Fortune, 7-4 

Traveller* Practical Manual, 478 

Treves (Sir F.) The Cradle of the Deep, 789 

I to liudi'a (CM Ludwig tho 8econd, King of Bavaria, tr. 
II •arn, L68 

Tucker's (B.) Tho King, B06 

Tumbler of Our Ladv, and other Miracles, ed. Kemp- 
Welch, 601 

Turner's (F.) The Armada Gold, 229 

Turner's (G. F.) A Bicycle Ride, 893 

I i>per Norwood Atheii.cum, Record for 1907, 50!) 

Upward's (A.) Secrets of the Past, (596 

I'russov's (Prince) Memoirs of a Russian Governor, tr. 
Rosenthal, 381 

Vac-hell's (H. A.) Sport and Life on the Pacific Slope, 

687 

Vaizey's (Mrs. 0. de H.) Flaming June, 693 

Yullings's (H.) The Lady Mary of Taviitock, GG4 

V&ughui'l (0.) Isle Raven, 380 

Vickers's Newspaper Gazetteer for 1908, .'!'_' 1 

Victoria County Histories : Leicester, Vol. I., ed. Page, 

347 ; Durham, Vol. II., ed. Page, 410 ; Derby, 

Vol. II., ed. Page, 502 
Victorian Year- Book for 1906-7. 226 
Yiebig's (Clara) Absolution, tr. Raahauge, 665 
Villiers, George, First Duke of Buckingham, The 

Romance of, by Gibbs, 595 
Villiers's (B.) The Socialist Movement in England, 320 
VinogradofFs (P.) English Society in the Eleventh 

Century, 753 
Viollis's (J.) Monsieur le Principal, 538 
Virgil's Messianic Eclogue, by Mayor, Fowler, and 

Conway, 66 
Visitation of England and Wales, ed. Crisp, Vol. XIV., 

478 
Voltaire, Montesquieu, and Rousseau in England, by 

Collins, 471 
Vorst's (M. Tan) The Sentimental Adventures of Jimmy 

Bulstrode, 473 
Waghorne's (A.) Through a Peer Glass, 477, 512 
Waight's (J. F.) King of the Barons, 474 
Walks in Middlesex and Buckinghamshire, 759 
W alias's (K. T.) The Call of the Homeland, 285 
Wantage, Lord : a Memoir, by his Wife, 11 
Warfield's (B. B.) The Lord of Glory, 666 
Warr's (Countess de la) The Writings of St. Francis of 

Assisi, 728 
Washington, George, The Seven Ages of, by Wister, 73 
Watson's (A.) A Great Labour Leader : being a Life of 

the Right Hon. Thomas Burt, M.P., 255 
Watson's (H. B. M.) A Poppy Show, 448 
Watt's (H.) Myths about Monarchs, 99 
Weale's (B. L. P.) The Coming Struggle in Eastern 

Webb's (M. de P.) India and the Empire, 381 
Webb's (W. M.) The Heritage of Dress, 124 
Webster's (H.) Primitive Secret Societies, 443 
Wells's (H. G.) New Worlds for Old, 320 
Wenckstern's (Fr. von) Bibliography of the Japanese 

Empire, Vol. II., 635 
Wentworth-James's (G. de S.) The Wild Widow, 693 
Wer ist's 1 289, 546 

West's (Sir A.) One City and Many Men, 760 
Western Independent, its Centenary, 382 
Westley's (G. H.) Clementina's Highwayman, 221 
Whetham, Colonel Nathaniel, by C. D. and W. C. D. 

Whetham, 348 
Whishaw's (F.) A New Cinderella, 98 
Wilde, Oscar, The Works of, 598, 638 
Willcock's (J.) A Scots Earl in Covenanting Times, 218, 

289 
Willcocks's (M. P.) A Man of Genius, 784 
Williams's (H. N. A.) Princess of Intrigue : Madame de 

Longueville and her Times, 250 
Williamson's (C. N. and A. M.) Scarlet Runner, 695 
Willing's Press Guide, 1908, 100 
Wilson's (T. B.) Norway at Home, 759 
Wilson's (Miss) West Ham, 10 
Wilson's (T. W.) Bess of Hardendale, 568 
Winckler's (H.) The History of Babylonia and Assyria, 

tr. and ed. Craig, 724 
Winstanley's (L.) The Winged Lion, 664 
Wister's (O.) The Seven Ages of Washington, 73 
Wiston-Glyun's (A. W.) John Law of Lauriston, 96 
Whitaker's Almanack — Peerage, &c, 73 
Wolffs (Right Hon. Sir H. D.) Rambling Recollections, 

123 
Wood's (H. F. W.) Under Masks, 254 
Wordsworth, William, The Poems of, ed. Nowell Smith, 

629 
Wordsworth Family, Letters 1787-1855, ed. Knight, 629 
Workman's (F. B. and W. H.) Ice-bound Heights of the 

Mustagb. 683 
World, The. Almanack for 1908, 321 
World's Classics, The, 227 
W rede's (Dr. W.) Paul, tr. Lummis, 189 
Wright's (J. and B. M.) Old English Grammar, 474 
Wylie's(A. C.) Tod McAlpin, 569 
Wy lie's (J.) The House of Lords, 191 
Wvndham's (H.) Irene of the Ringlets, 445; Roses and 

Rue, 473 
Yeats's (W. B.) Discoveries, 41 
Yolland's (A. B.) A Dictionary of the Hungarian and 

English Languages, 254 



Young'n (Filson) The Lover's Hour*, 157 
Younghusband'g (Col. G. J.) Story of the Guides, 727 
Yoxall's(J. H.) Chateau Royal,':.'.; 
Zangwill'g (L.) An Engagement of Convenience, 474 

Poatry. 

Magic Carpet, The, by R. M. Watson, 418 
Welsh Lyric after "Ceiriog," by A. P. Graves, 697 
Welsh Milking Song. A, by A. P. Graves, 

Original Papers. 

./Ethandune (Edington), The Battle of, 47*, 799 

Assistant Masters in Secondary Schools, 7."> 

Authorship, A Question of, 452 

Bangkok, Notes from, 129 

Bombay in the Days of George IV.. 160 67 I 

Book Sales of 1907, 14, 41 

Booksellers' Provident Institution, Annual Meeting, 354 

Burton (R.), Hitherto Unknown Source of, 698, 730 

' Cambridge Modern History,' 762 

Cambridge, Notes from, 382 

Chapman's 'All Fooles' and J. P. Collier, 788 

Chaucer :" Tregentil Chaucer" and "A. Godwhen '' 

258 ; a Norfolk Man, 290, 480 
Chaucer Seals. 670 

Classical Teaching, The Aim in, 78, 101 
Coleridge, A Forgotten Early Prose Work of, 541, 575 
Dante and Egypt, 257 
Defender of the Faith, and so Forth, 543 
Dene-Holes, A Reference in Chrestien de Troyes to the, 

289, 479, 670 
Dickens's Miscellaneous Papers, 671 
Dobell, Sydney, Life of, 789 
Douglas Cause, The, 43 
Doves Press. The, 729 
Edington, The Battle of, 478, 729 
' Folk-lore of the Holy Land,' 258 
' Footsteps of Scott, 603, 638 
'« Forgotten Poet, A ' 604 
Gospel, New Uncanonical, 161 
Graham of Claverhouse, 193, 289 
' Guide ' to the Public Records, 258 
Head Masters, Incorporated Association of, 74 
Historical Manuscripts Commission : Recent Reports, 789 
Horace, Problems in, 161 
Indian Mutiny, History of the, 102 
' Initia Patrum,' 605 
Johnson, Dr. : Letter and Seal, 637 
L.C.C. Conference of Teachers, 77 
Landor MS., Unpublished, 160 
' Licensed Trade, The,' 43 
' Lisbon and Cintra,' 354, 383 
" London," The Derivation of, 289, 322, 451 
Mary, Queen of Scots, An Italian Sonnet on the Death 

of, 670 
Milton, The Tercentenary of, 671 
Miltoniana in America, 354 
Modern Language Association, 76 
Montaigne and Burton, Hitherto Unknown Source of, 

698, 730 
Oxford, Notes from, 417, 787 
Paris, Notes from, 13, 74, 100, 128, 228, 289, 353, 418, 

450, 541, 603, 637, 762 
Proven<jal Tongue, The, 451 
Sales, 129, 196, 510, 575, 730 
Scott, Sir Walter, An Unpublished Letter of, 257 
' Scots Earl in Covenanting Times, A,' 289 
Shakspeare : Birthplace Trust, 43 ; Warwickshire Con- 
temporaries, 78, 102,104; The Quartos, 544; About 

my Lorde's Impreso," 604 
Shaw, Mr. Bernard, in French, 418, 450 
Shelley's "I Arise from Dreams of Thee" and Miss 

Sophia Stacey, 478 
' Spanish Jade, The,' 257, 633 
Terence, 697 

Tolstoy's Eightieth Birthday, 418 

Tyburn Gallows and "The Elms," 451, 510, 574,670,698 
Veytia's 'Calendarios Mexicanos,' 193 
Watermarks, 638 
Wilde's (Oscar) Letters on Prison Reform, 638 

Obituaries. 
Abbott, Dr. E., 546. Amicis, E. de, 322. Appleton, S., 
385. Atkinson, R., 74. Avenel, H., 673. Bacher, 
Dr. E., 104. Barbusse, A., 17. Boisaier, M. L. G., 
731. Brewster, H. ( 788. Brown, J. M., 607. Biicheler, 
Prof. F., 607. Cameron. R, 356. Carnie, W., 45. 
Charteris, Prof. A. H., 545. Christophe, J., 577. 
Coppee, F., 671. Comely, J. J., 17. David, P., 420. 
Derenbourg, H., 481. Dieterich, A., 603. Ebsworth, 
Rev. J. W.. 731. Eckardt, Dr. J. von, 131. Ewald, 
C.,292. Ewald, H. F., 577. Fausb611, Prof. V. M., 
731. Frechette, Dr. L., 700. Glaser, Dr. E., 641. 
Grierson, Mrs. J. F., 356. Griffiths, Major A., 385. 
Halevy, L., 603. Hansen, Dr. A., 196. Hauvette, 
A., 162. Hawker, Miss M. E.,791. Headlam, Dr. W. 
G., 791. Howard, J., Jun., 481. Hubschmann, Dr. 
H., 131. Kastner, H., 131. Kaufmann, R. von, 
356. KirchhotT, A., 292. Knowles, Sir J., 228. 
Layton, C. E., 607. Lepage, A., 131. Levysohn, Dr. 
A., 512. Locella, Prof, von, 764. Marwick, Sir J., 
385. Mason, J., 45. Matavulj, S., 325. Nimmo, 
J. C, 17, 43. Oppert, G., 420. Ouida (Mile. L. de la 
Raruee), 128. Peters, C, 17. Puddicombe, Mrs. B. 
(Allen Raine), 791. Quill. A. W.. 162. Rosen, V. B., 
162. Russell, T. OIL, 791. Rylands, Mrs.. 162. 



Sack, E., S78. Salkeld, J.. 781. Sanderson, Key. K., 
17. Schonaicli-Carolatb, Prince I I 17 Schwab*, 
Dr. L. von, 260. Scott, C. H.. 898. Seymour, T. D. r 
104 Sickel, Prof. R. von. 648. .-latham, F. R. f 
322. 8tedman, E. C, 104. Stoerk, Q.J I. 104. 
Syme. D., 230. Taylor, Mrs. P. A., 510. Thibault, 
Rl., 607. Thompson, W. M., 17. Trubner, Mrs., 
731. Wedekind, D.. 784 W.-inscbenk, < 
White, R.. 292. Wilson. Dr. J. D., I8L Wilson, 
W., 40. Witt, Madame de, 607. Wyse, Miss W. M., 
512. Zeller, Prof. E., 385. 

Oosslp. 

Parliamentary Paper*. 17. 40, 81, 104, 131.103, ]<*5. 230. 260, 
309,334,336, •"- . 163,613, 544,(77, <JOS, 641,67:;. 

700, 731, 764, 791. /\U>litlt*rt' Cirmlar Annual Summary 
of Classified Books— Annual Meeting of the New Spalding 
Club, 16. Annual Meeting of the Edinburgh Faculty of 
Advocates, Kl. Number of Students at the German 
Universities, 81. General Meeting of the Dante Society 
of Ireland, 104. Annual General Meeting of the Second- 
hand Booksellers' Association, l.'il. George Meredith's 
Eightieth Birthday, 196. Annual Meeting r.f the News- 
vendors' Institution, 230. Booksellers' Provident Institu- 
tion, 292, 673, 7SO. Scottish Kecord Society, 325. Seventy- 
Fifth Anniversary of Chambers't Journal, 545. Sir J. Eldon 
Gorst's Report on Egypt and the Sudan, 641. Biblio- 
theque Nationale of Paris i Acquisitions, 673. Annual 
Festival of the Printers' Pension Corporation, 764. Uni- 
versity of Paris, Report for 1907. 791. 



SCIENCE. 

Reviews. 

Africa, Map of, 1 : 250,000, Sheets 68 and 128. ' \ 
Allegheny Observatory of the Western University of 

Pennsylvania, Publications, 165, 676 
American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac, 264 
American Journal of Science, 390 
American Philosophical Society, Proceedings, 233 
Anecdota Carto^raphica Septentrionalis, 515 
Annalen der Physik, 674 

Annuairedu Bureau de3 Longitudes for 1908, 132 
Anthropological Institute, Journal, 454 
Arnold's (E. C.) A Bird Collector's Medley, 17 
Astronomi8che Nachrichten, 423, 515, 580, 794 
Astronomischer Jahresbericht. Vol. IX., 703 
Astrophysical Observatory of the Smithsonian Institution 

at Washington, Annals, 643 
Bahr's (P. H.) The Home-Life of some Marsh-Birds, 326 
Batson's (Mrs. S.) The Summer Garden of Pleasure, 765 
Bauer's (Dr. H.) A History of Chemistry, tr. Stanford. 40 
Bee People, The, 231 

Berliner Astronomischei Jahrbuch for 1910, 703 
Borchardt's (W. G.) Elementary Statics, 389 
Bose's (J. C.) Comparative Electro-Physiology, 357 
Bower's (F. O.) The Origin of a Land Flora. 608 
Brown's (H. H.) By Meadow. Grove, and Stream, 293 
Butler's (A. G.) Birds of Great Britain and Ireland, 

Vol. I., 732 
Cain's (J. C.) Chemistry of the Diazo-Compounds, 766 
Cambrian Natural Observer, The, 264 
Cambridge Philosophical Society. Proceedings, 793 
Campbell's (N. R.) Modern Electrical Theory, 163 
Casson's (H. N.) The Romance of Steel, 3S7 
Cohen's (J. D.) Organic Chemistry for Advanced Stu- 
dents, 388 
Companion to the Observatory for 1908, 132 
Comptes Rendus, 105, 261, 390, 514, 674, 675 
Confessio Medici, 293 
Cunningham's (Lieut. -Col. D. D.) Plagues and Pleasure* 

of Life in Bengal, 231 
Darwin's (Sir G. H.) Scientific Papers. Vol. I., 386 
E. V. B.'s The Peacock's Pleasaunce, 765 
Elkington's (J. S. C.) Health in the School, 81 
Endecott's (F. C.) A School Course on Physics, 389 
Farrer's (R.) My Rock-Garden, 197 
Flammarion's Annuaire astronomique et meteorologique- 

pour 1908, 132 
Fleming's (Prof. J. A.) The Principles of Electric Wave 

Telegraphy, 386, 546, 57S, 641 
Folk-lore, 105, 454 

Forel's (A.) The Senses of Insects, tr. Yearsley, 792 
Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 105 

Gomme's (G. L.) Folk-lore as an Historical Science. 61! 
Gordon's (S. P.) Birds of the Loch and Mountain, 326 
Gotch's (F.) Two Oxford Physiologists, 357 
Harvard College Observatory Circulars, 199. 233 
Hickman's (A. L.) Geographical-Statistic Universal 

Pocket Atlas, 578 
Holleman's (Dr. A. F.) A Textbook of Organic 

Chemistry, tr. Walker and Mott, 388 
Hutchinson's (H. G.) Nature's Moods and Tenses, 293 
India, Report for 1906 of the Government Sanitary 

Commissioner, 703 
International Geography, by Seventy Authors, ed. Mill. 

577 
Jeans's (J. H.) An Elementary Treatise on Theoretical 

Mechanics, 482 
Kellogg's (Prof. V. L.) Darwinism To-day, 388 
Kodaikanal and Madras Observatories, Report for 1907, 

680 
Lang's (W. H.) Australia, 641 
L' Anthropologic, 546, 794 
Le Bon's (Dr. G.) L'Evolution des Forces — English 

Translation, 701, 766 






SUPPLEMENT to the ATHENAEUM with No. 4212, July 18, 1908] 



January to June 1908 



INDEX OF CONTENTS 



vir 



Lewis's (E. I.) Inorganic Chemistry, 46 

Lick Observatory, Bulletin, 514 

Lodge's (Sir O.) Modem Views of Electricity, Third 

Edition, 163 
Loeffler (F.) and Others' The Bacteriology of Diphtheria, 

ed. Nuttall and Graham-Smith, 421 
Lower, Richard, 1631-91, by Gotch, 357 
Mclntyre's (M. A.) The Cave Boy of the Age of Stone, 

578 
Maclaurin's (R. C.) The Theory of Light, Part I., 482 
Man, 19, 262, 357, 546, 794 
Mayow, John, 1643-79, by Gotch, 357 
Memorie della Societa degli Spettroscopisti Italiani, 132, 

199, 360, 643, 795 
Moore's (N.) The History of the Study of Medicine in 

the British Isles, 421 
Murray's (A. T.) The Law of Hospitals, 792 
Nautical Almanac for 1911, 360 

Natal Observatory, Report of the Government Astro- 
nomer for 1907, 611 
Oliver's (T.) Diseases of Occupation, 421 
Pearson's (R. H.) The Book of Garden Pests, 765 
Pemberton's (Rev. J. H.) Roses, 765 
Percival's (A. S.) Practical Integration, 482 
Philosophical Magazine, 104, 261, 390, 674, 793 
Physikalische Zeitschrift, 261 
Pike's (O. G.) Adventures in Bird-land, 732 
Price's (T. S.) Course of Practical Organic Chemistry, 46 
Radium, Le, 514 

Ravenhill's (A.) Lessons in Practical Hygiene, 81 
Revue Generate des Sciences, 105, 261/.391, 514, 675, 793 
Revue Scientifique, 514 

Rich's (W. H.) Feathered Game of New England, 608 
Rivers's (W. H. R.) The Influence of Alcohol and 

other Drugs on Fatigue, 792 
Robinson's (W.) The Garden Beautiful, 765 
Roscoe's (H. E.) A Treatise on Chemistry, Vol. II., 

Fourth Edition, 766 
Royal Society, Proceedings, 261, 674 
Saleeby's (C. W.) The Conquest of Cancer, 231 
Salter's (M.) A New System of Geology, 293 
Schofield's (A. T.) Functional Nerve Diseases, 421 
Schorlemmer's (C.) A Treatise on Chemistry, Vol. II., 

Fourth Edition, 766 
South 's (R.) The Moths of the British Isles, First Series, 

293 
Stonham's (C.) The Birds of the British Islands, 

Part VIII., 326 
Symons's Meteorological Magazine, 132 
Tait's (P. G.) Properties of Matter, Fifth Edition, ed. 

Peddie, 163 
Thomas's (N. W.) Bibliography of Anthropology and 

Folk-lore for 1906, 105 
Thomsen's (J.) Thermochemistry, tr. Burke, 766 
Tonge's (J.) Coal, 231 
Turner's (E. L.) The Home-Life of some Marsh-Birds, 

326 
Twiss's (D. F.) A Course of Practical Organic Chemis- 
try, 46 
Walker's (C. E.) The Essentials of Cytology, 231 
Wallace's (A. R.) Is Mars Habitable'' 132 
Ward's (J. J.) Some Nature Biographies : Plant, Insect, 

Marine, Mineral, 197 
Waterfield's (M.) Flower Grouping in English, Scotch, 

and Irish Gardens, 765 
Webber's (W. H. Y.) Town Gas and its Uses, 293 
Westell's (W. P.) The Story of Insect Life, 197 
Wiles's(J. P.) The World's Calendar for all Nations and 

for all Time, 608 
Wright's (M. O.) Gray Lady and the Birds, 327 
Zeuner's (Dr. G.) Technical Thermodynamics, tr. Klein, 

388 

Original Papers. 

Anthropological Notes, 19, 105, 261, 357, 454, 546, 794 

Attis and Christ. 19 

Electric Wave Telegraphy, 546, 578, 641 

' Evolution of Forces, The,' 766 

Pitt Rivers Museum at Oxford, 105 

Research Notes, 104, 261, 390, 514, 674, 734, 793 

Royal Institution, 734 

Royal Observatory, Greenwich, 703, 733 

Royal Society Conversazione, 609 

Societies. 

Anthropological I Inst it "'e— Annual Meeting, 164; Dr. 
A. C. Haddons ' Additional Note on New Guinea 
Games,' 232; Miss M. E. Durham on 'Montenegrin 
Manners and Customs,' 294; Elections, 232, 422, 610. 
Also 369 

Aristotelian— Dr. A. Caldecott on the 'Psychology of 
the Emotions,' 198 ; Dr. S. H. Hodgson on ' The 
Idea of Totality,' 294 ; Elections, 294, 734. Also 
47, 483, 702 

Asiatic Mr. E. II. C.Walsh on 'The Coinage of Nepal,' 
106 ; Dr. Grierson on ' The Modern Hindu Doctrine 
of Works,' 358 

Astronomical— 81, 858, 51 ■>, 766 

British Academy — Prof. P. Gardner on 'The Early 
Coinage of Asia, and the General History and Economy 
of the Lydian and Persian Kings.' Dr. Murray on 
'Newly Discovered Fragments of a MS. of Pelagius, ' 
164; Rev. Prof. S. R. Driver's Schweich Lectures, 
454; Mr. A. Lang on 'The Origin of Terms of 
Human Relationship,' 702 



British Archa'ological Association — 107 

British JVumiwiatic— Elections, 133, 294, 547, 675. 

Also 422 
Challenger — 165, 579 
Entomological— Annual Meeting, 107; Elections, 232, 

358, 422, 483. Also 642, 794 
Faraday— 20, 294, 580, 676, 767 
Oeological— Elections, 20, 106, 232, 293, 358, 391. 482, 

642 ; Annual Meeting — Award of Medals and Funds, 

262. Also 164, 579, 702, 767 

Hellenic — Mr. L. Dyer on ' The Olympian "Theatron " 
and the Battle of Olympia,' 263 ; Miss G. L. Bell on 
'The Early Christian Architecture of the Karadagh,' 
359 ; Prof. E. Gardner on ' The Trentham Statue,' 610 

Historical— Elections, 107, 263, 391, 579, 675 ; Annual 
Meeting, 263. Also 794 

Institution of Civil Engineers— -Elections, 107, 198, 328 
483, 515; Annual Meeting, 579. Also 133, 232, 263, 
294 422 456 

Linnean— Elections, 20, 133, 198, 358, 422, 483, 547, 642, 
767 ; Annual Meeting, 702. Also 294 

Mathematical— Elections, 359, 767. Also 81, 232, 579, 
643 

Meteorological — Annual Meeting, 107; Mr. C. Browett 
on ' Snow Rollers,' 263. Also 359, 515, 675, 794 

Microscopical — Annual Meeting, 133. Also 47, 327, 
422, 579, 702 

Numismatic— Elections, 294, 391, 675. Also 132, 547 

Philological— -Dr. W. A. Craigie on R Words in the 
Oxford English Dictionary. 133; Mr. T. C. Hodg- 
son's ' Gleanings from an Ethnological Notebook,' 198; 
Dr. H. N. MacCracken on ' The Lydgate Canon,' 327; 
Dr. Bradley on M Words in the Oxford English 
Dictionary, 455 ; Annual Meeting, Dr. Murray on the 
Society's Oxford English Dictionary, 610. Also 767 

Physical — Elections, 165, 391, 547; Annual Meeting, 

263. Also 328, 483, 643, 735 

Royal Institution— Elections, 164, 294, 456, 579, 702 ; 
Annual Meeting, 579 

Royal Society of Literature— Prof. J. B. Mayor on 
'Tolstoy as Shakespearean Critic,' 106; Dr. W. E. A. 
Axon on the Authoress of ' Christobel,' 262 ; Prof. 
J. W. Mackail on Sir Richard Fanshawe, 391. Also 
579, 702 

Society of Antiquaries — Mr. T. S. Bush on ' Explorations 
at Lansdown,' 106 ; Sir J. Evans on ' Some Vessels 
formed of Steatite from Egypt,' Prof. O. Montelius on 
' Chronology of the British Bronze Age,' 262 ; Report 
of the Red Hills Exploration Committee, 391 ; Elec- 
tions, 327, 734 ; Annual Meeting, 609. Also 164, 358, 
483, 675 

Society of Biblical A rchceology— Annual Meeting, 107 ; 
Mr. A. J. Pilcher on ' A Coin of Gaza and a Vision of 
Ezekiel,' 232 ; Rev. F. A. Jones on ' The Ancient Year 
and the Sothic Cycle,' 359. Also 642 

Society of Engineers — Presentation of Premiums, 165. 
Also 294 456 579 702 

Zoological— 133, 232, 263, 327, 422, 515, 610, 642, 734 

Obituaries. 
Albrecht, Prof. E., 794. Allen, R. H., 199. Anderson, 
Sir T. M'Call, 134. Braunmiiller, Prof, von, 359- 
Chamberland, C. E., 580. Cornil, A. V., 515. Eliot, 
Sir J., 392. Ellery, R. L. J., 107. Esmarch, Prof, 
von, 263. Fison, Rev. L., 46. Hall, Prof. Asaph, 47. 
Hasse, Prof., 107. Hoffa, Prof. A., 47. Howitt, Dr. 
A. W., 357. Howlett, Rev. F., 165. Kellerman, 
Prof. W. A., 392. Koldewey, C, 676. Lancaster, A., 
199. Lapparent, A. de, 580. Leydig, Prof. F. von, 
548. Mobius, Prof., 580. Morgan, Rev. J. H., 233. 
Paroisse, G., 794. Pettigrew, Dr. J. B., 165. Regnault, 
F., 794. Schmarda, Prof. L., 483. Schriitter, Prof. 
L., 515. Seeliger,Dr. O., 676. Snellen, Dr. H., 295. 
Sorby, Dr. H. C, 328. Strachey, Lieut. -Gen. Sir R., 
198. Thomson, Capt., 233. Wilson, Dr. W. E., 456. 
Young, C. A., 165, 198 

Gossip. 

Award of the Geological Society's Medals and Funds, 47. 
Parliamentary Papers, 82, 1.34, 198, 295, 423, 515, 548, 64,3, 
70.3, 794. Award of the Gold Medal of the Royal Astro- 
nomical Society to Sir D. Gill, 107. Institution of Civil 
Engineers, Award of Medals and Premiums, 5S0. Award 
of the Fotbergillian Medal to Sir A. Wright, 611. Conver- 
sazione of the Entomological Society, 64.3. Daylight 
Saving Bill, 676. Award of the Mackinnon Studentships, 
794. 

FINE ARTS. 

Review*. 

Anderson's (W. J.) The Architecture of Greece and 
Rome, Second Edition, 736 

Arnott's (J. A.) The Petit Trianon, Versailles, Part II., 
265 

Artists of the Italian Renaissance, tr. Seeley, 516 

Arundel Club, Fourth Portfolio, 1907, 265 

Athens, The Annual of the British School at, No. XII., 
Session 1905-6, 21 

Berenson's (B.) North Italian Painters of the Renais- 
sance, 167 

Brown's ((J. B.) Rembrandt : a Study of his Life and 
Work, 200 

Builder, The, 22 

Burlington Art Miniatures, Third Series, 186 

Burlington Magazine, 22, 50, 110, 266, 394, 518, 678, 
798 



Burrows's (R. M.) The Discoveries in Crete, 423 

Bussy's (D.) Eugene Delacroix, 20 

Carpaccio, Vittorio, Life and Works, by Molmenti andS 

Ludwig, tr. Cust, 134 
Cortissoz's (R.) Augustus Saint-Gaudens, 233 
Cram's (R. A.) The Gothic Quest, 167 
Cuming's (E. D.) George Morland : his Life and Works, 

295 
Dechelette's (J.) Manuel d'Archeologie prehistorique, 

celtique et gallo-romaine, Vol. I., 735 
Delacroix, Eugene, by Bussy, 20 
Duchesne's (G.) La Place de l'Etoile et l'Arc de- 

Triomphe, 736 
Elder-Duncan's (J. H.) The House Beautiful and Use- 
ful, 265 
Elgood's (G. S.) Italian Gardens, 768 
Eve's (G. W.) Heraldry as Art, 295 
Eyck, Hubert and John van : their Life and Work, bj 

Weale, 484 
French Art from Watteau to Prud'hon, ed. Foster, 

Vol. III., 165, 235 
Garstang's (J.) The Burial Customs of Ancient Egypt, 

360 
Gasquet's (Abbot) The Greater Abbeys of England, 767" 
Gilbey's (Sir W.) George Morland : his Life and Works, 

295 
Green's (E. T.) Towers and Spires, 233 
Holland's (C.) Design for Schools, 167 
Huish's (M. B.) The American Pilgrim's Way iw 

England, illust. Chettle, 20 
Index to Archaeological Papers, 1665-1890, ed. Gomme, 

200, 235 
Jennings's (O.) Early Woodcut Initials, 264 
Joly's (H. L.) Legend in Japanese Art, 168 
Law's (C. O.) House Decoration and Repairs, 167 
Lawton's (F.) Francois- Auguste Rodin, 135 
Layard's (G. S.) Suppressed Plates, 135, 169 
Lehrs's (M.) Karl Stauffer-Bern, 392 
Ludwig's (G.) The Life and Works of Vittorio Carpac- 
cio, tr. Cust, 134 
Mackinder's (H.J.) The Rhine : its Valley and History, 

456 
Marriage's (M. G.) Pillow Lace : a Practical Handbook, 

199 
Mawson's (T. H.) The Art and Craft of Garden Making, 

Third Edition, 768 
Medallic Illustrations of the History of Great Britain 

and Ireland, Plates LXI.— LXX., 769 
Meredith, George, The Nature Poems of, illust. Hyde; 

20 
MincofTs (E.) Pillow Lace : a Practical Handbook, 199 
Morland, George : his Life and Work, by Sir W. 

Gilbey and E. D. Cuming. 295 
Molmenti's (P.) The Life and Works of Vittoria 

Carpaccio, tr. Cust, 134 
Moore's (N. H.) The Collector's Manual. 21 
Moss's (F.) The Fourth Book of Pilgrimages to Old 

Homes, 457 
Reliquary, The, ed. Rev. Dr. Cox, 136 
Rembrandt : a Study of his Life and Work, by Brown, 

200 
Rodin, Francois-Auguste, by Lawton, 135 
Ruskin, The Works of, ed. Cook and Wedderburn, 423 
Saint-Gaudens, Auguscus, by Cortissoz, 233 
Slade, The : a Collection of Drawings by Students of 

the London Slade School, 264 
Solon's (M. L.) A History and Description of Italian 

Majolica, 108 
Spiers's (R. P.) The Architecture of Greece and Rome, 

Second Edition, 736 
Stauffer-Bern, Karl, by Lehrs, 392 
Turner, Charles, by Whitman, 392 
Vasari on Technique, tr. MacLehose, ed. Brown, 265 
Vita d'Arte, No. I., 50 
Wallis'8 (H.) Byzantine Ceramic Art, 423 
Weale's (W. H. J.) Hubert and John van Eyck: their 

Life and Work, 484 
Whitman's (A.) Charles Turner, 392 
Wilson's (J.) The Petit Trianon, Versailles, Part II. 

265 
Windsor, painted by Henton, described by Holmes- 

423 
Winchester Charts of Italian Painters : Schools of 

Florence, Umbria, and Siena, 516 
Wyllie's (B.) Sheffield Plate, 135 
Year's Art, 1908, compiled by Carter, 424 

Original Papers. 

Allied Artists' Association, 266, 330 

Athens, The British School at, 169. 201, 297 

British Museum : Acquisitions. 518 

Bushman Paintings at the Anthropological Institute, 703 

Carolan, the Irish Bard, Portrait of, 705, 737 

County Hall, The. 200 

Ightham, Kent, Proposed Vandalism at. 613, 677, 798 

Liverpool Art, Historical Exhibition of. 468 

National Gallery, Annual Report, 486 

Paris, Notes from, 49 

' Pompeii as an Art City,' 137. 202. 286 

Rome, The Aurelian Wall at, 48, 137 ; The British School 

at, 168, 296, 486,612; Seventeenth -Century MS. Plan 

of, 202 
Sales, 110, 169, 202, 235, 266. 297. 880, 862,884,895, 

424, 468, 486, 618, 645, 677, 705, 770, 798 



Till 



THE ATHENAEUM 



(SUPPLEMENT to the ATHlSil'JJ with Ho. sJU, July It, l*& 

January to Junk 190s 



Exhibitions. 

Agnew's (.Meftars.) (Jalleri. -, 

Bagutelle, Portrait* nt, 7'.'7 

Baillie Gallery, 234 398 

Carfax Gallery. (68, 704. 787 

Connell k Sons' (Messrs.) Gallery, 960 

Don- Gallery, 880 

Dublin Municipal Gallery of Modern Art. 

Powdeuwell'i (Messrs.) Galleries, 517 

" Kair Women " at the New Gallery, 296, 394 

Fine-Art Society's Galleries 393, 517, 704,797 

Franco- British Exhibition, French Pictures at the, 736 

French Gallery, 581 

Goupil Gallery, 284, 888, 704 

Grafton Galleries, 457, 704 

Gutekunst's (Mr.) Gallery, 362 

Illuminated Manuscripts, 846 

International Society of Painters, Sculptors, and Gravers, 

BS, 109 
Landscape Painters' Exhibition, 21 
Leicester Gallery, 136, 234, 458, 582, 704 
McLean's (Mr.) Gallery, 394, 737 
Modern Gallery, 424 
Modern Society of Portrait Painters, 201 
New Association of Artists, 201 
New English Art Club, 676 
New Gallery, 548 
Obach's (Messrs.) Gallery, 797 
Old Masters at the Academy, 47 
Pastel Society, 796 
Paterson's (Mr.) Gallery, 424, 704 
Pewter Exhibition, 612 

Photographs by the late A. Horsley Hinton, 517 
Ridley Art Club at the New Gallery, 457 
Royal Academy, Summer Exhibition, 580, 611, 643, 769 
Royal Hibernian Academy, 298 
Royal Society of British Artists, 517 
Royal Society of Painter-Etchers and Engravers, 265 
Salons de Paris, 795 

Shepherd Brothers' (Messrs.) Gallery, 393 
Society of Twelve, 136 
Velasquez, Copies of, 136 

Whitechapel Art Gallery : Spring Exhibition, 361 
Wisselingh's (Mr. van) Galleries, 458, 612 
Women Artists, Works by, 136 

Obituaries. 
Brun, C, 267. Busch, W.. 83. Busson, C, 459. Calle- 
bert, F., 266. Callow, W., 266. Dalrymple, J. D. G., 
202, 235. Evans, Sir J.. 704. Fulleylove, J., 678. 
Gebhart, £., 518, 541. Grego, J., 137. Groult, C, 
83. Hermann-Leon, C, 22. Hottenroth, Prof. E., 
330. Janssen, P., 267- Jourdan, T., 83. Karageorge- 
vich, Prince B., 459. Lambeaux, J., 770. Lessing, 
Prof. J., 362. Ligny, J. Le Pan de, 425. Mareee, 
Capt. W. von, 330. Neide, E., 614. Paget, S. E., 169. 
Placecanton, P., 425. Rico, M., 519. Roger-Ballu, 
M., 646. Sain, P., 330. Steinheil, A. C. E., 705. 
Thumann, P., 267. Vidal, E., 50. Werner, Prof. F., 
549 

Gossip. 
National Gallery: Acquisitions, 22, 110, 297, 330, 424, 770. 
Exhibition of Students' Works at the Metropolitan School 
of Art, Dublin, 22. National Gallery of Ireland : Acquisi- 
tions, 50. Opening of the Dublin Municipal Gallery of 
Modern Art— Copyright in Paintings in the United States, 
110. Royal Academy: Elections, 137. Royal Society of 
Painter-Etchers and Engravers : Elections, 202. Dublin 
School of Art, Distribution of Prizes, 298. Scottish 
National Gallery: Acquisitions, 330. Award of the 
Lemaire Prizes to M. Barbeerin, M. Bourget, and M. 
Lejeune, 362. Award of the Taylor Art Scholarships and 
Prizes, 394. Royal Society of British Artists : Elections, 
424. Dublin Gallery of Modern Art : Acquisitions, 518. 
Annual Meet ing of the National Art-Collections Fund, 582. 
Society of Twenty-Five Painters : Elections— Award of the 
Prix National and the Bourses de Voyage, 798. 



MUSIC. 



Reviews. 

Baughan's (E. A.) Ignaz Jan Paderewski, 203 

Beethoven's Elf Wiener Tilnze, 111 

Bennett, William Sterndale, The Life of, by his Son, 138 

Bridgetower, G. P., Musical Times on, 583 

Cox's (H. B. and C. L. E.) Leaves from the Journals of 

Sir George Smart, 138 
Ellis's (W. A.) Life of Richard Wagner, Vol. VI., 614 
Garcia the Centenarianand his Times, by Mackinlay, 459 
Hughes-Hughes's (A.) Catalogue of Manuscript Music 

in the British Museum, 298 
International Musical Society, Quarterly Magazine, 647 
L'Arte Musicale in Italia (XIV. Secolo al XVIII.), 

Vols. VI. and VII. Secolo XVII., 331 
Mackinlay's (M. S.) Garcia the Centenarian and his 

Times, 459 
Mozart : the Story of his Life as Man and Artist, by 

Wilder, tr. Liebich, 487 
Musio, Manuscript, in the British Museum, Catalogue, 

by A. Hughes-Hughes, 298 
Newman's (E.) Hugo Wolf, 267 
Oldmeadow's (E.) Great Musicians, 395 
Paderewski, Ignaz Jan, by Baughan, 203 
Paine's (J. K.) The History of Music to the Death of 

Schubert, 549 
Racster's (O.) Chats on Violoncellos, 425 
Rolland's (R.) Musiciens d'nujourd'hui, 737 



Huntley's (Sir C.) The Art of Singing, 771 

Schumann, Robert, The Letters of, selected and edited 

by Dr. Storck, tr. Bryant, 108 
Smart, Sir George, Leaves from the Journals of, by Cox, 

138 
Tiersot's (J.) Les F<*tea et lei Chant* de la Revolution 

frani-aise, 737 
Wagner, Richard, Life of, by Ellis, Vol. VI., 614 
Walker's (K.) A History of Music in England, 202 
Wallace's (W.) The Threshold of Music, 169 
Wilder's (B.) Mozart : the Story of his Life as Man 

and Artist, tr. Liebich, 487 
Wolf, Hugo, by Newman. 267 

Operas, Concerts, Ac. 

Alma Mater Male Choir, Concert, 170 

Bach Choir : Concert, 362 ; ' The Passion of our Lord, 
' The Resurrection,' 64G 

Backhaus's (Mr. W.) Pianoforte Recital , 706 

Ballad Concert, 83 

Bantock's (Mr. G.) ' Omar Khayyam,' 678 

Beecham's (Mr. T.) Orchestral Concerts, 267, 425, 519, 
771 

Beel's (Mr. S.) Violin Recital, 583 

Broadwood Concerts, 267, 331, 395 

Busoni (Signor) and Serato's (Signor A.) Pianoforte and 
Violin Recital, 299 

Covent Garden — Carl Rosa Opera Company : ' Tann- 
hauser,' * II Trovatore,' 'Carmen,' ' Cavalleria Rusti- 
cana,' ' Pagliacci,' Mozart's ' Marriage of Figaro,' 22 ; 
* The Merry Wives of Windsor,' Thomas's ' Esmeralda,' 
50 

Crystal Palace: Good Friday Concert, 519; Sullivan's 
' Golden Legend,' 799 

Dublin Philharmonic Society, Concert, 138 

Elman's (Mischa) Concert, 425 

Eisner's (Miss P.) Chamber- Music Concerts, 646 

Empire Concert, 679 

Fagge's (Mr. A.) Concert, 203 

Gipser's (Fraulein E.) Pianoforte Recital, 50 

Godowskv's (M.) Pianoforte Recitals, 550, 583 

Graingers (Mr. P.) Concert, 771 

Greene's (Mr. Plunket) Vocal Recital, 459 

Hambourg's (Mr. J.) Violin Recital, 706 

Hegedii8's (Herr F.) Concert, 395 

Holbrooke's (Mr.) Illuminated Dramatic Symphony with 
Choral Epilogue, 110 

Joachim in Memoriam Concert, 138 

Koenen'8 (Miss T.) Vocal Recital, 646 

Kolner Manner Gesang Verein Concert, 706 

Kussewitzky's (M. S.) Orchestral Concert, 678 

Lerner's (Miss T.) Pianoforte Recital, 614 

Lorraine's (Miss A.) Recital of Royal Compositions, 738 

Menter's (Madame S. ) Pianoforte Recital, 771 

Moszkowski's (Herr M.) Concert, 235 

Paderewski's (M.) Pianoforte Recital, 798 

Philharmonic Concerts, 138, 298, 425, 646, 706 

Powell's (Mr. J.) Pianoforte Recital, 583 

Royal Opera, Covent Garden : The ' Ring ' in English 
137, 170 ; ' La Traviata,' 582, 614 ; ' Lucia di Lam 
mermoor,' ' Die Walkure,' 'Gotterdammerung,' 582 
' Tristan und Isolde,' ' La Boheme,' ' Die Meister 
singer,' 646 ; ' Aida,' 679 : ' Madama Butterfly, 
'The Flying Dutchman,' 706; ' Armide,' 738; 'II 
Barbiere,' 770; 'Pecheurs de Perles,' 'Manon Les- 
caut,' 798 

Saint-Saens's (Dr. C.) Concert, 771 

Sapellnikoffs (M. B.) Pianoforte Recital, 459 

Sauer's (M. E.) Pianoforte Recital, 235 

Savoy Theatre : 'The Mikado,' 550 

Smyth's (Miss E.) ' Der Wald,' 583 ; 'The Wreckers,' 
706 

Societe de Concerts d'Instruments Anciens, 395, 425, 459 

Strings Club Concert, 395 

Symphony Concerts, 111, 170,298, 362, 425, 487 

Szigeti's (M. J.) Violin Recital, 771 

Warwood's (Miss M.) Pianoforte Recital, 583 

Ysaye and Pugno's (Messrs.) Recitals, 614, 679 

Zimbalist's (M. E.) Concert, 111 

Obituaries. 

Armes, Dr. P., 203. Blumenthal, J., 647. Castrone, S. 
(Marquis de la RajataX 267. Lucca, Madame P., 299. 
Lucher, J., 487- MacDowell, E. A., 138. Maquet, M., 
50. Novello, Clara A. (Countess Gigliucci), 362. 
O'Sullivan, D., 170. Slaughter, W., 299. Wilhelmj, 
Prof., 138. 

Gossip. 

Conference of the Incorporated Society of Musicians at 
Harrogate— Recital by "The Irish Quartette" at. the 
Leinster Hall, Dublin, 23. Discovery of Beethoven 
Documents, 50. University of Dublin Choral Society, 425. 
Opening of the New St. James's Hall, 549. The Twelfth 
Feia Ceoil, 706. Madame Melba's Twentieth Anniversary 
at Covent Garden— Report of the Librarian of Congress, 
799. 



DRAMA. 

Reviews. 

Barker's (H. G.) A National Theatre. 488 

Borsa's (M.) The English Stage of To-day, tr. and ed. 

Brinton, 204 
Brooke's Romeus and Juliet, ed. Munro, 488 
Fitzgerald's (P.) Shakespearian Representation : its 

Principles and Limits, 70S 



Iftllllf'l (II. H.) A New Variorum Edition of Shake- 

»peare : Antony and Cleopatra 
Gosse's (E.j Ibsen, 363 

M*l Pandoeto, or Dorastus and Fawnis, «-!. 

Thomas, 616 
Grillparzer, Franz, and the Austrian Drama, by Pollak, 

170 
Hankin'i (St. J.) Three Playi with Happy Endings, 172 
Hardy's (T.) The Dynasts, Part III., KLB 
Ibsen, Henrik, Collected Works of— Life of, by Goiae, 

868 
Moliere : The Plays of, English rendering by Waller, 

84 ; Life, by Rigal, 707 
New Editions, Reprints, &c, 488 
Norwood's (G.) The Riddle of the ' Bacch;*-,' 740 
Pollak's (G.) Franz Grillparzer and the Austrian Drama, 

170 
Rigal 'b (E.) Moli.-re, 707 
Seneca, The Tragedies of, tr. Miller, 661 
Shakapeare : A New Variorum Edition : Antony and 

Cleopatra, by Furness, 299 ; Old Spelling Series, 708 
Sutherland's (A. C.) Dramatic Elocution and Action, 488 
Tudor Facsimile Texts. Vols. I.- VIII., ed. Farmer, 331, 

364, 584, 772 
Vaughan'8 (C. E.) Types of Tragic Drama, 738 
Walkley's (A. B.) Drama and Life, 140 

Original Papers. 
' Edward III.,' On a Passage in, 708 
Kyd's ' Spanish Tragedy' : a Note, 616 
Shakspeare : Stratford Memorial Performances, 520, 

661, 584 ; The Date of ' King Lear,' 648 
Tudor Facsimile Texts, 364 

Theatres. 

Abbey Theatre, Dublin— Casey's 'The Man who missed 
the Tide,' Council's 'The Piper," 236; Count Markie- 
vicz's 'Seymour's Redemption,' 332 ; Sudermann's 
'Teja,' tr. Lady Gregory, Fitzmaurice's 'The Pie- 
dish," Yeats's 'The Golden Helmet,' 396; Lady Gre- 
gory's ' Les Fourberies de Scapin, ' 460; Lady Gregory's 
'Workhouse Ward,' 520; Harding's 'Leaders of the 
People,' Mayne's ' The Drone,' 552 

Adelphi—' Aladdin,' 23 ; Ade's * The College Widow, 
519 

Aldwych— Parker's ' Way Down East,' 550 ; Stayton's 
' The Two Pins,' 739 

Argonauts — Thornton's ' The Sensible Constanza,' 647 

Comedy — Carton's ' Lady Barbarity," 300 ; Maugham's 
'Mrs. Dot,' 550 

Court — Gloriel's ' The House,' 51 ; Kendall's ' Mrs. 
Bill,' 331 

Drury Lane — 'The Babes in the Wood," 23 

Duke of York's — Barrie's ' The Admirable Crichton/ 
300 

Garrick — Pemberton and Fleming's ' The Woman of 
Kronstadt,' 203; Pinero's 'The Gay Lord Quex,' 
583 ; Grundy's ' A Pair of Spectacles,' 772 

Haymarket — Morton's 'Her Father," adapted from 
Guinon and Bouchinet's ' Son Pere,' 139 ; Grundy's 
' A Fearful Joy,' 519; Shaw's ' Getting Married,' 647 ; 
Masefield's 'Nan,' Paston's 'Feed the Brute,' 707; 
Housman's 'The Chinese Lantern,' 800 

His Majesty's — Carr's ' The Mystery of Edwin Drood,' 
50 ; Locke's ' The Beloved Vagabond," 171 ; ' The 
Merchant of Venice,' 459; Sardou's 'L'Affaire des 
Poisons,' 771 

Kinysicay — Hamilton's 'Diana of Dobson's,' 236; 
Parry's 'Charlotte on Bigamy,' Mrs. Clifford's 'The 
Latch,' Wharton's 'A Nocturne,' Anstruther's 'The 
Whirligig.' 679 

Lyceum — 'Robinson Crusoe,' 23 ; 'Romeo and Juliet,' 
'363; Howard's 'The Prince and the Beggar-Maid,* 
740 

Lyric— Royle's 'A White Man,' 83; Maugham's 'The 
Explorer,' 799 

N( "■— Dix and Sutherland's 'Matt of Merry mount,' 268 

Playhouse— Esmond's 'The O'Grindles,' 111; ' Fido,' 
268; Mason's 'Marjory Strode,' 395; Hamilton's 'Pro 
Tem.,' 583 ; Drurv and Trevor's ' The Flag Lieutenant,' 
799 

Queen's — Hornung's 'Stingaree,' 171 

Itoyalty — Albanesi's ' Susannah — and some Others,' 
139 ; ' Baring's ' The Grey Stocking,' 707 

St. James's— Pinero's ' The Thunderbolt,' 615 

Savoy — Shaw's ' Arms and the Man. 

Shaftesbury— The Sicilian Players, 267 : The Grand 
Guignol Company. 396 ; French Plays, 648, 679 

Stage Socidy — Bennett's 'Cupid and Commonsense, 
139; Garnett's 'The Breaking- Point,' 487 

Terry's— Widnell's ' The Orange Blossom,' 140; Ibsen's 
' Rosmersholm,' 203 ; Hueffer's ' The Lord of Latimer 
Street,' 299; Ward and Mayo's 'The Marriage of 
William Ashe,' 550; Crothers's 'The Three of Us,' 772 
Vaudeville—' Dear Old Charlie,' adapted from the 
French by Brookfield, 51 ; Maugham's 'Jack Straw,' 
426 

Obituaries. 

Drachmann, H.. 84, 104. Gott, E., 552. Hanbury, 
Miss L. (Mrs. Herbert Guedalla), 332. Hedberg, F., 
800. L' Arronge, A., 6S0. 

Goaslp. 

Second Part of 'Faust 'at the Hamburg Schauspielhaus, 
520. National Theatre as a Memorial to Shakspeare, M8. 






V" 



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gituations tiEantctr. 

SECRETARY (LADY) requires RE-ENGAGE- 

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TO AUTHORS and publishers. — INDEXING, 
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Miss 1AMES ami Miss P. REALES- Excellent refer. noes-Care of 
Richardson* CoT. S, Suffolk Street. Pall Mall East. S.W 

NORTHERN NEWSPAPER SYNDICATE, 
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T II i: AT II K\ .K l' M 



No. U84, .Ian. L L908 



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M. 



BARNARD, M. A. 



(Formerly Classical and Theological Scholar of 
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10, DUDLEY ROAD (opposite the Opera House), 
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CATALOGUE 19, JUST ISSUED, contains:— 

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A NCIENT and MODERN COINS.— Collectors 

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WOODCUTS, EARLY BOOKS. MSS.. 4c. 

LEIGHTON'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, 
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Part XIII.. Cal-ehrvs. with 104 Facsimiles, St., including Bcr- 
nels Froissart. Cambridge bindings, Cupgrnve, 1016, Cnssio, 1477. and 
a large collection of Early Chronicles. [Ready early in January' 

J 4 J. LEIGHTON. 
4". Brewer Street. Golden Square, London, W. 



B 



OOK9 AT ONE-THIRD COST,— Thousand 

■ i tii.. ii.st li-oks at ir ■toMn 

Pi Largest ai est HI .f Kr. ond hand an. I »>• * Kein 

Ho.,k» iii the World, Writs <■■< oui JANDABi CATALOG 
u II SMITH 4. si i.N. Library DeparUm ut, IBS, BtraDd, London, W.O. 



CATALOGUE No. 48.- Drawings of tba Bui] 
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MESSRS. PUTTICK & SIMPSON will SELL 
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WEDNESDAY. January 16. and Following Day. at in uiiiiutes past 
) o'clock precisely, valuable Books, comprising the LIBRARY of the 
lateCHARLES DOUGLAS HALEORD. Esq.. removed from Prince's 
Gate; a LIBRARY removed from Ireland, and other Pr ope r ti es |bv 
order of the Executors), including well-bound Sets of Standard 
Authors, rare First Editions. Books with Coloured Plates, Sporting 
Books, Galleries and Works relating to the Fine Arts. Extra-Illus- 
trated Books, County Histories and Topographical Works amongst 
which will be found Sir Walter Scott's Waverley. First Edition, in the 
Original Boards; Limb's Rosamund Gray, First Edition; Mrs. 
Leicester's 8chool ; Tales from Shakespeare; Elia, and others by 
Charles Lamb, all First Editions— Egan's Life in London— Wist 
inacotts' English Spy. fine uncut copies of the First Editions— Florio's 
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Miscellaneous Books. 

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with the extra Numbers, 62 vols. — Vanity Fair Album and Vanity 
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a COLLECTION of WORKS in FRENCH and GERMAN LITERA- 
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of Goethe, 97 vols, half morocco— Voltaire, 70 vols.— Victor Hugo, 
35 vols.— Francois Coppee, 10 vols., &c. 

To be viewed, and Catalogues had. 



M 



Curiosities. 
R. J. C. STEVENS' NEXT SALE will take 

place on TUESDAY'. January 7, at half-past twelve o'clock, 
and will include ORIENTAL WEAPONS— Buddhist Stone Carvings 
—Pacific Island Curios— Antique and other Furniture— Chinese. 
Japanese, and other Porcelain Vases, &c, and the usual Miscellaneous 
Assortment. 

On view day prior 10 to 6 and morning of Sale. Catalogues on 
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Sales of Miscellaneous Property. 

MR. J. C. STEVENS begs to announce that 
SALES are held EVERY FRIDAY, at his Rooms, S3. King 
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and all Accessories in great variety by Best Makers— Household 
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On view Thursday 2 to 5 and morning of Sale. 

3, PARK PLACE, LEEDS. 
Re F. DYKES, deceased. 

MESSRS. HOLLIS & WEBB, instructed by 
the Executors, will SELL by AUCTION, at their Rooms, as 
above, on JANUARY 22. 2.1. and 24, the remarkably fine LIBRARY" 
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Mm* 



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THE COMING FAMINE IN INDIA. By Benjamin Aitken. 

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POETRY AND SYMBOLISM: A STUDY OF 'THE 

TEMPEST.' By J. C'hurton Collins. 

OXFORD FINANCE : A REJOINDER. ByW.R. Lawaon. 
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COMMEHCBa A NEW VOLUME AM» io.VTAINB 
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1 » K) l.l.l I Parliament and Party. 

J. ELLIS BARKER. 

The Foreign Policy of the KmiK-ror William II. 
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OSWALD CRAWFURli Portugal. 

H. J. B. MONTGOMKRY 

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Sir WALTER F. MIEVILLE. K.C.M.G. The New Khartoum. 

Sir HARRY H. JOHNSTON, G.C.M.G K.O.B 

How to Make the Negro Work. 
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The Rev. II. V. GILL 8.J. Some Katsnt Earthquake Theories. 

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The True Imj*-rialisru. 
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Sir Leopold M'Clintock. Sir C. R. MARKHAM. (Portrait 
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No. 4184, Jan. 4, 1908 



THE ATHENAEUM 



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No. 4184, Jan. 4, 1908 



THE A T H E N JE U M 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 4, 1908. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

The Statutes of the Scottish Church .. ..5 

Father and Son 6 

A Book of Greek Verse 7 

Dyott's Diary 8 

New Novels (The Explorer ; Children's Children ; 
The Love Story of Giraldus ; Phantom Figures ; 
The Heart's Banishment ; The Progress of Hugh 

Rendal ; The Master Beast) 9—10 

Social Problems 10 

Our library Table (Lord Wantage ; Shakspeare's 
Sonnets ; Adonis, Attis, Osiris ; The Literary Man's 
Bible ; Sir Gawain and the Lady of Lys ; British 
Freewomen ; The National Edition of Dickens ; 
The Eversley Tennyson ; The Blackmailers ; The 
Liberal Year-Book ; Manor Court Rolls in Private 
Hands ; The Pocket Ruskin ; Almanach Hachette ; 

The Greyfriar) 11—13 

Notes from Paris ; The Book Sales of 1907.. 13 

List of New Books 15 

Literary Gossip 16 

Science— A Bird Collector's Medley ; Anthro- 
pological Notes; Attis and Christ; Socie- 
ties ; Meetings Next Week ; Gossip . . 17—20 
Fine Arts— Eugene Delacroix; The Nature 
Poems of George Meredith ; The American 
Pilgrim's Way in England ; Thf, Collector's 
Manual, ; The Annual of the British School 
at Athens ; The Landscape Painters' Exhibi- 
tion; Gossip ; Exhibitions 20—22 

Music— Gossip ; Performances Next Week .. 22—23 
Drama— Arms and the Man ; The Babes in the 

Wood ; Aladdin ; Robinson Crusoe .. 23 

Index to Advertisers .. 24 



LITERATURE 



The Statutes of the Scottish Church. With 
Introduction and Notes by David 
Patrick, LL.D. (Edinburgh, Scottish 
History Society.) 

The ' Concilia Scotise ' (1225-59) were 
edited for the Bannatyne Club (1866) 
by Joseph Robertson, with his wonted 
learning and acuteness. The book is not 
easy to procure, nor is the Latin always 
lucid. Dr. Patrick has therefore done 
good service in translating the text, and 
adding an interesting Introduction with 
learned notes. 

In 1225 the Church in Scotland had 
no Metropolitan, but was permitted by a 
papal Bull to meet, without the presence 
of a Legate, yet under apostolical autho- 
rity. This Bull of Honorius III., Dr. 
Patrick argues, completed the reforming 
out of the world of the Church of Celtic 
Scotia, as distinct from the Church in 
anglicized Lothian. St. Margaret began 
the reformation of the Celtic Church, 
which was now accomplished, while Scot- 
land, thanks to " the discreet but per- 
sistent Scottish nationalism maintained 
at Rome by a succession of Scottish 
kings, barons, and bishops," received 
recognition as an independent nation. 
We entirely agree with this view. The 
strenuous fight for independence, as against 
the claims either of York or Canterbury, 
which the Scottish Catholic clergy main- 
tained, was an essential factor in the 
triumph of Robert Bruce. The bishops 
and preaching friars were his best backers 
when he was an excommunicated and 
sacrilegious homicide. The Protestant 
historians of Scotland are apt to overlook 
the debt of their country to her English- 



speaking Catholic clerics. Dr. Patrick 
shows that the " Cession of Lothian " 
to the early Scottish kings, or their pos- 
session of it, whether formally ceded or 
not, did not involve the transference of 
the Church in Lothian to the Celtic see 
of Alban at St. Andrews. Well into the 
twelfth century, Durham was virtually 
" the spiritual metropolis of Lothian." 
St. Margaret was " a German-trained 
theologian," with a director from Durham ; 
but her sons " linked monasteries and 
churches in Lothian indissolubly to Dur- 
ham, St. Andrews being totally ignored." 
In later times " patriotic piety " invented 
myths tracing Church as well as State 
to the Dalriadic Irish invaders of Argyle, 
by way of gaining the prestige of vast 
antiquity. The Privy Council in Scotland 
of Charles II. told him that the Scots 
had been loyal to his family for two 
thousand years ! But when Scotland 
had her Council, in 1225 and onwards, 
she borrowed her statutes bodily from 
the enactments of the national and pro- 
vincial synods of the English Church. 
With some anticipation of Presbyterian 
" parity of ministers," though the Council 
was no analogue of the Presbyterian 
General Assembly, the Scottish Church 
took care to guard against even " the 
quasi-metropolitan pre-eminence " of St. 
Andrews ; and though Bishop Graham, 
about 1470, got himself made an arch- 
bishop, Glasgow followed suit, and Knox 
revels in a scuffle for precedency between 
the Archbishops of St. Andrews and 
Glasgow. Meanwhile the Estates kept 
a firm hand over the ecclesiastical Council, 
and James I., at the time of his murder, 
was in trouble at Rome for his Erastian 
proceedings. 

Dr. Patrick remarks that " some of the 
more unlovely aspects of Presbyterian 
church life were at least as conspicuous 
during the ages of faith." Certainly 
the Statutes prove that churches were 
apt to be as squalid before as after the 
Reformation. Like " the minister's coo," 
that of the priest browsed in the kirkyard ; 
but in that enclosure Presbyterians did 
not sin by " promiscuous dancing." In 
the reign of James VI. there was a good 
deal of free pistol-shooting and stabbing 
in St. Giles's, but "what for no?" 
Bruce and his gang slew the Comyns in 
church at Dumfries. National character, 
rather than one or other creed, accounts 
for these awkward incidents. We are not 
surprised to learn that priests and churches 
were as dirty in Italy as in Scotland. If 
Catholic Statutes protested against the 
daggers and gay costume of clerics, so 
did the General Assembly under James VI. 
and a minister dirked a young man under 
Charles I. 

Dr. Patrick's chap. viii. deals with 
the crying sin of " warying." What is 



warying 



The Columban Church 



had " the excommunicatory fever," as 
Erastus calls it, and, as Mr. Pecksniff says, 
it was " chronic." Later Bishop Kennedy 
cursed the tiger Earl of Crawford every 
day for a year, when the curso succeeded, 
and the Earl was slain — " got the redder's 
straik " when trying to keep the peace in 



a brawl. In 1525 the Archbishop of 
Glasgow curses the Border reivers in the 
vernacular. But when Dr. Patrick says 
that, in 'The Three Priests of Peebles,' 
the clergy are rebuked for " warying " or 
excommunicating too freely (Knox laughs 
at " the penny curse," " the cheapest 
article in the trade "), is he sure that " to 
wary " means " to curse "1 ' The Three 
Priests ' has 

And quhairfoir now in your time ye warie ; 
As thai did then quhairfoir sa may not ye ? 

In all times priests and preachers dealt 
in curses and excommunications. Does 
not 'The Three Priests' mean " Why do ye 
vary " from the good ways of an older 
generation? "As they did then, wherefore 
so may not ye?" Jamieson, under " varie," 
gives the sense of behaving deliriously. 
"Warying" was a Scots word for "curs- 
ing." We are not sure that " warie " has 
this sense in the passage cited. 

The later Statutes prove that the mass 
of the clergy were profligate, unlearned, 
Latinless : all unlike good Ninian Winzett, 
that sore thorn in the flesh of John Knox. 
The testimony to this effect is as copious 
and direct in Catholic as in Protestant 
evidence. The Council of 1549 attributed 
to St. Bernard a tag from Persius 
(Satire ii. 69), which the saint was for 
ever quoting. Does Dr. Patrick think 
that the majority of the members of the 
General Assembly are capable of recogniz- 
ing this line from Persius ? But if the 
sapphics of the old Church were bad, 
three false quantities in three stanzas, 
we should like to compare sapphics by the 
General Assembly, and George Buchanan 
wallowed in false quantities : according 
to Prof. Lindsay, he made many more 
than " a false quantity or two," which 
Dr. Patrick credits his verse with. The 
Scot has always shone more in Greek 
than in Latin verse composition. Among 
Scottish patrons of learning Bishop 
Kennedy ought not to be omitted : 
he was the most munificent of all, except 
Mr. Andrew Carnegie, who to Kennedy's 
College has added a cricket field and other 
good works. 

Nobody says that laws against witch- 
craft were " a Presbyterian novelty " 
in Scotland. We do not know one case, 
however, of witch-burning in Scotland 
before the Reformation, except the in- 
stance quoted by Dr. Patrick from an 
anonymous fragmentary chronicle of the 
reign of James III., a political case. Dr. 
Patrick speaks of " the comparatively 
small number of cases " of witch-burning 
between 1563 and 1722. Sir George 
Mackenzie says that there Were " thou- 
sands " of cases. Wo have no exact 
statistics, but we have numerous and 
loathsome examples of the incredible 
tortures inflicted during the time of 
" the bloody and barbarous inconveniences 
of Presbyterian government." The 
Catholic and Anglican Churches were as 
guilty as the Presbyterian, abroad and 
in England ; not so, as far as evidence 
goes, was the Catholic Church in Scotland. 
As to the quarrel of Graham and Schevez, 
Archbishop of St. Andrews, Dr. Patrick 
will understand the case— wholly perverted 



6 



T II E A r ril KNyEUM 



So. 4184, .Ian. 4, 1908 



by Buchanan and his followers — when the 
St. Andrews manuscripts, now being 
edited, have been published. Meanwhile 
we have to thank Dr. Patrick for a most 
interesting work, illustrating social as well 
as ecclesiastical antiquities. 



Father and Son. (Heinemann.) 

It is idle to pretend ignorance of the 
identity of the distinguished author. So 
much has been said already by the 
" rapid " reviews that no apology is 
needed for noticing this book in the light 
of Mr. Gosse's other works, which are 
sufficiently known to the literary public, 
though indeed that public is less wide 
than reviewers are apt to imagine. 
Premising thus much, one may say 
that if the writer should achieve any- 
thing like lasting remembrance, it will 
be due to this work rather than to any 
of the studies, essays, or verse in which 
his learning and versatility have won 
praise. This book is unique. It is at 
once a profound and illuminating study 
in the concrete of the development of a 
child's mind, and also an historical docu- 
ment of great value. At least its value 
will be great for the age, not so far 
distant, to which Puritanism, Plymouth 
Brethren, and pre-Darwinian science will 
seem as prehistoric as the " fossils " 
which men like " Mr. G." believed to 
have been stuck in the rocks in order to 
try men's faith. 

In spite of what has been said on the 
question of taste, we cannot see that the 
writer is to be blamed for this account of 
his father ; it seems to us neither dis- 
respectful nor untender, but eminently 
delicate and fair ; nor do any of the jokes 
seem to us ungenerous. It is, of course, 
possible that the writer's literary skill 
has embellished some of the incidents, 
and that his feelings at the moment were 
not always of that elaborately self-con- 
scious character which he now believes 
them to have been. But we must 
remember that an event includes its con- 
sequences in the mind ; that what we 
think of it in memory is as much a part 
of it as what we feel at the moment. 
This is at once the justification of many 
physical evils — 

Forsan et h.tc olim meminisse juvabit — 
and the condemnation of those attempts 
to crush the soul-life which a book like 
this displays. Further, it is our own 
experience that the thoughts of youth are 
" long, long thoughts," and that the 
child- mind is far more self-conscious and 
analytic of those thoughts which interest 
it than elders, busied with affairs and 
occupied with action, are apt to imagine. 
It is the hustling manhood of the Western 
world that is truly irresponsible ; child- 
hood, like old age, is "the age of reflection." 

The home described is probably 
familiar to some of us. As the author 
says, what is unique is his father's position 
as a man of science, not his opinions. 
Those opinions are simply the narrowest 
form of individualist Protestantism, which 



makes of religion outwardly the barest 
and least human of any creed that has 
ever had practical effect ; is opposed to 
culture, to art, to poetry ; regards 
Shakspeare as a devil to be shunned ; is 
blind to the beauty and the joy of earth, 
but has for its rare and elect spirits a foun- 
tain of joy and peace which is none the 
less real for the hideous form in which 
it is commonly expressed. 

' Father and Son ' shows all this in 
a concrete instance, portrayed with ex- 
traordinary accuracy, skill, and humour. 
The present writer recalls in his own ex- 
perience people of a similar type, though 
not, indeed, so extreme. In one case a 
pious lady, objecting to church decoration 
— not because it was ugly, which was 
true, but because it was an attempt to 
be beautiful — declared that nothing could 
be too plain for the house of God. In 
another a retired officer of " parts," a 
really fine mathematician, refused to 
allow his daughters to go to some lectures 
on Shakespeare. In another we heard 
it said, "In the county of Roscommon 
no Protestant would ever shake hands 
with a Roman Catholic." We need not 
multiply instances. They are perfectly 
well known, in forms more or less extreme, 
to many people who are past middle 
life ; and tc those who do not know them 
books like this, or ' Mark Rutherford,' 
or ' Robert Falconer,' or ' The Fairchild 
Family,' will supply aspects of an ideal 
which remains substantially the same, 
though it is seen at its purest in " Ply- 
mouth Brethrenism," which is entirely 
free from any taint of ecclesiasticism, 
and is in most places purely individual, 
unmistakably devout, and full of a kind 
of austere rapture. 

The two facts which stand cut from this 
book are the incapacity of Puritanism 
to deal with children, and its affinity to 
the scientific rather than the romantic 
temperament. In the first place, Puritan- 
ism never has known, and never will 
know, how to deal with children except 
by making them prigs. We yield to none 
in admiration for the grandeur of Puritan 
faith at its best, its magnificent vision, 
its splendour of strength, and its unsur- 
passable appeal to the lonely conscience. 
But at one point it breaks down — the 
child. Puritanism has in fact very little 
sense of religion as a process, a life ; it 
is always the miracle, the instantaneous, 
the conversion, at which it aims ; it can 
only reach its aim by treating the child 
as an adult. The tragedy of this book 
lies not in its attempt to make the 
bey a religious boy, but to make him a 
mature saint at the age of ten. That 
great event is symbolized here by his 
baptism. (He tells us that afterwards 
he put out his tongue at other boys 
to show his superiority as a saint.) After 
that he is on a level with his elders, 
and though his education must go on, he is 
really no longer a child. Before it he is 
not a child, he is merely an animal. In 
both ways Puritanism misconceives child- 
life. It is a faith for adults, and adults 
only, and in this it is like every other 
creed or religion which occupies the 



educated world, with the exception of 
the system of the Church. We fancy 
a good deal of the education con- 
troversy really hinges on the fact that it 
is not so much two opposing views of 
religion, as on the one hand two views of 
the State, and on the other two views of 
the child, which are in internecine and 
irreconcilable conflict. A glance at the 
writings of Richard Baxter, or at the work 
of John Wesley and Ins amazing attempt 
to govern children with no recreation at 
all at Kingswood, will illustrate our 
meaning further. 

Secondly (and we learn tins from 
' Father and Son'), the Puritan scho- 
lasticism, like all scholasticism, is, as we 
have said, far more akin to the scientific 
than the artistic temperament. It was not 
only because one man was orthodox and 
rigid, and the other irresistibly modern, 
that the two temperaments clashed ; but 
also because one had the artistic, the other 
the scientific temperament. It is not the 
theology of the Vatican, but the apologetic 
of Father Tyrrell, of Newman, of Westcott, 
of Dr. Illingworth, that is the true answer 
within Christendom to the tortured literal- 
ism and barren logomachy of the older 
Puritanism, as of many similar creeds not 
dubbed Puritan. We could mention many 
persons of the opposite school who suffer 
from just the same fundamental defects 
as the "Mr. G." of this book, although 
their general outlook is a little broader 
and more humane. Any one who reads 
or knows anything of the hard logical 
system of the " Atonement," or still more 
the amazing ingenuity applied to the 
Apocalypse to discover " the signs of 
His appearing," will see exactly what we 
mean. It is not, as is often alleged by its 
adversaries, the irrationality of these 
systems that is at fault. In one sense 
they are not unreasonable enough ; they 
fail to grasp human fife in its entirety — 
fail in humour, sympathy, and delicacy, 
just as Herbert Spencer's ' Autobiography ' 
shows us he failed. The ludicrous judg- 
ments of Plato and Homer in that book 
are precisely akin to the judgment of 
Shakspeare or Marlowe exposed to us 
here. In both cases it is not the appre- 
ciation of a mystery in human life that 
is the error. Both the agnostic and the 
Puritan, in words at least, admit this. It 
is the familiarity with the Chinese treat- 
ment of culture, the ' harshness, the 
certitude in regard both to this world 
and the next — in a word, the prose of the 
rationalistic spirit — that is to blame. 
That was the father's religious experi- 
ence. The son was emphatically a poet, 
an artist, an impressionist, sensitive to 
every breath of beauty and aspect 
of delight ; and hence their opposition 
was, as he says, irreconcilable and (when 
realized) final. It is the clash not of two 
creeds only, not even of two temperaments, 
but of two whole universes of thought and 
feeling, which is presented in this work, 
and will make it deeply illuminating long 
after the echoes of its controversies and 
the forms of its expression, and even the 
names of the combatants, are as silent 
and forgotten as are at this moment the 



No. 4184, Jan. 4, 1908 



THE ATHEN^UM 



scientific apology of the " Father," or the 
pietistic tracts of the mother. 
Oh, East is East, and West is West, and never the 
twain shall meet. 

And it is the spirit of the East (we fancy 
we have read a poem called ' Firdausi in 
Exile ') which is shown in this single 
concrete case in one of the phases of the 
age-long struggle that will, we suppose, 
go ' on "as long as the sun and moon 
endureth." Religion is only one of its 
many phases, though it is probably the 
most important, because it is the most 
comprehensive. That is why the book is 
so interesting. Its nominal material is 
detailed, particular, local. Its real subject 
is a difference as great as that between 
light and darkness, a conflict no less pro- 
found and eternal than that typified in 
Oriental dualism as existing from the 
dawn of things. 



Greek Verse. 
(Cambridge, 



By Walter 

University 



A Book of 
Headlam. 
Press.) 

The ambiguous title of this volume is 
justified by its contents, which include 
translations from Greek into English, 
as well as from English and other lan- 
guages into Greek. We are not sure 
that it was a good plan to intermix the 
two kinds, although the author has been 
able in this way to illustrate vividly 
some curious literary affinities — for 
example, between Callimachus and Heine 
— and to supply his readers with models 
of the different Greek metres which 
he has used. Since the Greek originals 
are placed in chronological order, it 
seems a pity that their sequence should 
be disturbed by anything except the 
English versions accompanying them. 
The pieces chosen for translation cover 
the whole range of Greek literature from 
Alcman to Paulus Silentiarius, and, though 
comparatively few, are representative 
enough. We do not regret the omission 
of Homer and Hesiod ; and Euripides 
is wisely abandoned to Mr. Gilbert 
Murray. Perhaps no excuse is needed 
for the absence of comedy, but we should 
have liked to see a specimen of Aris- 
tophanes in his lyrical vein. iEschylus 
and Sophocles receive ample justice, 
the former being represented by three 
choruses from the ' Suppliants ' and 
one from the ' Eumenides.' Sappho has 
several pages to herself ; Pindar and 
Bacchylides one each. The ' Greek An- 
thology ' yields more than twenty epi- 
grams ; while the ' Pharmaceutrise ' and 
' Thalysia ' of Theocritus are translated 
entire. There are also three Latin pieces 
— Catullus's hymn to Diana and the 
lines to his yacht, and Horace's " Donee 
gratus cram tibi." 

In the Preface Dr. Headlam makes 
some interesting and profitable remarks 
upon translating from the Greek. He 
sees, of course, that native English metres 
must be employed, and rightly attaches 
great importance to the choice of an appro- 
priate metre — a point in which translators 
commonly go astray. One cannot lay 



down definite rules where taste and judg- 
ment are concerned, but it ought to be 
obvious how much depends on the selection 
of the form which will best convey the 
spirit and mood of the original poem. 
It may be hazardous, however, to borrow 
a metrical form peculiarly associated 
with a single masterpiece, like Fitz- 
Gerald's quatrain (which occurs, by the 
way, in the works of Sir Philip Sidney) 
or the stanza of the ' Hymn on the 
Nativity,' which Dr. Headlam has imi- 
tated. To turn Greek verse into English 
metre is child's play for any scholar, 
but how few are capable of moulding 
an English poem out of a Greek one ! 
At first sight, indeed, the difficulties 
appear less than they are. Thus in a 
certain Semitic language famous for its 
poetry the ideas and images are frequently 
so far removed from our comprehension 
as to be unintelligible if translated literally, 
and so unpoetic at times, according to 
European canons of taste, that it would 
be madness to put them into verse before 
they have undergone a process of alchemy 
in the writer's mind. Greek seldom 
requires such transmutation. Here the 
obstacles are of another sort — subtle, 
impalpable, not to be evaded. The 
drawing looks so easy, yet every fine is 
a circle. Dr. Headlam dislikes the term 
" untranslatable," which he thinks is 
too readily applied : — 

" Translation with success is always 
possible when in the translator's language 
there exists a native form and manner 
corresponding : when there exists no such 
model, then, but only then, translation 
may perhaps be sometimes called impos- 
sible." 

We doubt the adequacy of this pro- 
position, even with the corollary that 
" a man may write what is as good, or even 
better than the original, but from the nature 
of the case it cannot ever be precisely the 
same thing." 

Take a well-known stanza of Sappho : — 
ko.1 yap cu favyti, radios Si<u£ei, 
ai 81 8(opa firj 8(K€t\ aAAa Suxrei, 
at St fx.rj <f>ik(i, ra^fws <pt\r}<rei 
kwvk (QeXoLcra. 

Dr. Headlam renders : — 

The pursued shall soon be the pursuer ! 

Gifts, though now refusing, yet shall bring, 
Love the lover yet, and woo the wooer, 

Though heart it wring ! 

Melodious verses, but are they " as good, 
or even better than the original " ? and 
do they catch its essential qualities ? 
Surely the English is complex, elaborate, 
exaggerated, in comparison with the 
lovely artlessness and divine simplicity 
of the Greek. 

If Dr. Headlam has failed in this in- 
stance, where most people will allow that 
failure was inevitable, he has generally 
acquitted himself in a manner worthy 
of warm praise and congratulation. Many 
of his renderings approach perfection in 
diction and rhythm, and are inspired 
by a feeling for poetry which is as rare 
as it is delightful. By disclosing beauties 
over which ordinary translators cast a 
thick veil, his book will help readers 
ignorant of Greek to understand and 



share the enthusiasm which that literature 
excites in its votaries. But, naturally, 
these translations appeal most strongly 
to the initiated. They set before the 
young student who can recognize their 
excellence a standard which he may 
hope some day to reach, while the mature 
scholar will derive from them a keen 
sesthetic pleasure and an increased appre- 
ciation of the poetic value of familiar 
passages and phrases. Of the longer 
versions the ' Magic Wheel ' and ' Harvest 
Home ' of Theocritus will be justly 
admired for the skill with which the 
atmosphere and colouring of each piece 
have been reproduced ; but connoisseurs 
may prefer the renderings of several 
tragic choruses, which are more purely 
Greek, and afford a supreme test of the 
author's powers. 

Here are the fines from the ' Antigone ' 

beginning "Eows aviKare. p-d^av : — 

Warrior Love unquelled, 

Thou Spoiler, armed for the raid, 
Whose vigil at night is held 

On the damask cheeks of a maid ; 
Thy path goes over the flowing sea, 

Thy presence dwells in the woodland field ; 
Be it god or mortal that fain would flee, 

There is none may fly thee, but all must yield 
To the madness gotten of thee ! 

And here' is a celebrated passage from 
the same play, done into a measure of 
Mr. Swinburne's invention : — 

There are marvellous wonders many 

Where'er this world we scan, 
Yet among them nowhere any 

So great a marvel as Man. 
To the white sea's uttermost verges 

Afloat this miracle goes, 
Forging through thundering surges 

When the wintry south-wind blows : — 
And the Earth, Heaven's Mother, divinest-born, 
The eternal, deathless, unoutworn, 
Still plied with an endless to-and-fro 
As the yearly ploughshares furrowing go, 
By Man is fretted and torn. 
We quote these specimens of Dr. 
Headlam's work in order to show what 
he can do at the highest level of difficulty, 
not because we consider them equal to 
the best things in the volume. Regarded 
merely as English verse, they are, we 
think, inferior to a number of others which 
owe their fuller perfection, in part at 
any rate, to the fortunate tractability of 
the original ore. Many will be inclined 
to rank first of all this charming version 
of a fragment of Bacchylides : — 

Peace upon earth 
Brings wealth and blossom of dulcet song to birth ; 
To the Gods on carven altars makes thighs of oxen 

burn, 
And sheep in the yellow flame, 
And bids the young men's thoughts to the wrest- 
ling-game 
And revel and hautboy turn. 
Webs of the spider brown in the iron shield are 

made, 
And rust grows over the edge of the sword and 

the lance's blade ; 
The sound of the brazen trumpet is not heard, 
Nor the still air stirred 
And the sweet of slumber torn 
From the eyelid heavy at morn : 
Banquet and blithe carousal throng the ways. 
And the amorous hymn like fire in the air breaks 
forth in praise. 

Nearly as good as this are the transla- 
tions of Pindar's description of Paradise 
and the ' Danae ' of Simonides. Some 
of the epigrams are excellently rendered ; 
some have baffled the attempt to trans- 



8 



T If E AT II KXJ; I M 



No. 4184, Jan. 4, 1908 



plant them. Dr. Hcndlaiii finds fault 
with 

They told me ( Eereolitu, they told me yon were 
deed ; 

hut admitting the force of what he says, 
we venture to prophesy that the new 
\ anion will never become such a favourite 
as the old. One or two blemishes may 
be noticed, trivial in themselves, but 
conspicuous in a book of high aim and 
achievement. The worst line in it is 
certainly 

Immune from time's disease, 
where the Greek has oVeo ovx* sreo-ciTai 
(p. 146). Rhyme is responsible for this, 
and also (the italics are ours) for 

The} - miss her when they spin, — the cheer, 
The sweet voice rippling (p. 217), 

and 

trash ill thy regard 
Was parent's love (p. 267). 

The Greek versions we have no space 
to review in detail, and can only record 
our belief that they are not surpassed, 
if indeed they are equalled, by any 
existing productions of the same kind. 
Beside them, even Jebb's, with all their 
brilliancy, seem just a trifle academic : 
these are freer, more flexible, perhaps, 
more like what a Greek might have 
written. It should, however, be pointed 
out that Dr. Headlam has given himself 
a great advantage by refusing to translate 
pieces which do not " really bear the 
stamp of Greek in style and sentiment." 
The versions of Shakspeare in iambics, 
of Shelley's 'Ode to the Skylark' in 
sapphics, and of the Wisdom of Solomon 
in hexameters, furnish abundant proof 
of his mastery ; but the following, of 
Landor's " Proud word you never spoke," 
is enough for the discerning : — 
'Ecrcrt jiXv ov o-ofiaprj TiS" Ijtos S' eri fiifikov 
evowra 

TTjvSe iroTC <j>0ey£r) xal <rv ti irov croftapov. 
X il p l y a P ovk aSiavrov kpfixrafiivn crv irapetrjv 

" ovtos ip.ov " <f)rj<Tei<s " rjpaTO," K&SoSbvtT. 

Some fifty pages of notes, full of eru- 
dition and fine criticism, complete the 
volume, which appears at an opportune 
moment to defend the cause of classical 
education, and encourage those advocates 
of reform who desire that Latin and 
Greek should be taught, not as dead 
languages, but as living literature. 



Dyott's Diary, 1781-1845. Edited by 
Reginald W. Jeffery. 2 vols. (Con- 
stable & Co.) 

We wonder how many times in the course 
of his long life General Dyott exclaimed, 
" The country is going to the devil, sir ! " 
Not a few ; that much is certain. He 
belonged to the Eldonian or pigtail type 
of Tory, which dated the decline of the 
British Empire from the passing of the 
Catholic Emancipation Act, and its fall 
from the Act of Reform. He was spared 
from realizing that Ins neighbour Sir 
Robert Peel had committed what he would 
have regarded as a second apostasy in 
abolishing the Corn Laws, since after a 
stroke of paralysis in April, 1845, when 
he was eighty-four, the old man seems 



to ha\e lost all interest in public affairs. 
Hut the journal which he kept for some 
sixty-four years preserves a truly astonish- 
ing record of mental immutability as 
regards the State in general and the army 
in particular. It is only fair to add that 
General Dyott's prejudices did not pre- 
vent him from being the best of fathers, 
a steadfast friend, a considerate officer to 
his soldiers, and a benevolent landlord to 
the farmers and labourers on his estate. 

Dyott's great days were in 1787 and 1788, 
when, being quartered at Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, he had the honour of associating 
with Prince William Henry, afterwards 
Duke of Clarence and King William IV. 
From the first it was " Dyott, fill your 
glass," and " Dyott, your health and 
family." The Prince, whose tipple was 
Madeira, had a hard head, though on 
one occasion, his admirer chronicles, " I 
never saw a man get so completely 
drunk." After a dinner at which twenty 
persons accounted for sixty-three bottles 
of wine, there occurred this sequel : — 

" When he went out he called me and told 
me he would go to my room and have some 
tea. The General, Col. Brownlow, and 
myself were at tea. The General and 
Colonel as drunk as two drummers. I 
was tolerably well myself and knew what 
I was about perfectly. He laughed at them 
very much. After tea we left them in my 
room and went on a cruise, as he calls it, 
till eleven, when he went on board. I don't 
recollect ever to have spent so pleasant a 
day. His Royal Highness, whenever any 
person did not fill a bumper, always called 
out, ' I see some of God Almighty's day- 
light in that glass, Sir ; banish it.' " 

After Prince William Henry had sailed, 
Dyott encountered in Major Raw T don 
" the most determined fellow at a bottle 
of claret " he ever knew, and kept up 
the Prince of Wales's birthday at Govern- 
ment House till four o'clock in the morn- 
ing. 

The military experiences recorded in 
the diary do not maintain this Olympian 
level throughout. A spirited account is 
given of the operations during the West 
Indian rebellion of 1796, when two negro 
prisoners were driven into a low passage 
and shot by men of the 29th Regiment : — 

" I ran to see what the firing was, but 
before I got to the place they had fired a 
second round. On reaching the spot I 
made a negro draw out these miserable 
victims of enraged brutality. One of them 
was mangled in a horrid manner. The 
other was shot through the hip, the bodj\ 
and one thigh, and notwithstanding all, he 
was able to sit up and to answer a number 
of questions that were asked him respecting 
the enemy. The poor wretch held his hand 
on the wound in his thigh, as if that only 
was the place he suffered from. The thigh 
bone must have been shattered to pieces, 
as his leg and foot were turned under him. 
The miserable being was not suffered to 
continue long in his wretchedness, as one of 
his own colour came up and blew lus brains 
out sans ceremonie." 

Dyott's adventures were not particu- 
larly noteworthy. He reached Egypt not 
long before the capitulation of Menou ; 
he was too late to reinforce Sir John 
Moore in the Peninsula ; he has not 
much that is fresh to say about the 



Wsloheren expedition, though he seta 
down his indignation at the disgraceful 
condition of the British hospitals. As a 
traveller he is appallingly commonplace, 
and he sometimes affects an abbreviated 
style which is irritating. Thus : — 

" Entrance to Paris very poor ; got to tin- 
Hotel de Vendorne ; devilish dear ; four 
louis d'or a week ; went to the Opera 
Comique ; neat house but small ; men 
vulgar and women more." 

Dyott was an aide-de-camp to George 
III., but we gather little more than that 
the King was gracious, and that he 
frequently had the honour of playing 
cards at their Majesties' table. " There 
never was a more virtuous, religious, 
moral man existed from true principle 
and sincere worth," was Dyott's feeling, 
if involved, tribute when George III. died. 
Of his successor he guardedly opined 
that, though a most accomplished gentle- 
man, he was " perhaps too eager after 
self-gratifications to allow thought for 
the affairs of a great nation " ; and this 
is the comment when William rV. was 
no more : — 

" His Majesty was a merry Prince in his 
youthful days, and at that day, he could 
promise, if ever in power, to serve a young, 
giddy, foolish friend. Thank God, I have 
travelled on without obligation to the man 
or the Monarch, which was not the case with 
the Prince to the then jolly Lieutenant." 

The royal remark at a drawing-room that 
" you and I have been acquainted for 
half a century " was all very well in its 
way, only it did not go very far. The 
General ungallantly noted down that 
Queen Adelaide had " a white, unmeaning 
German face " ; and the Court of Queen 
Victoria was not to his liking, chiefly 
because he objected to the daily driving 
in the Park and mixing with the com- 
monalty. 

After Dyott had settled down at 
Freeford, his estate in Staffordshire, his 
journal becomes uncommonly interesting. 
We do not know where a more complete 
picture can be found of the old Tory 
squirearchy, with its visitings and f east- 
ings, its shooting, its farming, its attend- 
ances on the bench and at assizes. The 
General made frequent visits to town to 
push the fortunes of his son Dick, and 
we get a vivid idea of how the wires were 
pulled under the purchase system, though 
Lord Hill at the Horse Guards was not 
easily moved. Dyott was a prominent 
figure in local politics, and in that capacity 
he was frequently consulted by Peel, 
though as to the affairs of the nation 
probably not to the extent that he seems 
to have imagined. But it was a long time 
before he pretended to regard the cotton- 
spinner's son as other than an upstart. 
Here is an entry dated January, 1831: — 

" The 31st I dined at Sir Robert Peel's ; 
a man party of his neighbours (the Squire- 
archy). The Baronet made himself very 
agreeable, quite a country gentleman, but 
interlarded his conversation with entertain- 
ing anecdotes from the Secretary of State's 
office." 

Whiggish proclivities met with Ins 
unsparing sarcasm. He poured contempt 
on Littleton's claims for the Speakership 






No. 4184, Jan. 4, 1908 



THE ATHENJEUM 



!) 



— not altogether without cause — and re- 
garded Lord Anglesey's political vagaries 
with comical indignation : — 

" I remember the day when he used to 
damn the Whigs and all their measures. 
Time, they say, works wonders. Vanity 
and circumstance prevail over self, and too 
frequently make self forget self, and commit 
all sorts of inconsistency to serve self." 

Dyott objected to all innovations, no 
matter whether they were improvements 
or not. He objected to railways, 
mechanics' institutes, and popular educa- 
tion ; and when Mrs. Fry visited Stafford 
Gaol, he devised eight new cells for solitary 
confinement : " It is my intention to 
make them as irksome and lonely to the 
individual as possible, in order to obtain 
the desired effect." What an old Tory ! 

Mr. Jeffery's Introduction is well done, 
and his notes are fairly adequate, though 
they sometimes err on the side of meagre- 
ness. George Rose's estate was called 
Cuffnells, not Cuttnells ; the owner of 
Dropmore was not Lord Granville, but 
Lord Grenville ; and the " Matthews " 
whose " at home " diverted Dyott in 
1834 was clearly not Thomas Matthews 
(1805-89), but Charles Mathews, the elder. 



NEW NOVELS. 



The Explorer. By William S. Maugham- 
(Heinemann.) 

The author of ' 'Liza cf Lambeth ' here 
proves himself capable of producing a 
highly intelligent study of social life 
without touching upon the slums. We 
meet only people who frequent fashion- 
able restaurants and large country houses ; 
indeed, their weakness for restaurants 
and entertainments is rather surprising, 
in view of the other more refined tastes 
which most of them possess. The story 
has not much distinction ; it is of a 
familiar type ; but it is remarkably 
interesting, and grows upon one. The 
opening chapters drag a little, and the 
concluding chapter is not so convincing 
as it should be. But the book is nowhere 
tiresome ; it is logical and shapely ; its 
characterization draws one on. Two of 
the leading personages, brother and sister, 
are the children of a plausible rascal, 
who falls from the position of a wealthy 
country gentleman to that of a convicted 
felon. The daughter's ambition in life 
centres upon her brother's career, which 
she hopes will wipe out the stain left on 
their name by the father. To this end 
she induces a really strong man to take 
the boy in hand, and give him a share in 
certain stirring, empire-building work 
which this " Explorer " of the title is doing 
in Africa. It is on account of his love 
for the sister that the strong man en- 
deavours to make a career for the brother. 
His attempt, and the cruel self-sacrifice 
it involves, give the tale its considerable 
dramatic interest, and make it a creditable 
novel of modern life. The hero repre- 
sents what is, perhaps, the finest type of 
man that these islands produce. 



Children's Children. By Gertrude Bone. 
(Duckworth & Co.) 

Mrs. Bone's tale of peasant life is marked 
by a fine quality of restraint and a 
remarkable simplicity which make the 
realism of its tragedy intensely impressive ; 
while there is no jarring note to disturb 
the effect. That it is an unusual piece of 
work is due also to her sympathetic use 
of background. The pastoral landscape 
with its trees and hedgerows, and the land 
from which old Jacob Pyrah extracts a 
bare living, but one which is made to 
serve also for his daughter Tamar and 
her little boys when they come back 
to him, seem to be in complete harmony 
with, and to be, indeed, a part of, the 
very lives of the actors in this humble 
and most moving drama. Old Jacob's 
grief when the little grandsons who have 
securely wound themselves about his 
heart are drowned is as essentially true 
as it is pathetic : — 

" Slower than Tamar to feel the anguish, 
the old man grew in its knowledge each 
day. It was not the untimely end of a 
child — which old age views always with 
slow compassionate tears, as of one to whom 
toil and struggle have been spared — but 
the late blossoming of hope and love in a 
scantily blooming life now barren for ever, 
that Jacob mourned." 

The mother's silent despair gives way, 
before she soon follows her children, 
to the natural rebound of youth ; but, 
long after, the grandfather is found 
weeping silently in a corner of his field 
over the broken eggs in a shattered bird's- 
nest. The minor characters cf the village 
life, with their tragedies and comedies, 
are also drawn with fidelity. The same 
impression of truth which finds its inter- 
pretation in a dignified simplicity is 
equally characteristic of Mr. Bone' 4 draw- 
ings with which the book is illustrated. 



The Love Story of Giraldus. By Alice 

Cunninghame. (Francis Griffiths.) 
The author has selected one of the most 
interesting women in English history as 
the centre round which her story should 
revolve ; and if she has not plumbed to 
the utmost the depths and recesses of 
the character of Eleanor of Poitou, wife 
of Henry II., it is because her story plays 
rather round Giraldus Cambrensis — 
Gerald the Welshman — who enters the 
Church when he has lost his love, as he 
thinks, for ever. We have in the course 
of the tale a series of vivid pictures of 
life at the French Court, the University 
of Paris, and on the Welsh Borders, 
the details being carefully studied from 
contemporary authorities. If the work 
is, as we believe, a first novel, it is a 
most promising volume, with a sufficient 
degree of performance. 



Phantom Figures. By F. Dickberry. 

(F. V. White & Co.) 
This account of an attachment which 
we appear to be expected to regard 
as ideal and raised above the reach 
of mundane passions is unusual in 



structure. The young and lovely vic- 
tim of circumstances which postpone 
her happiness to the end of the story is a 
subordinate character, the part of leading 
lady falling to her mother, a fascinating 
widow, old enough to know better than 
to jeopardize her daughter's happiness 
and forfeit her loving confidence. The 
only character worthy to be styled the 
hero fills the subordinate part of the 
widow's unappreciated lover. A sense 
of honour and right feeling, apart from 
any code of laws or theory of morals, 
should have restrained the widow and the 
married man she prefers from a mundane 
intrigue in the peculiar circumstances. 
Thus the author's efforts to make them 
interesting are ineffective, and the story 
is in proportion unsatisfactory. 



The Heart's Banishment. By Ella Mac- 
Mahon. (Chapman & Hall.) 

A negative rather than a positive 
impression is produced by this story. It 
is not well written nor very lively, nor 
does it make much demand on one's 
imagination or intellect. In short, it 
shows little to compel attention or 
reflection. Love, religion, and the stage 
are not in themselves uninteresting topics ; 
but they are not here treated with the 
necessary force and vitality to revive 
the dead bones. 



The Progress of Hugh Bendal. By Lionel 
Portman. (Heinemann.) 

The writer of 'Varsity stories must either 
be content to range within the narrow 
and usually uninspiring field of under- 
graduate life, into which love enters only 
in the form of canoe-courtship or in 
sordid shape, or, if he admits the duel 
of sex, must run the risk of destroying 
the unity of his work and misrepresent- 
ing boys as men. Mr. Dickinson in 
' Keddy,' which recently achieved such a 
striking success, chose the former of these 
embarrasing alternatives ; Mr. Portman 
has taken the latter, and has on the whole 
surmounted its inherent difficulties. Hugh 
Rendal himself, whose acquaintance 
readers of the book bearing his name 
have made already at school, is a tho- 
roughly adequate portrait of a type 
which is fortunately not uncommon. 
Healthy, humorous, strong-willed, sound 
in instinct no less than in wind and limb, 
his development from "fresher" to 
Indian civilian is always interesting. The 
heroine, who finds the woman's ambition 
to play a serious part in the great world 
more easily attainable than the gill's 
ambition to row, but unsatisfying in the 
long run, belongs, no doubt, to a less 
common type, but is equally true to life. 
Rowing, naturally, occupies no Bmall 
part of the book, and the description of 
the 'Varsity race from the point of view 

of one of (he Oxford eight, written with 
the authority of an Old Blue, is ex- 
tremely effective. 

9 



10 



t ii E at ii E x -i: r m 



No. U84, Jan. 1. 1908 



The Master Beast, 1888 2020. By Horace 

\V. C Newte. (Rebman.) 
In this orade and violent aovel Mr. Newte 
imagines England to become, through 

defects in the policy of the present 

Government, a prey to "base Germany, 

blatant in guile," and to resume its 

independence under Socialism. Here and 
there, as in the canonization of Mr. Bernard 
Shaw, a flash of true humour brightens 
the work ; and here and there, as in the 
poignant description of the wrongs suffered 
by literary geniuses under Socialistic 
tyranny, there is matter deserving the 
notice of thoughtful Socialists. For the 
rest, the story is intensely pessimistic. 
Englishmen become as ferocious as Malays. 
Women go mad at the appropriation of 
their babes by the State ; lust is rampant, 
and the Father of the People is a villain. 
Mr. Newte forgets the vastness of the 
population which he manipulates. In 
the year 2020 the aristocracy of the 
intellect should be sufficiently numerous 
to engraft on Socialism the principles of 
intelligent altruism. It may be that the 
heaven on earth depicted by William 
Morris in ' News from Nowhere ' is not 
realizable by carrying out his own Social- 
istic prescription ; but if Socialists should 
continue to desire heaven to be on earth 
they would discard any prescription which 
resulted in disaster or disgrace. 



SOCIAL PROBLEMS. 

The Housing Problem in England. By 
Ernest Ritson Dewsnup. (Manchester, Uni- 
versity Press.) — The writer of this well- 
planned treatise on the housing question, 
though beholds a professorship of economics 
in the University of Chicago, is an English- 
man by birth, and has enjoyed peculiar 
opportunities of observing the problem with 
which he deals and diagnosing its attend- 
ant evils. His experience has taught him 
that as in the past the poorest classes of the 
community — those who live by casual or, 
at best, by irregular labour — have clung to 
the central areas of our cities, so will they, 
constrained by economic necessity, continue 
to do in the future. Such persons cannot 
afford to reside at any distance from their 
possible work, for the reason that they have 
to be continually on the watch for employ- 
ment, ready to stalk it down as soon as it 
shows itself on their limited horizon. Tins 
consideration gives point to the writer's 
condemnation of any and every dishousing 

J>olicy which does not include full provision 
or rehousing. Mr. Dewsnup traces much 
overcrowding in the larger cities to the past 
action of railway companies, which until 
1885 made no serious attempt to rehouse the 
people they displaced, and in some cases, 
after that date, sought to evade responsi- 
bilities incurred by them under the Model 
Clause. 

The effects of overcrowding upon the 
infantile death-rate and the death-rate from 
phthisis are well shown by means of tables 
drawn up for the Administrative County 
of London. In many urban districts of the 
North where the married women do not, 
as a rule, go out to work in factories, and the 
infantile mortality rate is, nevertheless, 
only a little below that obtaining in the 
textile towns of Lancashire, the high figures 
are probably due to excessive overcrowd ing. 
It is not in the largest provincial cities that 
such overcrowding is at its worst. The 



highest percentages arc reached, not by 
Liverpool, Blanehester, or Birmingham, but 
by Gateshead, South Shields, and Tyne- 
mouth, (We note thai Mr, Dewsnup lias 
sr-estimated the number of pen ons in- 
habiting cellar-dwellings in Liverpool at 
the present time, giving it us "more than 

10,000." According to the most recent 
information, the figures should he (K.'J.'JT. ) 
It is satisfactory to learn from the tables 
given that in the matter of overcrowding 
there lias been steady, if not rapid improve- 
ment during the ten years between 1891 
and 1901. 

A chapter is devoted to overhousing, as 
distinct from overcrowding. In the sketch 
of the development of the problem, attention 
is drawn to the varying standards set up for 
working-class dwellings by different muni- 
cipalities, and particularly to the action of 
Leeds in encouraging the building of back- 
to-back houses. With this policy might 
have been contrasted that of other town 
councils in the North and North Midlands. 
In Bolton, for instance, not a single house 
of this type, we believe, now exists. Mr. 
Dewsnup is not in favour of municipal house 
ownership, nor, except in case of absolute 
necessity or for the purposes of an object- 
lesson, of house-building by the local autho- 
rity ; but he would like municipalities to 
" use .... their power of securing capital 
cheaply for the benefit of organizations and 
individuals desirous of erecting " dwellings 
for working people, and quotes Mr. Horsfall 
in support of his view. In discouraging 
municipal purchase of vacant sites he omits 
to state the strongest argument for such 
purchase — the bringing into the building 
market of land which, even in face of 
housing need, might be " held for the rise." 
There are some interesting pages on 
" town-planning " as practised under the 
general building law of Saxony and other 
German States ; and on rural overcrowding, 
for which Mr. Dewsnup would find a remedy 
in active supervision of houses by the County 
Council, and the appointment of travelling 
inspectors of health. The value of the book, 
which is considerable, would have been 
much increased by an orderly and complete 
analysis of the Housing Act of 1890. Fami- 
liarity with the provisions of that Act is 
not so common as Mr. Dewsnup appears to 
suppose. 

The Licensed Trade. By Edwin A. Pratt. 
(John Murray.) — The author of ' Licensing 
and Temperance in Sweden, Norway, and 
Denmark ' has here stated the case for 
" the trade " with ability and moderation. 
He has, moreover, written a book which 
may be read with interest by persons who 
espouse neither the causo of the brewers 
nor of the United Kingdom Alliance. His 
short history of intoxicants from the earliest 
times is well done, though a good many 
people will cavil at its classification of tea 
and coffee with beer and spirits. But Mr. 
Pratt writes frankly as an advocate, and 
does not invariably overcome the temptation 
to strain a point which makes for his cause 
or to evade one likely to create a hitch in 
the flow of his argument. Thus it is no 
answer to those who show that, under the 
Samlag system, the average number of 
arrests for drunkenness in Christiania has 
declined from 111 per 1,000 in 1897 to 43 
in 1905, to retort that 43 per 1,000 repre- 
sents an average far higher than that in 
London, Liverpool, Manchester, or Glasgow : 
the fact remains that a remarkable decrease 
has been effected in Christiania. Again, it 
is doubtful whether the mineral-water trade 
is " mainly," or even largely, " indebted to 
the teetotal campaign " for its growing 
prosperity ; fashion, medical and social, 
and a certain unexplained change of our 



national taste in ben havi 

powerful factor-, in fTfWtinfl its pn 

position. And why does Mr. 1'ratt write 
that " if the holder of the lioeoOO I- Convicted 

of breaking the law, it may be only right 

that Ii'- should he pum bed ! Why 
Suggest that the licence-holder has some 
undefined right to stand on a different 

footing from the ordinary law-breaker 1 
These reflections wfl] certainly occur to any 
unprejudiced reader of Mr. Pratt's book. 
Such a reader will, however, probably 
approve his fundamental position, and agiee 
with him in refusing to regard temperance 
as synonymous with total abstinence. 

The chapter on licensing legislation — a 
body of laws exhibiting at its worst the 
British habit of proceeding by piecemeal 
enactment to confusion — and that on com- 
pensation and the time-limit, are clearly 
written and may be easily read ; the latter 
is, necessarily, highly controversial in tone. 
In dealing with the failure of prohibition in 
America — where the number of Prohibition 
States has now fallen from seventeen to 
three — Mr. Pratt has diawn upon the report 
of Mr. Lindsay, Secretary to the British 
Embassy at Washington, on ' Liquor- 
Traffic Legislation in the United States,' 
and on a recent account of ' A Temperance 
Town ' by Mr. E. N. Bennett, M.P. We 
have not been able to find anj r reference to 
the proved increase of drinking to excess 
among women, nor yet to the question of 
excluding children under a certain age from 
public-houses. It would have been interest- 
ing to know the author's views on these 
points. 

In the field of State interference with 
employment most of the nations have now 
effected by legislation all that is obvious 
to their students and generally accepted 
by their public. The most difficult problems 
remain, and among them those connected 
with poverty and under-payment of the 
less-skilled workers. It is easy to ridicule 
the universal wish to ascertain the exact 
facts by repeated and minute inquiry, for 
such inquiry may be held to waste valuable 
time ; it leads to no definite proposals, 
and may be thought by ardent reformers 
to be the official means of obstruction of the 
changes which they desire. On the other 
hand, the reformers are apt to make use 
of examples which are exceptional rather 
than normal, and of figures not based upon 
statistical science. Thus the sweating pro- 
blem is held b\ r the great officials who advise 
the Governments of Austria and of Germany 
not to be susceptible of scientific treatment 
by the law. They shrink from effective 
legislation in which they themselves do not 
believe. In Paris a prolonged research has 
produced three great volumes in which all 
the facts with regard to outwork and 
homework in the capital of France are set 
forth : the first appears this week. The 
department concerned looks forward to the 
possibility of meeting the demand for 
legislation likely to follow' the appearance 
of the report, of necessity sensational, by 
the passing of a law to require returns of the 
addresses of all to whom homework is 
given by employers. What is to follow 
the returns is as obscure in France as it 
still is in most countries except Australia 
and New Zealand. The inquiries for which 
opinion calls are as a rule well executed. 
As we praised the work of Mr. Rowntree 
at York and of Miss Mona Wilson at Dundee, 
so we welcome for its accuracy and com- 
pleteness the volume entitled West Ham, 
compiled by Mr. Edward G. Howarth and 
Miss Wilson, and published by Messrs. 
Dent & Co. 

York was shown by Mr. Rowntree to be 
typical of a large class of towns. West 



No. 4184, Jan. 4, 1908 



THE ATHENAEUM 



11 



Ham, on the contrary, affords an extreme 
example of difficulties to be met with in 
many industrial districts, but hardly any- 
where with such circumstances of aggrava- 
tion of evils easily understood. Where 
growth of population is rapid, and all are 
poor, certain public services are the only 
services existing, for they are not supple- 
mented by similar institutions, maintained 
out of private funds. Neither in these 
cases are there old endowments. Taking 
the education problem, for example, all the 
children attend the Board schools, now 
managed directly in West Ham by the 
borough. The repayment of capital and 
interest upon buildings for school purposes 
as well as upon destruction of insanitary 
property with rehousing, upon streets, 
and upon Poor Law buildings, forms a 
terrific burden upon the young and desti- 
tute community. The local authorises 
incur unpopularity, in part, at least, un- 
deserved ; and local government is apt to 
fall into a confusion which promotes corrup- 
tion and increases every evil. It may almost 
be said that on two occasions a special law 
has been passed to meet the West Ham case, 
so greatly did each of two Acts of Parliament 
benefit West Ham as compared with the 
advantage given to other places. Never- 
theless, the difficulties, in part dealt with, 
continue to bo greater than those existing 
in any other portion of the land. The 
authors of the volume before us are within 
the mark in their explanation that the 
enormous rates of West Ham are chiefly to 
be accounted for by matters as wholly 
outside the control of the authorities as is 
the high percentage of children of school 
age and the enormous percentage of these 
who resort to public elementary schools. 
If it was useful to have a book on the 
average case of York, it is still more advan- 
tageous to the legislator to possess an 
equally careful volume upon the extreme 
case presented by West Ham. Fluctuations 
of employment are specially great in a town 
not distant from the docks. West Ham 
is in a high degree a town of casual labour, 
and, for a working-class community, in a 
small degree inhabited by the highly paid 
skilled artisan. The authors are not wedded 
to the views of the economists or to those 
of the officials, but, nevertheless, point out 
the harm that has been done in the past, 
and will bo done in the future, by palliatives 
for distress, such as work provided by the 
labour yard, and help given by the Church 
Army and similar organizations. 

There are matters dealt with in this 
book which lie outside the statistics that 
form its main contents. Many will turn 
to its pages dealing with the religious com- 
munities represented in this district of 
the working class closely adjoining London. 
The Roman Catholic population is smaller 
than might be expected ; the Nonconformist 
Protestant population far larger than we 
should have looked for in the neighbour- 
hood of London. The Church of England 
appears to be distanced by the other bodies, 
although tables based on church attendance 
cannot, of course, bo trusted to produce an 
accurate statistical result. The enormous 
number of Baptist and Methodist chapels is 
to a certain extent to be explained by the 
smallness of some of the places of worship 
included in the tables ; but it is striking, 
and shows far more activity in Protestant 
Nonconformity in the home counties than 
is commonly admitted. 

We are not sure what the authors mean 
when they describe emigration as being 
" one of the most popular " " among 
remedies for unemployment." " Popular," 
we would ask, with whom ? Not, certainly, 



with the authorized representatives of the 
working-class population. 

The Triumph of Woman (Ambrose Com- 
pany) is the first of four essays by George 
Barlow which bear with more or less rele- 
vancy on an engrossing phase of the evolution 
of our period. It attempts to fathom the 
significance of the feminine element in poetry 
and to illustrate the " central truth " pro- 
claimed by Mr. Swinburne in his article 
on ' Tennyson and Musset,' that great poets 
are bi-sexual. The second essay ' The 
Divineness of the Human,' emphasizes 
the importance of recognizing the essential 
divineness of womanhood, and foreshadows 
an increasing apprehension of the link be- 
tween the Christ and the feminine element 
in the universe. In ' The Fall of Woman,' 
which has already appeared in The Con- 
temporary Review, the author is found side 
by side with certain theologians in the 
belief that the fall of woman poetically 
described in the Book of Genesis may be no 
mere legend, but the most significant fact 
of all history. An essay on anti-vivisection, 
also a reprint, concludes a book of which 
the value must not be judged by its size, 
and which should be approached with due 
sympathy and understanding. 



OUR LIBRARY TABLE. 

Messrs. Smith, Elder & Co. publish 
Lord Wantage, V.C., by his wife — a record 
of a blameless and useful, but not very 
interesting life. Col. Loyd-Lindsay was a 
strong Conservative, though his acceptance 
of Free Trade and rejection of taxation 
upon grain aie well set forth on p. 277. 
In one matter alone did he show much 
statesmanship and foresight. It was pointed 
out during the Boer War that Loyd-Lind- 
say had seen from an early date in the 
Volunteer movement, of which he was the 
sanest leader, that it was impossible to 
justify the popular belief that the Volunteers 
were intended for home defence. At a time 
when most critics of the War Office aimed 
at providing the Volunteers with an organiza- 
tion suitable for operations in England, 
Loyd-Lindsay repeatedly showed the in- 
expediency of restricting " so vast a body 
of armed men to the possible single emer- 
gency of invasion." "He advised the 
utilization of the force as a feeder to " the 
regular army. On the other hand, he ^rew 
from the Boer War the same deductions, 
universally thought to be erroneous by 
continental masters of the art of war, 
which better-known British soldiers put 
before the country. The rejection of the 
importance of individual skill in marksman- 
ship, universal in continental armies, is, 
however, in part founded upon consideration 
of the kind of war in which continental 
armies engage, as contrasted with our small 
wars, hitherto almost peculiar to ourselves. 
Another comparison of wars is suggested 
by the account given of the unwillingness 
of the allied commanders in the Crimea 
to attempt an attack on the north side 
of Sebastopol. Loyd-Lindsay describes the 
position, and ends his account of it. by 
noting, in his letter written afer the 
conclusion of peace, how " we found Lord 
Rokeby sitting and evidently reflecting 
upon the amount of nonsense he had talked 
for the last six months, for he was the great 
advocate for storming the heights." That 
the destruction of the fortification on the 
north side might have been useless can 
hardly be pleaded by any except thoae who 
think the whole invasion of the Crimea a 
mistake. The modern view of the best 
military historians is, perhaps, that the 



allies would have done well to make peace 
after the success of their policy obtained 
by the withdrawal of the Russians from 
European Turkey. When it was decided 
to continue the war, the case was strong 
for carrying it to an end more successful 
than had been reached at the time of the 
signature of the treaty of 1856. The case 
for the other side is that the French had 
made friends with Russia and would not 
go on. But this is a political, and not a 
military case, whereas the arguments of 
Lord Wantage aie based in part on strategy, 
but principally on tactics. The passage 
reads as though he thought that a British 
army could not be expected to execute an 
operation far less dangerous than that 
cheerfully undertaken by the Japanese 
on several separate occasions at Port 
Arthur. Sir William Russell's diaries, con- 
taining the things which he could not say 
at the moment in his letters to The Times, 
show that a large portion of the long-service 
troops who fought in the Crimea were far 
from displaying the courage of their prede- 
cessors of the Peninsula campaign. Loyd- 
Lindsay's letters confirm this later impres- 
sion ; and it is clear that the advance up 
the slope at the Alma was unnecessary, 
and also far from brilliant. The line 
battalion to which was accorded the highest 
credit at the time " broke " or bolted, 
and Loyd-Lindsay's own Victoria Cross 
represents a gallantry on the part of the 
officers and sergeants of the Guards not 
conspicuous in the case of the men of one 
of the battalions. 

Allied operations are always unsatisfac- 
tory. The French, protected by the guns 
of their fleet, were as certain to cause the 
withdrawal of the Russian army from their 
position above the Alma as were the Japanese 
to defeat the Russians at the Yalu. The 
British army claimed its share, and at 
the Alma, as afterwards at the Redan, 
the French enjoyed a triumph which they 
hardly felt that the British deserved to share. 
At Balaclava the cavalry, and at Inkermann 
the Guards, fought well ; but in both cases 
we were ultimately indebted to the French 
for our security. There is this to be said — 
that the numbers of the British troops in 
the Crimean expedition were always insuffi- 
cient for their task. 

In later years Loyd-Lindsay played a 
great part in hospital organization for war, 
but his letters illustrate the plain truth 
that volunteer Red Cross efforts wero 
always apt to be too late or to be directed 
to the wrong places. We find, for example, 
in the report of Capt. Douglas Galton on 
the war of 1870 that " all the field hos- 
pitals, &c, round Nancy and that district 
are beautifully organized, but not a single 
wounded soldier in them." Loyd-Lindsay's 
prejudices appear somewhat amusingly from 
time to time in the pages of this volume. 
When he crossed France to Versailles during 
the siege of Paris he complains that "the 
Francs-Tircurs interfere most abominably 
— they stopped twentj' of the horses last 
night." The demands of war were as 
urgent on the Prussian as on the French 
side, and the Geneva Convention frequently 
went by the board. It was not always, 
moreover, used with care. Bismarck dis- 
liked allowing Loyd - Lindsay to go into 
Paris, and told him that there was this 
objection to increasing the number of flags 
of truee, already made too great by the 
insistence of the American Ministei in Paris, 
Mr. Washburn, on his daily mail, namely. 
" that a trumpeter was generally used up 
on each occasion." Bismarck was not 

wrong in his apprehensions, for Loyd- 
Lindsay records how he " brought home a 
large portmanteau full of letters— hundreds 



12 



T II E ATH KX.KUM 



No. 4184, Jan. 4. 1908 



of (hem, which I posted at onee private 
letters, ( Government despatches," >\e. 

Shah stent's Sonnets, and A Lover's 
Complaint. With introduction by W. H. | 
Hadow. (Oxford, Clarendon Press.) — Tho 

Sonnets can seldom have worn a more 

oomely dress than in this admirable reprint 
of the original quarto in which thoy were 
first given to the world in 1G09. The volume, 
which belongs to " The Tudor and Stunrt 
Library," calls forth tho admiration of tho 
booklover by its excellent paper, fair old 
type, and elegantly simple binding no less 
than the gratitude of the student for its 
text. -Mr. W. II. Hadow contributes an 
eloquent and sympathetic Introduction, 
wisely directing his criticism for the most 
part to the more general aspect of the 
poems. We gather that he inclines to the 
William Herbert and Mary Fitton theory, 
and would date the Sonnets between 1597 
and 1599 ; but while he regards them as 
biographical, ho strongly deprecates any 
literal acceptation of their contents. " That 
the events took place as they are here 
depicted," he asserts with perhaps excessive 
emphasis, " is not a matter of possible 
belief " ; and he prefers the more modest 
supposition that Shakspeare " at some time 
of his life saw friendship and passion on either 
side of him, and allowed his imagination 
to trace each to its furthest conceivable 
point." The basis of reality may be rather 
more substantial than is implied in such a 
remark ; but Mr. Hadow is, in the present 
reviewer's opinion, right in insisting " that 
the Sonnets, though lyric, have a dramatic 
basis, and that Shakespeare's true self is 
revealed not in the story which they narrate, 
but in the judgments on life and love which 
they contain." 

Adonis, Attis, Osiris. By J. G. Frazer. 
Second Edition. (Macmillan & Co.) — We 
congratulate the learned author on reaching 
a second edition of this book so quickly, 
and also on the diligence with;which he has 
revised and enlarged it. Two new sources 
of information are utilized : Kubary's 
curious book on the manners of the Pelew 
Islanders, and Major Gordon on the Khasis 
of Assam. Both peoples are only primitive 
savagos, and have not only the well-known 
Mutterrecht, but also the wholly different 
importance of women in society, for which 
Dr. Frazer gives many ingenious reasons. 
We will not repeat what we said in our 
notice of his first edition, but think he might 
spend a page in defending or illustrating 
the curious position that " while the higher 
forms of religious faith pass away like clouds, 
the lower stand firm and indestructible like 
rocks." 

The Literary Man's Bible. By W. L. 
Courtney. (Chapman & Hall.) — Mr. Court- 
ney tells us that what he should like to do 
is " to give back the Bible to thoughtful men, 
who, owing to a variety of circumstances, 
are not able to appreciate, or have ceased 
to appreciate, its unparalleled value " ; 
and he adds that " this book is not intended 
to appeal to accomplished Biblical students, 
but rather to the man of literary tastes 
and sympathies, who desires to know some 
reasons why ho should respect and admire 
tho sacrod Books of Israel." In treating 
the Old Testament as literature Mr. Courtney 
follows in the steps of such writers as Dr. 
R. G. Moulton, but in printing tho numerous 
passages he has selected ho walks by himself. 
Whatever may be said of the idea of selec- 
tions, and also of tho need for tho inclusion 
of cortain passages or verses omitted, 
this may be granted, that it is valuable 
to havo tho Old Testament edited for 
literary purposes by a man of cultured 



taste. Elusion acknowledged his debt to 
tho stylo of the Authorized Version, and 
enumerated certain chapters in the Old 

and New Testaments Wnich had specially 

influenced him. Mr. Courtney's book is 
not a small one, and it ; very size is proof, 
according to his judgments, QOl only of 
tho excellence of tho style of the translate 
but also of tho literary art of the authors. 
Tho historical, prophetical, poetical, and 
"wisdom" writings of the Old Tostamont 
aro given in selections, and these writings 
illustrate the high standard of excellence 
to which the men of Israel had attained. 
Short introductory essays are furnished 
by Mr. Courtney on such subjects as ' The 
Composite Structure of the Bible,' ' The 
Origins of Hebraic Culture in Babylon,' 
and ' Wisdom Literature and tho Hellenic 
Spirit ' ; and these are, of course, intended 
to help tho man of literary tastes to an 
understanding of the composition of the 
books. It may be asked, however, why 
Mr. Courtney places the reign of King 
Hammurabi in the year 2500 B.C. Experts 
are not able to specify a definite date for 
the beginning of that reign ; but there is, we 
think, no evidence for any year before 2250. 

Sir Oawain and the Lady of Lys. Trans- 
lated by Jessie L. Weston. Illustrated by 
M. M. Williams. (Nutt.)— Miss Weston 
gives us here two more Gawain stories from 
the manuscripts. They are a fuller version 
of the Middle English ' Gawayne and 
Golagros.' The style of the translation 
is perhaps a little too near the original to 
be very popular, but the stories are good ; 
the fighting is authentic, described by men 
who had seen the " real thing " ; and the 
books are very pretty. We can recommend 
them to those seeking to satisfy their own 
consciences while giving an interesting 
present. A little patience will be amply 
repaid. Perhaps, as in Mr. Joseph Jacobs's 
fairy-tale books, the prefaces should be 
put at tho end. The character of Kay is 
rather late for the stage of development 
at which Miss Weston would put this 
Gawain story. 

British Freeicomcn : their Historical Privi- 
lege. By Charlotte Carmichael Stopes. 
Third Edition. (Sonnenschein.) — This book 
covers a wide period, reaching from the days 
of Cartismandua and Boadicea to the passing 
in August last, of the Acts for qualifying 
women for election to County and Borough 
Councils. It deals with the legal, and 
sometimes also the social, position of 
the queen regnant on the tlirone, the 
queen consort in the palace, the peeress 
in the castle, the county lady in the manor 
house, the trading woman in the shop, the 
craftswoman in the gild, the girl in the 
factory, and the working woman in 
the home. The book is noteworthy for 
the wide range of its sources. Mrs. Stopes 
has vkited the British Museum and the 
Record Office, and she offers sound 
evidence for her discoveries. Here the 
reader has access to books, ancient rolls, 
charters, and MSS., which few have the 
patience to read, or the knowledge to under- 
stand. It is from such stores of knowledge 
that Mrs. Stopes shows us how English- 
women have been queens regnant, queens 
consort, queens regent, peeresses in their 
own right, and the bestowers of peerages on 
their husbands ; how some of them have 
been knights, and one of them a baronet. 
Mrs. Stopes tells, too, how noblo English 
ladies have held the offices of High Sheriff, 
Earl Marshal, High Constable, and many 
another ; and how Englishwomen of humbler 
rank have been overseers of the poor, 
sextons, churchwardens, and one at least 
a parish clerk. We are told that women sat 



in the Saxon witenagemotK, and in a council 
of the realm which was summoned by King 
Edward I. in 1306 to impose a tax ; also 
bow they voted by their attorneys in tho 
election of knights of the shire for Yorkshire 
in 1411 and 1411. The author pursues thk 
part of her subject through the famous 
old cases of Dame Dorothy Paekington and 
the borough of Aylesbury, and Dame 
Elizabeth Copley and the borough of 
Gatton, down to tho case of Chorlton v. 
Lingfl and the other case.-, decided by the 
Court of Common Pleas in 18G8. To the 
last cases Mrs. Stopes devotes six pages, 
which will be of great value to those who 
have not access to the law reports. Not- 
withstanding that Mrs. Stores is herself 
a Scotchwoman, she tells us very little of 
the women of Scotland, or of Wales, Ireland, 
and the Isle of Man. 

The parts of the book which bear on the 
history of our laws and constitution are 
among the most interesting, and it would 
have been a pleasure to discuss some of them, 
but want of space forbids. In conclusion, 
we must add that this new edition contains 
much fresh matter, including a chapter on 
the changes which have taken place since 
the former editions of 1894 ; an index, 
the want of which has been greatly felt ; 
and fuller references to authorities. There- 
fore even those who possess a copy of a 
previous edition will do well to get this new 
one. In view of another edition, we may 
note that on p. 11, 1. 2 from the bottom, for 
" Comiti " we should read Canuti ; and on 
p. 15, 1. 10, " Episcopus " should be Epis- 
copis. 

In the luxurious " National Edition " 
of Dickens Vols. XXVI. and XXVII. are 
occupied by Christmas Stories, Vol. XXVIII. 
by A Tale of Two Cities, and Vol. XXIX. 
by Great Expectations. The ' Christmas 
Stories ' from Household Words and All the 
Year Round are of varying quality, seldom 
showing Dickens at his best, and they did 
not inspire the artists who illustrated them 
to any great efforts. Marcus Stone is the 
artist in ' Great Expectations,' and con- 
tributes one picture (of Lucy Manette and 
her father in prison) to ' A Tale of Two 
Cities.' Though in no way clumsy, Mr. 
Stone's pictures have never impressed us 
as memorable. The frontispiece, which 
shows a heavily bearded i' Pip ' " With 
Estella after all," emphasizes Dickens's 
yielding to popular sentiment in joining 
a couple who/were not really meant to come 
together. An artist has not appreciated his 
opportunities who has missed out Jaggers, 
Wemmick, and Pumblechook. In ' A Tale 
of Two Cities ' Phiz revels in the queer 
characters, and is good in the scenes crowded 
with figures. 

Thr first volume has just appeared of 
The Works of Tennyson, " annotated by 
Alfred, Lord Tennyson, fdited by Hallam, 
Lord Tennyson." This issue is the latest 
addition to " The Eversley Series " (Mac- 
millan), which adds for us a new charm 
evon to familiar classics. Lord Tennyson 
here gives us a first instalment of the 
early poems. The frontispiece is an 
admirable sketch in red of Tennyson 
by G. F. Watts. TI16 Appendix contains 
' Timbuctoo ' ; some suppressed poems ; 
Tennyson's own notes, which are usually 
brief, pungent, and to the point ; and 
a few others, provided by the present 
editor or friends. Of these Edward Fitz- 
Gerald's are the most interesting. The 
ordinary reader of Tennyson will be grateful 
for so much matter of undoubted authen- 
ticity in an agreeable form, but the expert 
student will think that the notes might 
easily havo been improved. Pi of. Churton 



No. 4184, Jan. 4, 1908 



THE ATHENiEUM 



VI 



Collins and other scholars have elucidated 
many points. Wo see no harm at this date 
in dotting a few of the "*'&." Thus the 
original of ' A Character ' is described by 
FitzGerald in the note appended as " a very 
plausible, parliament-like, and self-satisfied 
speaker at the Union Debating Society " 
(at Cambridge). We might add Grant 
Duff's comment : — 

"Sunderland sat for this ' character '—a most 
extraordinary and brilliant person, who lost his 
reason, and ended, I have been told, in believing 
himself to be the Almighty." 
Thackeray wrote (' Pendennis,' " Biogra- 
phical Edition,' p. xxiv) : — 

•' The hero of the Union retired with a diminished 
head before Cookesley. His name is Sunderland, 
and he is certainly a most delightful speaker, but 
he is too fond of treating us with draughts of Tom 
Paine." 

In ' A Dirge ' the " long purples of the dale " 
are given as Vicia cracca, the purple vetch. 
This differentiates them from the " long 
purples" of 'Hamlet,' which have been the 
subject of dispute in our columns, but are 
not considered by any critic, botanical or 
other, so far as we know, to be vetches. 

Old memories of Gaboriau are pleasantly 
recalled by an adequate and neatly pro- 
duced translation, The Blackmailers ( ' Dossier 
No. 113'), in Messrs. Greening's "Lotus 
Library." The story is a good example 
of the author's ingenuity, and fails only 
in the length of the explanations given 
of the reason for the bank robbery. 
M. Lecoq figures in his best style. 

The Liberal Y ear-Book for 1908, being the 
fourth year of issue, roached us early in 
December from the Liberal Publication 
Department. A prolonged examination re- 
vealed many improvements, but no mistakes, 
and the delay in our notice is only flattering 
to the editors. As an example of the trouble 
taken in this compilation, we would note 
the fact that the extraordinary complication 
of the Parliamentary and other franchises 
of the United Kingdom has not prevented 
the statement in a single page of all the 
Scottish Pailiamentary franchises : indeed 
a feat accomplished. Tha' the page con- 
tains no error we should be hardy to affirm, 
but we know no other account so brief ; 
and though the complexity of the law 
prevents its being clear, it would take a 
Scottish registration lawyer to find a blunder 
if there were one. The editors have not, we 
believe, thought it necessary to give a 
similar page to Ireland, in which they are 
wise. The book is primarily intended for 
Liberal politicians, and these as a rule 
leave Ireland to the Nationalists and the 
Tories, neither of whom even profess to 
understand the franchises by which they 
are elected. Specialists in registration law, 
such as one or two Government draftsmen, 
have beon known to differ as to some of the 
Irish franchises, and their difference has 
never, we believe, been cleared up. 

The Manorial Society has issued its 
first publication, Lists of Manor Court Bolls 
in Private Hands, Part I., edited by Mr. 
Alfred L. Hardy. This section includes 
records in the possession of private persons, 
stowards of the manors, or corporate bodies, 
as distinguished from those Court Rolls 
which are in the Public Record Office, the 
British Museum, or other public collections. 
No fewer than twenty-one counties are 
included ; the information is supplied by 
the actual custodians of the rolls, and care- 
fully tabulated with place and date. The 
convenience of such a list for research is 
obvious. It takes us to the very core of 
English life and history, of which there is 
sometimes a steady record for centuries, 



as in the case of Itton Manor in the parish 
of South Tawton, where the Court Rolls 
extend from 1509 to 1823. The ' List ' is 
admirably clear, and constitutes an excellent 
start in the Society's work, since no complete 
return of manorial estates or systematic cata- 
logue of Court Rolls has been as yet com- 
piled. The valuable Introduction, which 
is written by Mr. Charles Greenwood, gives 
a clue to the scattered information available 
in books touching the subject, and points 
out that the earliest Manor Roll at present 
known is dated 1246, and was found by the 
late Prof. Maitland. Earlier ones, however, 
probably exist. The extant manors in 
England and Wales at the present day 
number many thousands, and we con- 
gratulate the Society on occupying so largely 
unworked and useful a field of research. It 
is clear that it possesses workers of vigour, 
and we expect results of interest not only to 
the antiquary, but also to every cultivated 
man. The landed families of England 
should justify their position by extending 
their knowledge of rights and privileges, 
compared with which the records of the 
peerage are often things of yesterday ; 
while the average person might well develope 
a little taste for the local pride and patriot- 
ism which, strangely enough, are now more 
conspicuous in new countries than in Eng- 
land. We commend the Society to our 
readers, and mention once again that its 
address is 1, Mitre Couit Buildings, Temple, 
E.C. 

Val d'Arno and Ariadne Florentina have 
appeared in the " Pocket Edition " of the 
works of Ruskin (George Allen). These 
little volumes are charming in print and 
bindinc ; they are issued by Ruskin's 
accredited publishers, with his latest altera- 
tions and notes ; and, thanks to their 
convenient form, may be preferred by some 
even to the monumental edition issued by 
the same firm, which is a perfect storehouse 
of notes and illustrations by Ruskin and 
by those who are complete masters of all 
details concerning him. 

MM. Hachette & Cie. publish the 
Almanack Hachette and Almanack du Dra- 
pcau, books of reference which combine 
a large amount of useful information with 
a liveliness which is novel on this side of 
the Channel. 

The December number of The Grc.yfriar 
shows the high level of text and illustrations 
which happily pievails in the school of 
Thackeray and John Leech. The ' Struan 
Robeitson Prize Drawing and Holiday 
Work ' makes an interesting paper. 



NOTES FROM PARIS. 

The appearance of a new book by M. 
Anatole France is a feast for the literary 
world of France, and also for foreign nations. 
We French are aware that in England he 
is an author one can read without missing 
the subtle charm of style. We Parisians 
are happy to be able to tell you that three 
new works by him are to appear in print 
at the end of January, February, and March 
respectively : ' Jeanne d'Arc,' ' Pingouins,' 
and ' The Tales of Jacques Tournebroche.' 

By a great favour M. Anatole France has 
kindly given me a glimpse of the subjects 
of the first named books, the piquancy and 
boldness of which innko them, in my belief, 
surpass all that this master of irony has 
written up to the present time. On ' Jeanne 
d'Arc ' the author has worked for three 
years, after having let it ripen for ten. It 
is, many of us think, a real histoiical 
monument whereby he seeks to destroy 
errors swarming in the accounts of that 
time. In particular ho counsels the English 



not to be too proud of having held 
Normandy in spite of Jeanne d'Arc. 
Charles VII., and vassals on the 
whole intelligent beyond their con- 
temporaries, set to work to retake the 
towns in the centre of France, such as 
Orleans and Bouiges, because they were 
rich and essential to the unity of France. 
But Normandy they neglected, though only 
500 English soldiers were placed there for 
its defence. They could have recaptured 
it by a sudden attack, but this piovince 
was so poor that it was not worth while. 
Another error corrected is the idea that 
Jeanne d'Arc was a brilliant captain. That 
she took three English bastilles from the 
town held by her for France was due, 
he thinks, to the fact that the defence was 
so badly conducted that it was impossible for 
her not to be victorious. The intelligent 
priests of that time — and that there were 
such M. Anatole France assures us — did not 
err in judgment when they told the soldiers 
to regard " La Pucelle " as a creature in- 
spired by Heaven, but to treat her military 
acts and commands as those only of a human 
being. 

By extiacts from the trial at Rouen 
published in the Bevue de Paris under the 
title of ' La Dame des Armoises,' which 
made a sensation, one is convinced that all 
is original in the version of M. Anatole France. 
He admits without hesitation the divine origin 
of the saintship of Joan, which none, he 
thinks, can gainsay or disprove. This explains 
all. A saint, according to him, is the out- 
come of a certain train of thought— a fixed 
idea in religion, of the same nature as that 
which in the world of science has created 
our modern sages. The question whether 
religion or science exists or not has little 
or nothing to say to the matter, for accord- 
ing to the need of the times saints and 
sages will continue to appear. This point 
once admitted, then, whether Jeanne d'Arc 
heard or thought she heard " the voices " 
matters nought, for she acted none the less 
from divine motives. Let us then see in 
her but a simple country maid, poor in 
spirit, weak in body, as is common to every 
messenger of God. For God chooses the 
weakest weapons to overthrow the strong. 
Thus David picked three little " pierres 
blanches " out of the stream to fill the sling 
with which he killed Goliath. 

The second work is much more fantastic. 
Through the adventures of the poor " Pin- 
gouins " (anglice penguins), M. Anatole 
France tells the tale of the history of the 
human race, from its zoological origin (after 
Darwin) to the final grand crash which 
awaits future social organizations. The 
most startling ideas, together with the finest 
irony, are scattered in piofusion through 
this charming book, about which I hope 
to write more later. Then I hope also 
to describe the ' Contcs de Jacques Tourne- 
broche,' a third part of Queen Gooscfoot's 
cookshop, of which, you will remember, 
Tournebroche was one of the two heroes. 

I now turn to the interesting doings at 
the Theatre des Arts, whose new manager. 
M. Robert d'Humieres, wishes to express 
sympathy for the English, and also addresses 
himself to authors across the Channel. 
begging them to consider themselves at- 
home in his theatre. On Saturdays he 

hopes to make the Parisian public acquainted 
with the beauties of English literature. 

Picture to yourself our surprise on hearing 
that one news J a] er hafl entirely misunder- 
stood his intention, accusing him of having 
bo little appreciation of English literary art 

as to wish to bring before the public certain 

pieces as chefs-d'eeuvn that are not at all 

in accordance with English taste. This is 
premature, to say the least of it, for the 



It 



T IT E AT II KN\K U M 



No. 4184, Jan. 4. 1908 



"English afternoons" do no! begin till 
after the middle <>f January, and are no1 
yet settled. Aooording to M. d'Humieres 
himself, these afternoons will not only 
show as modern works such as ' Candida ' 
by Bernard Shaw, and 'The Notorious Mrs. 
Ebbsmitb ' and ' Iris.' by Pinero, hut also 
revivals of older pieces like Webster's 
' Duchess of Malti,' and works hy Congreve, 
whoso sparkling dialogue will he a revela- 
tion to the French public, as well as to our 
literary world. M. Robert d'Humieres is 
too clever on artist to ignore the fact that 
the most original ideas of a peo/Te are 
seldom those which are most easily grasped 
by another rare. For him it is difficult 
to relapse into the errors of his predecessors, 
who brought before us dramas which were 
without individuality, lending themselves 
as best they could to French taste. Up to 
the present time, when our theatre managers 
permitted us to take a peep abroad, especi- 
ally at England, they did not give us works 
of originality and style, but merely provided 
adaptations in which the personality of the 
translator revealed itself. Played by French 
actors, the personages are no longer a part 
of the author's thought, and the work 
loses all charactor and individual expression. 
Thus it is that English plays are still pre- 
sented to us, and we are, therefore, forced 
to ask if this is indeed your dramatic art. 
' Raffles,' played this summer at Rejane's, 
and ' Sherlock Holmes,' the new piece of 
the Theatre Antoine, have both had an 
enormous success in Paris ; but it was not 
a success in the highest sense of the word. 
The applause of the public took sides with 
the tricks of the trade, and by such inferior 
methods the popular ta3te is spoilt, and 
they applaud in all good faith what they 
believe to be works of real English value. 
To belittle foreign talent in this way is 
by no means to enhance French genius. 
On the contrary, the systematic desire to 
ignore the different points of view taken by 
other nations is a proof of weakness. 

M. Robert d'Humieres does not appeal 
to the taste of the impresarios nor to the 
general run of those who buy the right of 
translation from foreign authors — rights 
which these sell too willingly at the beginning 
of their career, only to rue it later on. 
Bernard Shaw's plays are distorted in a 
French version. It is true that he is 
pleased to have as his translator a man of 
whom he is able to say : " He is a good 
Socialist." We French deplore the modesty 
(or is it irony ?) of this writer, who paints 
the English with such a characteristic 
brush ; for his genius is thus clouded for 
us, who would like to have the means of 
understanding his works as well as we 
do those of Rudyard Kipling. 

M. d'Humieres is far from offending English 
taste by placing too free an interpietation 
on English dramatic art. On the contrary, 
the new manager of the Theatre des Arts 
wishes to efface the bad impression caused 
in France by the commercial undertakings 
of our impresarios. He wishes to see your 
works put before us without prejudice as to 
period or school. At the same time ho 
makes known to us the circumstances that 
have been instrumental in producing such 
and such a book, and the events that have 
brought forth this or that play. M. 
d'Humieres intends to initiate his audience 
into the manners and customs of your country 
by a means almost unknown in England — 
that of a series of " talks " upon the 
subject. t The representations will there- 
fore be preceded by lectures to be given, 
it is proposed, in French by such men 
as Henry James, Bernard Shaw, Rud- 
yard Kipling, Claude Phillips, Edmund 
Gosse, Wells, &c. — writers who, we hope, 



will through tin • lectun bring clearly 
l» lore as the inmost life of England. They 

will, we trust, teach us the evolution of your 
literature, embracing poetry, works of 
fiction, dramatic art, music from Purcell 
and Bird, the popular ballads of Scotland 
and Ire land and modern light opera. Wishing 
to imitate the experiment successful in 
Paris with Ouse, M. Robert d'Humieres 
intends to have English and American 
authors interpreted in the original by your 
own artists. Most of these are already 
known and appreciated in France, as, for 
example, those who are going to take part 
in ' Candida,' the opening play of the 
English season at the Theatre des Arts. 
It is in this same theatre that Mrs. Patrick 
Campbell is to make her Paris debut in 
March in ' The Moon of Yamato,' a Japanese 
play by M. Robert d'Humieres, which at 
present she is acting in America. From 
these notes you will see that the programme 
of English afternoons, planned on a purely 
artistic basis, will help us to understand 
the intellectual life of England, and give 
the French an opportunity to enlarge their 
ideas of England and the English. C. G. 



THE BOOK SALES OF 1907. 
i. 
The year just closed has been remarkable 
in a literary sense for the unusual number 
of extiemely important manuscripts and 
printed books which, during the course of it, 
have been sold by auction in the London 
rooms. The widspread publicity given to 
the sale of the Shelley Notebooks in Decem- 
ber, 1906, and especially the high prices 
obtained for them as well as for other 
relics of a similar character, may have 
directly suggested the sale of other manu- 
scripts of great importance, unless, indeed, 
it be that a disposition to part with them 
is "in the air." Whatever the truth in this 
respect, there is no doubt that literary 
rarities of the first rank have, during the 
past twelve months, been far more in evi- 
dence than usual ; the prices realized for 
them are unqestionably increasing propor- 
tionately to a demand which is now very great, 
and, contrary to expectation, the supply 
has increased also. Manuscripts are from 
their nature unique, and, compared with 
piinted books, necessarily limited in number. 
Nevertheless they come, and the ordinary 
collector, who can hardly be expected to 
know very much about questions of owner- 
ship, naturally wonders from what source, 
imagining, perhaps, that they have been 
hit upon by some lucky chance, just as 
valuable piinted books sometimes are, when 
least expected. That, however, is a mistake. 
We have only to analyze the results of last 
year's sales to see that almost every one of 
the manuscripts which it has been worth 
while to chronicle has, so to speak, its well- 
known pedigree. For instance, the library 
of Mr. Stuart Samuel, sold at Sotheby's 
on July 1st, contained the original MSS. 
of Pope's ' Essay on Man ' and some inci- 
dental pieces (895/.); White's 'Natural 
History and Antiquities of Selborne ' (750/.) ; 
Shellev's ' Proposal for putting Reform to 
the Voto ' (390/.) ; Tennyson's ^The Brook ' 
(300/. : this sold for no more than 51/. in 
1889) ; two chapters of Thackeray's ' Philip ' 
(240/.) ; Pope's Epistle ' Of Taste ' (199/.) ; 
Dryden's ' Eleonora,' dated 1692 (198/.); 
Tennyson's ' The Northern Farmer ' (155/.) ; 
Burns's 'The Poet's Progress' (152/.); 
' Le Caractere do la Princesse Reine Silvaine,' 
signed by Madame de Maintenon and un- 
published (150/.) ; Lamb's ' Dream Children' 
(108/.); Barham's 'Jackdaw of Rheims ' 
(101/.) ; and others of less importance. Sir 



Henry Mildmay's library, which v..v Bold in 

the same rooniK on April 18th, contained 
era! manuscript Horse, one of which 
realized 1,300/. ; a fifteenth-century MS. 
of ' Le Roman de la Rose' (120/.); and 
others, which, however, are almost lost m 
the long list of works of the kind which have 
been chronioled during the year. The sale 
of the Bronte manuscripts in July will also 
be remembered. Where important manu- 
scripts are preserved is, as a rule, well known, 
and it is seldom indeed that a "discovery," 
in the popular acceptation of the word, is 
announcer!. 

It is different with regard to printed books. 
So far as they are concerned, there is always 
a chance, though a remote one, of something 
out of the common appearing for the first 
time, as, for example, the copy of Byron's 
' Fugitive Pieces,' 1806, which realized 
182/. in May last, and Mrs. Browning's 
' Battle of Marathon,' recently disposed of 
for 60/. (calf extra), both of which I fell 
across myself. Of late, indeed, a consider- 
able number of valuable books have been 
rescued from the half neglect into which 
they had fallen, and there must be many 
more waiting their turn — comparatively 
modern books in all probability, which have 
apparently nothing about them to distin- 
guish them from the ordinary rank and file, 
and are therefore overlooked in the search 
for something obviously out of the ordinary. 
The great days of the old-fashioned book- 
ccllector have, however, gone, for he wanted, 
and still wants, just the very kind of books 
which everybody else desires to have, and 
these are tabulated to a nicety and widely 
known, so that there can be no mistake 
about the matter at all. We might take 
the result of last year's sales as good evi- 
dence of the classes of books which have 
been most in demand for a number of years 
past, and are becoming more difficult to 
acquire day by day by reason of the demand 
there is for them. Mediaeval manuscripts, 
often painted and illuminated, though 
primarily books, are in reality ancient works 
of art, and, as such, much desired. More 
modern manuscripts may or may not 
at f ract attention. It depends upon what 
they are, upon their age, and chiefly upon the 
author in each instance. If a manuscript 
can be brought within the classic literary 
circle, as was the case with both the ' Essay 
on Man ' and ' The Natural History of 
Selborne ' previously referred to, then it is 
regarded as a pearl of great price. Should 
it, on the contrary, be outside the pale, 
written by somebody unknown and about 
nothing in particular, it will go begging. 
So also any printed book entitled to rank as 
an example of early typography, especially 
(so far as this country is concerned) if it is 
connected with one of our own printers, is 
included in a specially desirable class ; 
and the same may be said of early editions 
of all the English classics, particularly 
those dating from the seventeenth century 
or earlier, and also of early illustrated books 
of almost every kind, and of Americana of 
the seventeenth century in particular. To 
these may be added some of the editiones 
principes of the Greek and Latin classics, 
as well as all books which, although they 
may even be in themselves of no special 
interest, derive an artificial importance 
from notes or inscriptions written by 
former owners whose names are widely 
familiar. Books naturally falling within 
any of these divisions are, subject to the in- 
evitable exceptions, becoming scarcer as the 
available copies are slowly, but nevertheless 
surely, absorbed by the public libraries, 
where eventually they rest in peace. On the 
other hand, there is more scope than ever 
for the lover of books who is satisfied 



No. 4184, Jan. 4, 1908 



THE ATHENiEUM 



15 



with what may be called the greater world 
of the little ; who is content to avoid the 
more representative volumes of the kind 
to which attention has been drawn, and 
which, indeed, are rarely found in large 
numbers, even in good private libraries. 
Exceptional volumes such as these apart, 
books have lately become cheaper, for one 
reason or another, than they have been for a 
long time, and the collector of to-day has 
really as wide a field of enterprise as had 
any of his progenitors. They, too, were 
confronted with rarities which they might 
or might not have the means to secure ; 
their taste and desires may have differed, 
but their books, when classified, were very 
much as they are now. 

The sale of the library of Mr. William 
Van Antwerp, held by Messrs. Sotheby on 
March 22nd and 23rd, affords an object 
lesson which it would be difficult to repeat 
effectually. The library was small ; it 
was catalogued in 243 lots only, and yet 
realized the large sum of 16,350/. It was 
essentially a library of early English classics, 
many of extreme rarity, and some of the 
prices broke all previous records. It was 
at this sale that a copy of the original edition 
of Walton's ' Compleat Angler ' sold for 
1,290/., and a copy of Shakspeare's First 
Folio for 3,600/. ; and the books were, 
generally, just of the kind to attract, the 
modern collector of means. I will, there- 
fore, take this sale first. 

The first book to attract attention in the 
report of this sale as given in ' Book-Prices 
Current ' is Allot's ' England's Parnassus,' 
the earliest English anthology, containing 
quotations from Shakespeare, Marlowe, Spen- 
ser, and other celebrated authors, many of 
whom were alive at the time. This small 
8vo, printed in 1600, realized 40/. (morocco 
extra) ; while Arnold's ' London Chroni- 
cles,' beginning " In this booke is conteined," 
n.d. (Antwerp, 1503 ?), sold for 85/. (old 
russia). The ballad ' The Nutbrowne Maide' 
is here printed for the first time. Barbour's 
1 Robert Bruce, King of Scotland,' 8vo, 
(Edinburgh, 1571 ?), the earliest known 
edition, and possibly unique, excited a 
great deal of competition, and was eventually 
bought by Mr. Quaritch for 121/. (morocco 
extra). It came from the Rowfant Library, 
where, indeed, many of the books in this 
collection at one time reposed. The first 
edition of the second part of ' The Pilgrim's 
Progress,' the date torn off (but 1684), 
sold for 80/. (original sheep), and a sound 
copy of the first edition of ' The Holy War,' 
1682, small 8vo, for 100/. (original sheep). 
All these books were, however, completely 
put in the shade by the 700/. fetched by 
the Kilmarnock edition of Burns's ' Poems,' 
1786, 8vo (original blue wrappers, which 
had been cleaned). Only three copies in 
wrappers can be traced. Two Caxtons 
appeared at this sale — ' Cronycles of Eng- 
land,' 1482, small folio, 185/. (imperfect), 
and 'Cicero on Old Age and Friendship,' 
1481, small folio, 600/. (one leaf in facsimile 
and a few defects) ; and a number of 
Shakspeareana, including all the four 
folios, the first of which has already been 
mentioned. A perfect copy of the third 
fetched 650/. (modern calf) ; ' A Mid- 
sommer Night's Dreame,' James Roberts, 
1600, 180/. (mended, morocco extra) ; 'King 
Lear,' 1608, 200/. (morocco); 'The Merry 
Wives of Windsor,' 1619, 120/. ; ' The Rape 
of Lucreece,' 1624, 12mo, 350/. (new vellum), 
and, on the whole, a good copy of tho 
' Poems ' of 1640, with the portrait, 215/. 
(morocco extra), a sum which may be com- 
pared with that realized for the unusually 
fine and perfect copy, in its original sheep- 
skin binding, sold at Sotheby's on tho 14th 
of December last for 260/. — the highest price 



to date. Earl Howe's collection of Shak- 
speareana sold on December 21st did not 
contain this edition of the ' Poems,' many of 
which, by the way, are not by Shakspeare. 
To describe the Van Antwerp collection 
as its importance deserves would render 
it necessary to print a large part of the 
catalogue. The various lots are, however, 
set out fully in 'Book-Prices Current,' 
and to that reference can easily be made. 
It may be mentioned, however, that Gold- 
smith's ' The Traveller,' 1764, the first 
issue, with title-page quite distinct from 
the 1765 edition (see The Athcnccum of 
October 19th last, p, 480), brought 216/. 
(morocco extra) ; Gray's ' Elegy,' published 
at sixpence in 1751, 4to, 205/. (morocco 
extra) ; John Heywood's ' An Hundred Epi- 
grammes,' 1550, small 8vo, 126/. (morocco); 
Hubbard's ' Narrative of the Troubles with 
the Indians,' Boston, 1677, small 4to, with 
the "White Hills" (not "Wine Hills," done 
probably for the London edition), 450/. 
(original sheep) ; Milton's ' Comus,' 1637, 
small 4to, 162/. (morocco) ; ' Purchas his 
Pilgrimes,' 5 vols., 1625-6, 170/. (original 
vellum) ; Sir Philip Sidney's ' Countesse 
of Pembroke's Arcadia,' 1590, small 4to, 
315/. (mended, old boards) ; the first issue 
of the original edition of ' Gulliver's Travels,' 
3 vols., 1726-7, distinguished by the separate 
pagination and the inscription below the 
portrait instead of round it, as is generally 
the case, 132/. (old calf) ; and a very unusual 
book known as ' The Thrie Tailes of the 
Thrie Priests of Peblis,' printed at Edinburgh 
by Robert Charteris in 1603, small 4to, 
120/. It is also worthy of note thai a large- 
paper copy of the first edition of Wycherley's 
' Miscellany Poems,' 1704, folio, with a 
brilliant impression of the artistic portrait, 
fetched as much as 94/. (oiiginal calf, 
rebacked). 

This narration, necessarily far from 
complete, will give a good idea of the 
kind of books which comprised Mr. 
Van Antwerp's library and of the large 
sums obtained for them. It is significant 
that the First Folio of Shakspeare should 
alone have realized far more than the 
whole of the important collection of a mis- 
cellaneous character with which Messrs. 
Sotheby began the year on January 14th. 
As often happens at those rooms, extensive 
collections are sold for a total amount 
averaging 21. or 3/. per entiy in the cata- 
logue. This is a high average when books 
are dealt with in large quantities, but when 
the amounts are evenly distributed, as in 
this instance, there is not much to be said. 
The only books which need be mentioned 
on this occasion were another copy of the 
' Arcadia ' of 1590, which, having the 
epitaph and three leaves in manuscript and 
several others torn or imperfect, sold for 
no more than 165/. (old calf), and Byron's 
' Poems on Various Occasions,' 1807, 8vo, 
38/. (calf, soiled). This work was issued 
in green boards with a pink label on the 
back, and when in that state is worth per haps 
100/. — so much is lost by rebuilding or in 
any way tampering with books like this. 

The library of the late Mr. Samuel Eyres 
Wilson, sold on January 23rd, also at 
Sotheby's, contained a perfect copy of Sir 
Walter Raleigh's ' Discoverie of tho Large, 
Rich, and Bcwtiful Empyre of Guiana,' 
1596, small 4to, which realized 21/. 5*. (in 
morocco) ; Burton's ' Arabian Nig! its,' 
16 vols., with an additional volume of 
illustrations by Letch ford, 1885-8, 26/. (as 
issued) ; and the Kelmscott ' Chaucer,' 
49/. (half canvas boards, as issued). On 
January 24th Messrs. Knight, Frank & 
Rutley sold for 19/. a copy of Dante, 
printed at Florence in 1481, folio, which 
I mention hero because it contained but two 



of the plates. The full complement is 
19 plates, and a copy containing them all 
fetched no less than 1,000/. at Sir Thomas 
Carmichael's sale in 1903. The value of this 
book depends entirely upon the number of 
plates it contains. Later in the month a 
copy of the letter written by Henry VIII. 
in reply to Luther, printed by Pynson in 
1526, brought 51/. (calf). Only two or three 
copies of this edition are known, one 
being in the Amherst Library, which, accord- 
ing to all accounts, is to be sold shortly. 
Lescarbot's 'Nova Francia,' 1609, small 4to, 
also sold for 30/. (old calf, title mounted) 
about this time. It is not, however, till 
February 12th that we come to a really im- 
portant and distinctive sale, when a small 
collection of works illustrating the costumes 
of the British military and naval forces, 
belonging to Major-General Astley Terry, 
realized nearly 1,200/., though the catalogue 
contained but 41 entries. " Hayes's ' Cos- 
tumes,' 55 coloured plates, published by 
Spooner in 1840-43, known as "the oblong 
series," brought the large sum of 135/.; and 
another series of 15 colomed plates, bj r the 
same, published by Graves in 1845-6, 56/. 
No perfect copy containing all the 18 
coloured lithographs of Gauci's ' Costume 
of the British Navy,' 1829, 4to, is known 
to exist. General Terry's had but 15 plates, 
and it fetched 19/. ; while Hull's ' Costume 
of the British Army in 1828,' containing 
the complete set of 72 coloured plates, 
brought 100/. Many other very high prices 
are noticeable, but what has been said 
will give a good idea of the importance 
and rarity of many of these nineteenth- 
century military and naval costume plates. 
Isolated examples are often met with. The 
difficulty is to obtain them in the series, 
the reason doubtless being that from the 
first they were detached from their wrappers 
to be framed and hung up in messrooms 
and elsewhere, thus becoming separated 
and more and more widely distributed as 
time went on. J. Herbert Slater. 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS. 

ENGLISH. 

Theology. 
Adams (J.), Sermons in Syntax ; or, Studies in the Hebrew 

Text, 4/6 net. A book for preachers and students, 
Derry (Bishop of), The Epistle to the Hebrews, if, A 

devotional commentary. 
Drummond (J.), Studies in Christian Doctrine, 10/6 net. 
Howard (Rev. H.), The Raiment of the Soul, 3/6. 
Jones (Father) of Cardiff. By Two Former Curates, 

J. W. W. and H. A. C, 3/6 net. A memoir of the Rev. 

Griffith Arthur Jones, for over thirty years vicar of 

St. Mary's, Cardiff. 
Reid (H. M. B.), A Country Parish, 2/6 net. Studies in 

pastoral theology and Church law. 

Law. 

Powell's Income Tax Laws, 21/ net. 

Woods (W. A. G.) and Ritchie (J.), A Digest of Cases, 
3 vols., 105/. 

Fine Art and Archaeology. 

Antiquary, January, 6rf. 

Chardin (J. B. S.) et Fragonard (J. HA L'tEuvre de, 42/ 
Deux cent treize reproductions. Introduction par 
Armand Dayot, notes par Leandre Vaillal. 

Macquoid (P.), A History of English Furniture. Part XV. 
7/6 net. 

Memorials of Old Dorset, 15/ not. Edited by Thomas 
Perkins and Herbert Pentin in Memorials of the 
Counties of England, with many illustrations. 

Orkney and Shetland Old-lore, January. 

Records of Buckinghamshire, Vol. IX., No. 4. Contains 
also the Proceedings of the Bucks Architectural and 
Archa'ological Society. 

Report of the Committee on Ancient Earthworks and 
Fortified Enclosures. Prepared for presentation to the 
Congress of Archa'ological Societies, July 3rd, 1807. 
Poetry and Drama. 

Benson (S.), Poems. 

Eraser (E.j The Clodhopper: a Development in Verse; 

Book III. True, 3/ net. 
Mann (K.). Old Songs of the Elizabethans, with New Songs 
in Reply, '»'. net. Second Edition.- Stray Sl.in.i-. 

Tudor Facsimile Texts: Impatient Poverty: John the 
Evangelist; King Darius; Lusty Juvenlus; Wealth 
and Health. 

Tudor Facsimile Texts: Folio Series: Massinger'a Believe 

.is Yc List. 
Tudor Facsimile Texts : The Macro Plays, No. I. Man- 
kind ; No. II. Wisdom, or Mind, Will, ami Cndersl Hid- 
ing. All issued for subscribers, and edited bv John S. 

Farmer, 



16 



THE AT II KX/Kl' M 



No. 4184, Jan. 4, 1 



Ill.uknui (1\ W.). I ■ f"r 1 1 »K.l» BotUJOll and 

Academies, 5 nel , , . 

Pordhatn (M .). Mother Earth, 5/ net A proposal for the 
pennanenl reconat ruction of our country an, wltn I re- 
■M b] J. A. Hobson. 

11 1,!, try aiui Biograpky. 

K.ll (Mrs. A. <;.), The Royal Manor of Biohmond. with 



Petersham, ii.iiii, .ui.i Row, : fl net \vnii io lllustra 
thme in colour by Arthur O. Bell 
('iUliion(l).), Sanquhar and the Crichtona An historical 
mi of the connexion of the Crichton family witb 
the Boyal itur^h of Sanquhar, ai contained mainly In a 
leetnra delivered on Sept '•'■ WOT, at Sanquhar. 
House oi Gordon, VoL 11. Edltedbi J. M. Bulloch. 
Record of the Celebration of the Quatercentenary of the 

University of Aberdeen. Edited by P. J. Anderson. 
Records of the Sheriff Court of Aber de e n sh ir e, VoL III. 

Edited i>v David Littlejohn. 
Scottish Historical Keview, January, 2 'C net. 

Geography and Travel. 
Oaiae(W. Ralph Hall), The Cruise of the Port Kingston, 
10 c, lift. The four sections of the volume deal with 
history, commerce, religion, antisocial relatlona 
Maps : Polar Region! : Hie World, showing Physical 

Features, '.>/<*> each. 
Swayne (K), A Woman's Pleasure Trip in Somaliland, 
4/ neU 

Bibliography. 
Book-Prices Current, Part I., 25/6 per annum. 

Philology. 
Year's Work in Classical Studies, 1907, 2/6 net, Edited by 
W. II. D. Rouse. 

School-Books. 
Dryer (C. R.), Lessons in Physical Geography, 6/ net. 
Philips' Modern Atlas for the Use of .Schools in Australasia, 

2/6. Edited by G. Philip. 
Stewart (R. W.), The New Matriculation Sound, 2/6. In 
the University Tutorial Series. 
Anthropology. 
Village Deities of Southern India, 1/3. One of the Madras 
Government Museum publications, with 7 plates. 
Science. 
American Journal of Mathematics, January, 1 dol. 50. 
Bamford (II.) Moving Loads on Railway Underbridges, 

4/6 net. 

Barrett (C), From Range to Sea : a Bird-Lover's Ways, 1/. 

With Preface by Donald Macdonald, and pictures by 

A. II. E. Mattingley. 

Godman (F. du Cane), A Monograph of the Petrels (Order 

Tubinares), Part I., 45/. Illustrated by J. G. Keulemans. 

Green (W. C), The Merchants' Hundredweights Tables, 

3/6 net. 
Guide to the Specimens of the Horse Family (Equidre) 
exhibited in the Department of Zoology, British 
Museum (Natural History), 1/ 
Laurence (E. C), Modern Nursing in Hospital and Home, 

2,6 net. A short course of lectures to probationers. 
Records of the Geological Survey of India, Vol. XXXVI, 

Part I., 1 rupee. 
Transactions of the Royal Scottish Arboricultural Society, 

January, 3/ 
Williamson (A. P. \\\), Magnetism, Deviation of the 
Compass, and Compass Adjustment for Practical Use 
and B. O. T. Exams., 3/6 net. 
Fi Hon. 
Francis (Mrs.), Mathew Strong, 6/ 

Priest, The, and the Acolyte, 5/ net. New Edition, with an 
introductory protest by Stuart Mason. 
General Literature. 
Artists' Almanac for 1908, 6<f. 
Catholic Directory, Ecclesiastical Register, and Almanac 

for 1908, 1/6 net. 
Clerk, The, No. 1, Id. The organ of the National Union of 

Clerks. 
Hindustan Review, December, 1907, 1 rupee. The hundredth 

number. 
Licensed Victuallers' Official Annual, Legal Text-Book, 
Diary, and Almanack, for 1908, 1/ net. "The Blue- 
Book of the Trade," edited by Albert B. Deane. 
Manet's Church Directory and Almanack, 1908, 3/ net. 
Notes and News, No. I., Id. Published in the interests of 

stamp collectors. 
Oliver and Boyd's Edinburgh Almanac and National Re- 
pository for 1908, 6/6 net. 
Remington Calendar and Pocket Diary for.1908. 

Pamphlets. 
Mackinder (H. J.), The Development of Geographical Teach- 
ing out of Nature Study, 6rt. net. An address. 
Radford (Mrs. G. II.), The Courtenay Monument in Colyton 
Church. Reprinted from the Transactions of the Devon- 
shire Association for the Advancement of Science, 
Literature, and Art. 
Richmond (Mrs. E.), A Natural Education, 3d. A lecture 
on the co-education of boys and girls. 

FOREIGN. 

Law. 
Esiiic in (A.), Precis eiementaired'Histoire du Droit francais: 
Revolution, Consulat, et Empire, 8fr. 

Fine Art and Archaeology. 

Beyli6 (General L. de), 1'iome et Samara: Voyage archeo- 
logjque en Birmanie et en Mesopotamia. One of the 
Publications de la Society francai.se des Fouilles areheo- 
logiimes, illustrated with many tine plates. 

Digonnet (F.), Le Palais des Panes d'Avignon. Also illus- 
trated, but on a smaller scale. 

Rfja (M.), I/Art chez lea Foua, 3fr. 50. Second Edition. 
History and Biography. 

Blok (P. J.), Qeachiedenia van bet nederlandschc Volk, 
Part VIII., 10m. 50. 

*»* All Books received at the Office up to Wednesday 
Morning will be included in this List unless previously 
noted. Jhiblishers are requested to state prices when 
sending Books. 



Kitoarj (Bossip. 

The articles which Mr. II. O. Arnold' 

Forster, MP., has recently contributed 

to The Standard will be published by 

Messrs. Smith A Elder in book form before 

Parliament reassembles, under the title 
' English Socialism To-day : its Teaching 
and its Aims Examined.' The object 
of the book is to explain in simple lan- 
guage the character of the Socialist 
doctrines which are now being taught 
to the people of England by the Social 
Democratic Federation, the Independent 
Labour Party, and the Fabian Society. 

Another book which Messrs. Smith 
& Elder will publish about the same date 
as Mr. Arnold-Forster's volume is Mr. 
Frederic Harrison's ' My Alpine Jubilee, 
1851-1907.' Mr. Harrison was the guest 
of the Alpine Club at their recent Jubilee, 
and at their request has collected some 
pieces that he wrote on mountaineering 
from his own experience, which preceded 
the origin of the Club. Mr Harrison has 
prefixed to the book some letters which he 
wrote to his wife and daughter during a 
visit to Switzerland last year. A portrait 
of the author will be the frontispiece. 

Messrs. Macmillan & Co. promise 
' The Autobiography of Montagu Burrcws,' 
edited by his son, which should be of 
exceptional interest ; ' James Thomson,' 
in " English Men of Letters," by Mr. 
G. C. Macaulay; and 'The Story of the 
Guides,' by Col. G. J. Younghusband. 

Two well-known series of the same 
publishers are to have notable additions. 
Mr. Morley's ' Life of Cobden ' and Prof. 
Ker's ' Epic and Romance ' are taking on 
the " Eversley " crimson ; while ' Lyrical 
Poems of T. E. Brown,' selected by Mr. 
H. F. Brown and Mr. H. G. Dakyns, and 
four ' Plays of vEschylus,' rendered by 
Mr. E. D. A. Morshead, are to appear in 
the " Golden Treasury " form. 

The two new volumes of the "National 
Edition " of Dickens to be published on 
the 15th inst. will be ' Edwin Drood ' and 
' Reprinted Pieces.' To the usual con- 
tents of the latter volume will be added 
Dickens's contributions to the Morning 
Chronicle, Daily News, Times, Athenceum, 
Benllei/s Miscellany, Hood's Magazine, 
Douglas Jerrold's Magazine, The Keep- 
sake, The Cornhill, and The Atlantic 
Monthly ; his introductions to Adelaide 
Procter's ' Legends and Lyrics,' Over's 
' Evenings with a Working Man,' ' Life 
of Grimaldi,' and ' Religious Opinions of 
Chauncy Hare Townshend ' ; and the 
novelist's early piece ' Sunday under 
Three Heads,' most of which are included 
for the first time in a collected edition of 
his writings. 

On the 15th of February will be pub- 
lished the two volumes of ' Miscellaneous 
Papers frcm The Examiner, Household 
Words, and All the Year Bound ; Plays and 
Poems.' Most of the articles and sketches 
have never before been revealed as the 
work of the novelist. Some ninety con- 
tributions to Household Words have been 
secured through Mr. R. C. Lehmann's 



courtesy in placing at the disposal of 

M- Mrs. Chapman ft Hall the contributors' 
tx ok of that periodical. 

The volumes will contain an Introduc- 
tion by Mr. B. W. Matz, the editor of 
The Dirkensian, who has arranged the 
material, and generally supervised the 

publication, of this handsome edition, 
and supplied the bibliographical notes to 
each book. Twenty pictures, by Phiz, 
Leech, Cruikshank, E. M. Ward, Clarkson 
Stanfield, and other artists, and repro- 
ductions from contemporary prints, have 
been chosen to illustrate the text. 

The Stuarts engage a large part of 
The Scottish Historical Review for January. 
There are two Queen Mary papers : one 
on her relations with Maitland of Lething- 
ton — a defence of the Secretary : the 
other, Mr. Henderson's reply to Mr. 
Lang on Casket Letter No. II. Prof. 
Terry edits Allan Cameron's narrative of 
the end of the '15, an important con- 
temporary text. For the '45 the career 
of a Border Jacobite, Henry Ker of 
Graden, is sketched. Other contents in- 
clude a Hebridean legend from Campbell 
of Tiree's MSS. ; Bishop Dowden's notes 
on Glasgow bishops ; Prof. Sandys's 
critique on George Buchanan ; and 
Dr. William Wallace's statement on the 
proposed Scots History Chair. 

The Publishers' Circular annual summary 
of classified books is out. New books 
in 1907 reached 9,914, or 1,311 more than 
in 1906. Fiction has decreased slightly, 
but increase is shown in Religion and 
Philosophy, Law, History and Biography, 
Poetry, and Medicine ; while Arts, 
Sciences, and Illustrated Works have 
risen from 452 new books and 47 new 
editions to 863 and 246. 

A definitive reissue of the novels and 
tales of Mr. Henry James, with prefaces 
by the author, is announced for early 
publication by Messrs. Scribner. This 
" New York Edition " is to consist of 
twenty-three volumes, and Mill contain 
all of his work that Mr. James regards as 
of permanent value. 

Mr. Kipling is writing a .series of 
articles on his recent experiences in 
Canada. These will shortly be published 
by The Morning Post under the title of 
' Letters to the Family.' 

Early this month Messrs. Brown, 
Langham & Co. will publish 'Going through 
the Mill,' by Mrs. Gerald Paget, which 
is neither a novel nor a volume of essays, 
but borrows a little from each form. It 
purports to describe the experiences of a 
lady of fashion who, tired of the daily 
round of London life, attempts to follow 
out the teaching of her ideal. Incident- 
ally the author indulges in some plain 
speaking upon many interesting topics. 

The same firm will also have ready in a 
few weeks new editions of Mr. Lacon 
Watson's ' Benedictine ' and ' Reflections 
of a Householder.' ' Benedictine ' has 
been so much altered as to be virtually a 
new book. 

The annual meeting of the New Spalding 
Club was held last week in Edinburgh. 



No. 4184, Jan. 4, 1908 



THE ATHENiEUM 



17 



A list of ten works approved by the 
Council for publication by the Club was 
submitted in the Secretary's report. 
These include a third volume of the 
' Musa Latina Aberdonensis,' a second 
volume of tho ' Records of Old Aberdeen,' 
a volume of ' Selections from the Records 
of the County cf Banff,' and the long- 
promised collection of ' Folk-Music of the 
North-East of Scotland,' edited by Mr. 
Gavin Greig. Prof. Sanford Terry has sug- 
gested that a Club volume supplementary 
to his ' Albemarle Papers ' might be based 
on official documents in the Public Record 
Office which throw light on the state of 
Scotland between 1748 and 1760, and to 
this suggestion the Council have given 
their assent. 

The business carried on by Mr. Elliot 
Stock for many years in Paternoster Row 
has been disposed of to Mr. Robert Scott. 
The transfer takes place this week. Mr. 
Stock will retain a part in the management, 
and the members of the staff will be 
unchanged. 

The death last Tuesday of the Rev. 
Edgar Sanderson in his seventieth year 
removes a well-known writer of popular 
history. His ' History of the British 
Empire ' has reached a twentieth edition, 
and his book on ' The Creed and the 
Church ' attained a fifth in 1892. 

The week's obituary also includes the 
name of Mr. Charles Peters, who died 
at Peaslake on Sunday last at the age of 
fifty-three. He was a busy and genial 
journalist. He had been editor of The 
GirVs Own Paper (which was his own idea) 
since 1879, and previously sub-editor of 
The Quiver and CasselVs Family Magazine. 
He was one of the promoters, and the first 
Secretary, of Trinity College, London, 
a man of generous and kindly nature who 
will be much missed by his friends and 
fellow-workers. 

Trinity College, Cambridge, has by 
the will of Sir W. G. Pearce become 
entitled to a sum of 400,000?., his wife, 
who had a life interest in the bequest, 
having survived him by less than two 
months. That the University, which 
is hampered by lack of funds, should, 
rather than the best -endowed college at 
Cambridge, have been the recipient of 
this great sum is a natural reflection. 
Perhaps Trinity, which has already added 
to literature some admirable books by its 
Clark Lectureship, will see to the making 
of a Professor of English or of Poetry. 

We are sorry to notice the death, on 
Monday week last, cf Mr. John C. Nimmo, 
once a well - known publisher. Mr. 
Nimmo was especially associated with the 
issue cf handsome editions of books of 
permanent value. He brought out, for 
instance, the excellent : Border Waverley,' 
with etchings and Mr. Lang's notes. 

We have also to regret the death of Mr. 
W. M. Thompson, the editor of Reynolds's 
Newspaper, who was first connected with 
the Belfast News Letter and the Standard. 
Mr. Thompson was a vigorous exponent 
of modern ideas of democracy. 

We are informed by Mr. Burdctt- 
Coutts, M.P., that the statement in our 



last issue that " Mr. Charles Osborne 
has been entrusted with the task of com- 
posing a biography of the late Baroness 
Burdett-Coutts " is incorrect and un- 
authorized. 

A lecture on ' Wayfaring Life in 
Mediaeval Ireland ' was delivered last 
week before the National Literary Society, 
Dublin, by Mr. H. Egan Kenny. Mr. 
Kenny has gleaned industriously amongst 
the fragmentary documents that remain 
dealing with the period between 1100 and 
1600, and from these he was able to 
construct an interesting account of the 
condition of the country, its exports — 
Ireland was then one of the chief 
granaries of Europe — its inhabitants, and 
the state of civilization towhich it attained 
during the centuries succeeding the period 
of its greatest literary and artistic achieve- 
ment. One of the features of Ireland's 
life in the Middle Ages was the emigration 
of her scholars, who drifted to the schools 
of the Continent and to Oxford and Cam- 
bridge. 

A course of training for the Teacher's 
Diploma of the University of Dublin will 
begin this term in Alexandra College. 
This ccurse has been instituted with the 
object of preparing Irishwomen for the 
teaching profession, and of raising the 
standard of the instruction given in Irish 
secondary schools for girls. 

We hear that the fourth volume cf the 
memoirs of Madame de Boigne will 
contain some interesting passages on the 
death of Talleyrand, but that it is other- 
wise inferior to the second, and hardly 
equal even to the third. As regards the 
death of Talleyrand, it is possible that 
those who have found Madame de Boigne's 
story interesting may have overlooked 
the passages relating to the same event 
to be found in other works. The fate 
of Talleyrand's brain in the gutter of the 
Rue Duphot is not forgotten by English 
readers. 

The Athenceum once pointed out that 
it was difficult to induce some English 
journalists to correct a misspelling of the 
name of the present Prime Minister of 
France in face of the fact that an accent 
was placed on the first syllable in the 
collected edition of his works, and by 
the greatest of French critics in the 
Revue des Deux Mondes. Since the death 
of M. Brunetiere the spelling cf the name 
has been corrected in La Revue, and we 
now hear that M. Brunetiere had informed 
the printers that the error was to be left 
unaltered, so that correction was im- 
possible until a change of editor occurred. 

We regret to hear of the death of the 
distinguished French journalist M. Jean 
Joseph Comely, at the age of sixty-two. 
M. Comely studied medicine, but did 
not possess the means to obtain his 
medical degree ; and after a short turn 
at teaching, he took up journalism. He 
was associated with the Figaro until the 
death of Villemessant, the founder. For 
a time he contributed to the Gaulois, and 
then started an " organe ardemmont 
legit imiste," Le Clairon, which lasted for 
three years. For a long time he con- 



tributed to Le Matin. He then returned 
to the Gaulois, but his views of the 
Dreyfus affair compelled him to retire, and, 
after a short connexion with the Figaro, 
he became a member of the staff of the 
reorganized Siecle. He was the author 
of several volumes, notably ' L'CEil en 
Diable,' 1878 ; ' La France et son Armee,' 
1887 ; and ' Rome et le Jubile de Leon 
XIII.,' 1888. M. Comely was born on 
January 15th, 1845. 

Another veteran French journalist, 
M. Adrien Barbus-se, died on Monday last 
at Hyeres. He was long associated with 
Le Siecle, and when nearly sixty years of 
age joined the staff of the Figaro, where 
he remained for ten years. He started a 
French journal in London under the title 
of V International, and wrote a number 
of novels and theatrical pieces. One of 
the latter, a drama with the title ' L' Affaire 
Coverley,' was successfully produced at 
the Ambigu in Paris. 

The well-known Leipsic publisher and 
bookseller Herr Karl W. Hiersemann 
announces for early publication Dr. Kon- 
rad Burger's supplement to Hain and 
Panzer, ' Beitrage zur Inkunabelbiblio- 
graphie,' in which will be recorded, we 
hope, the numerous discoveries made by 
English booksellers and bibliographers 
during the last few years. 

Few Parliamentary Papers of general 
interest to our readers have been recently 
published, but we may note the issue cf a 
Memorandum on the Study of History in 
Scottish Schools {\\d.). 

SCIENCE 



A Bird Collector's Medley. By E. C. 

Arnold. (West, Newman & Co.) 
Inasmuch as a bird collector generally 
makes it his business to acquire a far 
wider knowledge of his subject than his 
detractors can boast, we are hardly sur- 
prised to find in Mr. Arnold an admir- 
able apologist for what bird lovers regard 
as a pernicious hobby. He writes in 
attractive style, and though the con- 
sciousness of having the weight of public 
opinion against him makes his debating 
tone somewhat defiant, he advances 
many very specious arguments His case 
is the stronger because he dissociates 
himself entirely from methods of indis- 
criminate slaughter and other vices of the 
worse type of collectors. In discussing 
the question of bird protection Mr. 
Arnold is even prepared to accept certain 
self-denying ordinances as a basis of 
compromise. Indeed, he is in favour 
of drastic measures of reform so far as 
they concern the millinery trade, pro- 
fessional bird-catchers, game-preservers, 
and kindred spirits. But when he writes, 
" I think that County Councils should 
specially protect throughout the year 
certain birds in real danger of exter- 
mination," we can hardly believe 1 his 
ingenuous advice to be given in good faith. 
He is of course aware — and alludes (<> the 
fact— that the County Councils have long 
possessed and exercised this power under 



is 



T II E A Til KX.K D M 



N'u. 4184, Jan. 1. 1908 



the Wild Birds' Protection Acts, yet 

many «>f his own exploits as described by 
hiniM'li' have been planned and oarried 
out in absolute disregard of such orders. 
His proposal in this respect is merely 
adding insult to injury. As lie puts the 
case, their is 

"a small class of birds which still breeds 
sparingly in the British Isles, and whose 
numbers, in two cases at all events, nro 
unlikely ever to bo recruited from abroad. 
Those two are the bearded tit and the Dart- 
ford warbler ; and the others that belong 
to somewhat the same class are the great 
bed grebe, the dotterel, the roseate tern, 
and the chough. These birds need protec- 
tion badly, and it is not too late to give it 
them. If the existing laws concerning the 
close season were rigorously enforced, three 
of them would be protected enough, as they 
leave this country in the autumn. Special 
measures should be taken in the case of the 
first two and the last." 

A little later there is the assurance, 
"If I meet a Dartford warbler, it is to 
me a sacred bird." Now elsewhere in 
this " medley " of his Mr. Arnold devotes 
two pages to telling every detail of his 
prolonged and finally successful efforts 
to shoot specimens of this rarity, whose 
sanctity became established only after 
the accomplishment of the quest. This 
attitude is explained in the Introduction, 
where we read that the collector of Mr. 
Arnold's type, who stuffs his own birds, 
and does not accumulate an unlimited 
number of specimens in the form of skins, 

" is usually contented with one pair of any 
given species, if only because he has no 
room wherein to stow away a larger number ; 
and when he has once secured a couple, the 
remaining members of the tribe may run 
the gauntlet of his ambush with impunity." 

Thus Mr. Arnold considers it justifiable 
in his own case to obtain just one pair 
even of those species which he himself 
shows to be in urgent need of special 
protection. Crimine ab uno disce omnes. 
Few collectors show any genuine con- 
sideration in the case of a rare bird, what- 
ever their professions may be. There 
is always the thought, "If I do not get 
it, some one else will," and the chance 
seems too good to be missed. If a 
collector's own needs are satisfied in that 
one direction, he will often generously 
bethink him of the requirements of some 
friend — one good turn deserves another 
— and so it goes on. Even if he does 
draw the line at his own pair, probably 
many lives are sacrificed before he is 
satisfied with his specimens, especially if 
the sexes are indistinguishable before 
they come to hand. Mr. Arnold tells us 
that he has " no desire to hold a brief 
for the type of man who buys his speci- 
mens from a dealer," and points out the 
infinite harm arising from that prevalent 
practice. In such cases, however, there 
is at least a likelihood that the rarer 
individuals are supplied from abroad, 
whereas the man who shoots all his own 
birds points with pride to the fact that 
they are all " British killed." To reduce 
the matter to its logical conclusion, it 
is clear that long before every such 
enthusiast in the kingdom has contented 
himself with his single pair of, say, Dart- 



ford warblers, that particular species will 

be lost to the British fauna. 

Birds of prey and the raven are alluded 
to as a class reduced to the verge of 
extinction. It is a pity, of course, that 
this state of things cannot be stopped; 
but since it cannot, " the killing of an 
odd bird or so by collectors is a matter 
of very small moment, after all." Now 
it is notorious that in many cases the 
destruction of raptorial birds and the 
taking of their eggs are against the distinct 
orders of enlightened landowners Mis- 
taken zeal on the part of the gamekeeper 
is responsible for a great deal, but the 
mischief is much aggravated by the 
amateur collector — pace Mr. Arnold, the 
average amateur collector — who has made 
it worth the man's while to risk the dis- 
obedience. 

Of such birds as the ruff, the avocet, 
the black-tailed godwit, the black tern, 
the bittern, and the bustard, Mr. Arnold 
remarks that drainage and land-reclaiming 
have banished them for ever as breeding 
species. " The shooting," he says, 

" of such stragglers as turn up on migration 
in the autumn does not make the slightest 
difference to the chance of their breeding in 
England again. They belong to another 
branch of the family, with another habitat 
and another breeding area." 

That is as it may be, and Mr. Arnold had 
no scruples about dispatching a bittern 
which once " blundered up " in front of 
him in the Fen country ; but the fact 
remains — as he himself tells us — that, 
according to a persistent rumour, these 
splendid birds have been once again 
breeding successfully in their ancient 
haunt. Where, then, did the new stock 
come from, if not from another habitat 
and another breeding area ? 

In dealing with the next class of birds 
Mr. Arnold is on more defensible ground. 
The acquisition of " accidentals " — out- 
side the close season — seems to us the 
most harmless feature of the collecting 
hobby. It is argued that 

" there is no chance of their becoming 
British species in the proper sense of the 
term ; they are mostly common enough in 
their real habitat, and the shooting of these 
odd birds makes no difference whatever 
to the chance of their appearing in Eng- 
land another year. They have got sepa- 
rated from their species and proper home, 
and are doomed. I say, without hesitation, 
that the best fate that can befall them is to 
be shot by some one who can appreciate their 
beauties." 

Many a new species woidd undoubtedly 
escape observation, and could not be 
positively identified, but for the shot 
that lays it low, and the cause of science 
is advanced to that extent. There arc 
museums to be supplied, and Mr. Arnold 
shoots every blue-throat he comes across 
to present it to such institutions. Against 
this kind of slaughter the outcry is, 
perhaps, ill - considered, and apt to do 
real harm by confusing the main issue. 
These prizes are not picked up without 
an infinite amount of patience and ob- 
servation. The real point is that the 
collector who confines his attention to 



these waifs and stray- need not be taken 
into consideration, for he does not exist. 

Finally, referring to the bulk of our 
commoner birds, Mr. Arnold says : — 

" I doubt whether any of these have 
become rarer in recent years. The establish- 
ment of the existing close season seems to 
have just met the case so far as they are 
concerned. Birds like hawfinches and gold- 
finches are unquestionably on the increase 
in nearly every part of England." 

This is probably true, but we fear that we 
must not look to collectors and other 
kinds of human raptorials to restore the 
balance of nature, which has been so 
much disturbed by the disappearance 
of the birds of prey. It is just those 
species that are in danger of becoming 
too numerously represented which escape 
the attentions of collectors. Moreover, it 
is an open secret that among the latter the 
so-called close season is evaded on every 
possible occasion, for the reason that 
specimens taken in full breeding plumage 
are always preferred to those killed during 
the rest of the year. 

Meanwhile, however, Mr. Arnold and 
most of the more public -spirited collectors 
are prepared to support any scheme for 
reserving a few well-chosen sanctuaries 
of the type of the Fame Islands and 
Wicken Fen, where birds may breed with- 
out any interference. Whether it would 
be practicable, as he suggests, to include 
the New Forest, is extremely doubtful 
so long as gipsies are free to roam at 
large there. 

Mr. Arnold, in defence of his favourite 
pastime, is unfortunately able to score 
several neat points at the expense of 
some of his critics, whose " astounding 
simplicity " delivers them into his hands ; 
while he has his rejoinder ready for the 
" eminent naturalist, who has possibly 
amassed a fine collection in his youth, and 
has now taken up the fashionable cry, 
' Why can't he be content to use only 
his field-glasses ? ' " In fact, Mr. Arnold 
is thoroughly in earnest with respect to 
his own etliical standpoint, and if it is 
not unassailable, it at any rate deserves 
a measure of respect. 

The thick-and-thin bird protector will 
certainly lay aside the book with a feeling 
of intense exasperation at the circum- 
stantial recital of the various captures 
and the gloating thereupon. But pre- 
sumably Mr. Arnold has not sought to con- 
ciliate such people, and he has produced 
a volume which will not fail to delight 
those of his own way of thinking. He is 
an artist of no mean order, as is evident 
from the twenty full-page illustrations, 
some of which are beautifully coloured. 
Possibly his pencil and brush will one day 
wean him from the gun. We wonder 
why he speaks more than once of the 
lesser black-headed gull. 

If for no other reason, we shall remember 
this book for the unconscious humour 
of a truly Gilbertian paradox that we 
have culled from a chapter on bird pre- 
serving : " One's efforts to preserve a 
bird should begin the moment it is shot." 



No. 4184, Jan. 4, 1908 



THE ATHENAEUM 



19 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL NOTES. 

M. Geokges Coubty communicated to a 
recent meeting of the Society of Anthro- 
pology of Paris a preliminary note to a 
study of the petroglyphs in various parts 
of tho world as the first manifestations of 
human thought, from which he hopes to 
draw some general conclusions. M. Manou- 
vrier furnished the measurements of the 
crania and other bones found in the dolmen of 
Menonville (Seine-et-Oise) by MM. Fouju 
and Lemaire, including one trepanned 
skull. M. Nippgen read a memoir on the 
origin and period of the borrowing of 
ancient German words by the Finnish lan- 
guages of the Baltic, founded on the work of 
Setala. M. Alexandre Schenk, Professor of 
Anthropology in the University of Lausanne, 
made a communication on the populations 
of Switzerland from the Palaeolithic period 
to the Gallo-Helvetian epoch, in which he 
gave a table classifying the remains of 
prehistoric and protohistoric times of 
Switzerland belonging to the Palaeolithic, 
Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze, and Iron 
Ages, and the various subdivisions of those 
ages. Dr. Wateff of Sofia recorded a 
curious series of observations of pigmentary 
patches on the skin of Bulgarian children, 
with microscopic preparations, showing that 
the origin of the pigment is somewhat 
deeply imbedded in the skin, and is not 
wholly superficial. M. Louis Lapicque fur- 
nished a diagram, constructed on a loga- 
rithmic scale, showing in a graphic manner 
the relations between the weight of the 
body and that of the brain in various species 
of animals. 

The School of Anthropology of Paris 
has now completed tho thirtieth year of 
its existence, having been established in 
1876, and has celebrated the occasion by 
the publication of an interesting and useful 
record, having for frontispiece a portrait 
of Broca, the founder of the school, which 
was recognized as of " public utility by a 
law of 1889. 

Dr. Thulie, the present Director of the 
School, is the author of the history of its 
progress contained in the volume, and he 
mentions that the first occasion within his 
knowledge in which the word " antliro- 
pology " was used, in the sense that we now 
give to it, was at a banquet in 1800 to 
organize a society of observers of man, 
when a toast was drunk to the progress of 
anthropology. In 1839 Seyres, who was 
then Professor of the Natural History of 
Man, added to the title of his professorship 
that of Professor of Anthropology, in which 
he was succeeded by Quatrefages in 1855. 
The School of Anthropology was organized 
by a society for tho teaching of the anthro- 
pological sciences founded by Broca in 
1875, and claims to be the earliest of all 
similar foundations, and to be more complete 
in its organization than any other, though 
it still wants adequate means to expand its 
teaching. To this paper is appended an 
account of the several professorships, the 
p'-r.sons by whom they have been held, and 
the subjects which have been treated in 
successive years. This is followed by a 
bibliography of the anthropological works 
of each of the professors of the school, 
beginning with Broca, the titles of whose 
memoirs (1861-79) alone occupy twelve 
pages, a number only equalled by thoso of 
tho late M. Gabriel de Mortillet (1851-98). 
This list adds an element of permanent 
value to the publication. 

To Man for Docembor Prof. Naville con- 
tributes an interesting account of tho ex- 
cavations at Doir-el-Bahari during the 
scHson 1906-7, which brought that work 
to a close, aftor it had occupied the Egypt 



Exploration Fund since 1893, with an 
interruption of a few years. It has com- 
pletely disclosed the plan of the funerary 
temple of Mentuhetop II., no other temple 
of a similar type having been discovered in 
Egypt. 

Mr. Andrew Lang comments on the pro- 
hibition to seethe a kid in its mother's milk, 
which occurs thrice in the Old Testament. 
His view, as we understand him, is that the 
injunction is not against boiling milk, or 
against cooking flesh in it, or against boiling 
a kid in milk at large. Any flesh may be 
boiled in milk ; any milk may be boiled ; 
any kid may be boiled in any milk but that 
of its own dam, as far as the rule goes. He 
traces it to a sentiment of compassion and a 
feeling against brutality towards animals, 
and does not accept Dr. Frazer's theory, 
which had been independently suggested by 
Mr. Marcel Mauss. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee 
of the British Association has selected for 
special notice twenty-one contributions to 
anthropology from the tran?actions of thir- 
teen local affiliated societies during the year 
ended May 31st, 1907. The Somersetshire 
Archaeological and Natural History Society 
and the Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural 
History and Antiquarian Society each con- 
tribute three papers to the fist. The 
Somersetshire papers are by Mr. Bulleid 
on a prehistoric boat found at Shapwick, 
by Mr. St. George Gray on the stone circle 
on Withypool Hill, and by both those authors 
jointlyron the Glastonbury Lake village. The 
Dumfriesshire papers are by Mr. J. Barbour 
on the excavations of Lochrutton Lake 
dwelling, by Mr. J. Corrie on the Loch Urr 
crannog, and by Mr. J. Lennox on excava- 
tions at the site of the monastery of Dumfries. 
Two papers in The Essex Naturalist are by 
Mr. F. W. Reader on the pile-dwelling site 
at Skitts' Hill, and by Mr. W. Cole on some 
"red hills." Mr. Meyrick contributed his 
annual anthropometric report and an account 
of the opening of a barrow near Manton to 
the Marlborough College Natural History 
Society. Mr. Barnes and Mr. Brodrick 
sent a paper on a recently discovered 
skeleton in Scoska Cave, and Mr. G. T. Vine 
one on science and child-study, to the South- 
port Society of Natural Science ; and Mr. 
L. Peringuet a paper on rock engravings 
of animals and hitman figures, the work of 
aborigines, and Mr. W. L. Sclater on some 
recently discovered inscribed stones, to the 
South African Philosophical Society. The 
other papers, each contributed to a separate 
local society, are by Sir John Evans, on a 
recent Palaeolithic discovery near Rickmans- 
worth. to the Hertfordshire Natural History 
Society ; by Mr. W. G Clarke on the classi- 
fication of Norfolk flint implements, to the 
Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Society ; 
by Mr. T. J. Beeston on rock dwellings 
at Drakelow and Blakeshall Common, 
to the Worcestershire Naturalists' Club ; 
by the Rev E. M. Cole on Roman re- 
mains at Filey, to the Yorkshire Geological 
Society ; by Mr. J. Kewloy on a cinerary 
urn from Balahot, to the Isle of Man Natural 
History and Antiquarian Society ; by Dr. 
J. Lyoll on some aspects of tho new cranio- 
locy, to the Perthshire Society of Natural 
Science ; and by Mr. W. J. Knowles on 
stone-axe factories near Cushondall, to the 
Belfast Naturalists' Field Club. Though 
not so numerous as in some previous years, 
these papers record much original research. 
Prof. Dr. R. Martin of Zurich has con- 
tributed to the German Anthropological 
Society a system of physical anthropology 
and anthropological bibliography, which 
lias beon published in vol. xxxviii. of the 
Korrcspondcnzbhilt of that society. In a 
preliminary note he reviews the many 



attempts at classification which have been 
made by previous writers, and shows himself 
fully conversant with all that has been 
written in this country on that subject. 



ATTIS AND CHRIST. 

Trinity College, Cambridge, Dec. 18, 1907. 

In my book ' Adonis, Attis, Osiris,' I 
followed the learned Church historian Mon- 
signore Duchesne in adducing evidence that 
in early days the Christian Church at Rome 
and elsewhere celebrated Easter at the spring 
equinox, which the ancients reckoned to 
fall on the 25th of March. Further, I pointed 
out, what Monsignore Duchesne omitted to 
notice, that, if we are right in this view, the 
Christians at Rome must have been cele- 
brating the death and resurrection of Cln-ist 
at the very same time when the heathen were 
celebrating the death and resurrection of 
Attis ; for these solemn rites of Attis, includ- 
ing an effigy of the dead god tied to a tree 
like Christ to the cross, had been annually 
solemnized at Rome centuries before the 
establishment of Christianity. This remark- 
able coincidence appeared to me to furnish 
a sufficient ground for conjecturing that the 
Church had purposely timed its Easter 
festival to coincide with the similar pagan 
festival for the sake of diverting the devotion 
of the heathen from Attis to Christ. A 
strong confirmation of this theory is supplied 
by a passage in an anonymous Cliristian 
work of the fourth century a.d., to which 
my learned friend Prof. Franz Cumont of 
Brussels has just called my attention. He 
had himself pointed the passage out, and 
emphasized its significance, in an article 
' La Polemique de l'Ambrosiaster contre les 
Paiens,' published in the Revue d'Histoire 
et de Litterature religieuses, viii. (1903), 
p. 419. I much regret that both the ancient 
passage and Prof. Cumont's article were 
unknown to me when my book was written, 
otherwise I would gladly have cited both 
to confirm the inference I had independently 
drawn from the coincidence and the resem- 
blance of the two festivals. 

As the testimony of this anonymous 
Christian writer is of some interest, and is 
probably known to few Enslish readers, I 
will quote it in full from Migne's ' Patro- 
logia Latina,' vol. xxxv. col. 2279. The 
work from which it is extracted bears the 
title of ' Quaestiones Veteris et Novi Testa- 
menti,' and is printed with the works of 
Augustine, though internal evidence is said 
to show that it cannot be by that Father, 
and that it was written three hundred years 
after the destruction of Jerusalem. The 
part of it which concerns us occurs in the 
84th Question, and runs thus : — 

" Diabolus autem, qui est satanas, ut fallacies 
siue auctoritatem aliquam possit adhibere, et 
mendacia sua commentitia veritate colorarc. prituo 
nienso quo sacramenta dominioa scit celebranda, 
quia non mediocris potential est, Paganis qua; 
observarent instituit inysteria. ut aninias eoruiu 
duabus ex causis in errore dctineret : ut quia 
prsevenit veritatem fallacia, melius quiddam 
fallacia videretur, quasi antiquitate pnejudicans 
veritatL Et quia in primo mense, in quo 
Bequinoetium habent Bomani, sicut et nos, ea ipsa 
ooservatio ab his ouatoditur ; ita etiam per 
sanguincm dioant expiationem fieri, Biout et nos per 
erucem : hao versutia Paganos detinet in errore, ut 
putent veritatem aoatram imitationem potius 
videri quam veritatem, quasi per emulationem 
superstitions quadam inventam. Nee enim verum 
potest, inquiunt, reatimari quod postea est 
inventam. Sed quia apud nos pro oerto Veritas 
est, et ab initio bar est, virtutum atqae pro- 
digiorum Bigna perhibent testimonium, ut, teste 
virtute, diaboli improbitaa innotesoat." 

1 agree with Prof. Cumont in holding that 
in this passage the pagan mysteries which 



20 



T II E AT II KXvEUM 



No. 4184, Jan. 4, 1008 



the writer speaks of as celebrated with 
bloody expiatory rites ai the equinox in t in- 
first month <>f the (<>ld) Roman year, that is, 

in Man h, can only be the g^eat festival of 

At i is. which was officially celebrated in Home 
at this very time, and of which ono day was 
known as (lie Day of Blood. If the testi- 
mony of this anonymous writer does not 
prove that the ecclesiastical authorities 
dated Kaster at this time on purpose to eclipse 
a heathen rival, at least it proves that the 
coincidence and the similarity of the two 
festivals attracted the attention of both 
sides, and formed a theme of bitter contro- 
versy between them, the pagans contending 
that the resurrection of Christ was a spurious 
imitation of the resurrection of Attis, and 
the Christians asserting with equal warmth 
that the resurrection of Attis was a diabolical 
counterfeit of the resurrection of Christ. 
In these bickerings the pagans took what to a 
superficial observer might seem strong 
ground by arguing that their god was the 
older, and therefore presumably the original, 
not the counterfeit, since as a general rule an 
original is older than its copy. This feeble 
argument the Christians easily rebutted by 
falling back on the subtlety of Satan, who on 
so important an occasion had surpassed him- 
self by ingeniously inverting the usual order 
of nature. J. G. Frazer. 



SOCIETIES. 



Geological. — Dec. 18.— Sir Archibald Geikie, 
President, in the chair. — Messrs. T. S. Parrott, 
E. H. Pascoe, and R. K. Paton were elected 
Fellows ; Commendatore Arturo Issel, Professor of 
Geology in the University of Genoa, was elected a 
Foreign Member ; and Dr. Armin Baltzer, Professor 
of Geology in the University of Berne, and Baron 
Gerard Jakob de Geer, of Stockholm, were elected 
Foreign Correspondents. The following communi- 
cations were read : ' Some Recent Discoveries of 
Palaeolithic Implements,' by Sir John Evans, — and 
' On a Deep Channel of Drift at Hitchin, Hert- 
fordshire,' by Mr. W. Hill. 



Ljnneax. — Dec. 19. — Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
President, in the chair. — The President read an 
address to H.M. Gustaf V. of Sweden on the death 
of the late Honorary Member H.M. Oscar II., 
which was signed b}' the President and Secretaries, 
and ordered to be sent to his Excellency the 
Swedish Minister for transmission. — Prof. F. 
Keeble, Miss Eva Whitley, and Mr. W. R. W. 
Williams were admitted. — Mr. J. M. Hector and 
Mr. C. F. M. Swynnerton were elected Fellows ; 
and Mr. H. C. Chadwick was elected an Associate. 
— Dr. G. Archdall Reid read his paper ' On Mendel- 
ism and Sex.' The President having invited dis- 
cussion, the following speakers took part : Mr. 
A. 0. Walker, Mr. J. T. Cunningham (visitor), 
Mr. A. D. Darbishire (visitor), Dr. W. T. Caiman, 
Mr. G. P. Mudge (visitor), Prof. Dendy, Sir E. 
Ray Lankester, and Prof. Poulton, Dr. Archdall 
Reid briefly replying. 

Faraday.— Dec. 17.— Dr. F. M. Perkin, Trea- 
surer, in the chair. — Dr. F. G. Donnan read a paper 
on ' A Physico-Chemical Study of the Complex 
Copper Glycocoll Sulphates,' by Mr. J. T. Barker. 
— Dr. Perkin read a paper on ' The Discovery of 
the Alkali Metals by Davy ; the Bearing of the 
Discovery upon Industry.' The lecture was illus- 
trated with lantern-slides. 



K i I, A 1 1 j 

Philological, - 'On U,r I! Words I am editing for the 
Dictionary, i>r \v. A Cmlglr. 



MEETINGS NEXT WEEK. 
Royal Academy, 4.— 'Criticism: a Homily,' No. I., Sir Hubert 

von Ilcrkomer. 
London Institution, &.— 'The Problems of n Great City,' Mr. 

Arnold White. 
Surveyors' Institution, 7.— Junior Meeting. 
Aristotelian, 8.— 'Prof. James's Pragmatism,' Mr. G. E. 

Moore. 
Royal Institution, :i— ' Astronomy. Old and New,' Lecture V. 

Sir David (Jill. (Juvenile Lecture.) 
Geological. 8.-' On tlie Application of Quantitative Methods 

to the Study of the Structure and History of Rooks,' Ilr. II. 

Clifton Sorby: ' Chronology of the Glacial Period in North 

America,' Prof. G. F. Wright. 
Turns. Royal Institution, .'I.— 'Astronomy, Old and New,' Lecture VI., 

Sir David (Jill. (Juvenile Lecture I 

— Royal Academy, 4—' Sight and Seeing,' Sir Huhcrt von 

Herkomer. 

— London Institution, 0.— 'Some Survivals in Folklore,' Rev. 

A. Smyths Palmer. 

— institution of Electrical Engineers, 8.— 'Cost of Electrical 

Power for Industrial Purines,' Mr. J. F. C. Snvll. 



Mox. 



Ton. 

Who. 



^ftmrc (fiossip. 

Messrs. Macmillan's new books in science 
include • African Nature Notes and Reminis- 
cences/, by Mr. F. C. Selous ; ' The Origin of 
a Land Flora,' by Prof. F. O. Bower; and 
'Lessons in Hygienic Physiology,' by Mr. 
Walter M. Coleman. 

The catalogue of Greek and Latin medical 
manuscripts undertaken by the Berlin and 
Copenhagen Academies (see Athenaeum, 
Dec. 16, 1905) has now been completed, and 
the International Association of Academies 
has sanctioned the publication, by the 
Academies of Berlin, Copenhagen, and 
Leipsic, of the ' Corpus Medicorum.' There 
will be thirty-two volumes of ' Medici 
Graeci ' to begin with. 

Dr. Pracka of the Bamberg Observatory 
has detected variability in a small star 
near RS Aurigae, which is numbered 
+46°.1088 in the Bonn ' Durchmusterung,' 
and is rated of 9'5 magnitude there. From 
several observations obtained by Prof. 
Hartwig and himself, he finds that the 
brightness varies between 89 and 96 magni- 
tudes, and that the period is probably be- 
tween 18 and 28 days. The star will be 
reckoned in a general list as var. 180, 1907, 
Aurigje. 



FINE ARTS 



OUR LIBRARY TABLE. 

Eugene Delacroix. By Dorothy Bussy. 
(Duckworth & Co.) — " Eugene Delacroix," 
says the author of this spirited little pane- 
gyric, " is little more than a name in Eng- 
land " ; and she proceeds to claim for him 
a supremacy which it might be difficult to 
establish in presence of his pictures, but 
which the public may be induced to allow 
him so long as he remains a legendary leader 
in " those vital movements which have 
made the art of the nineteenth century 
supremely fruitful and inspiring." Some- 
what too much has scientific criticism in- 
sisted on him as a revolutionary figure, 
the father of the modern movement, which 
as a matter of fact speedily developed, as 
Mrs. Bussy points out, in directions far 
different from those he foreshadowed, for 
in France Romanticism, wdth its costumes 
and its heroics, was promptly replaced by 
a school of greater vitality. 

In England, however, the home of its 
origin, it dragged on an existence, in various 
degenerate forms, almost to the present day, 
and inevitably we are more heartily sick 
of a certain side of the work of Delacroix 
than they are in France. Many of his 
qualities have for some time past been so 
out of fashion that had his pictures been 
shown amongst us in any quantity, it is 
probable that he would have been respect- 
fully placed upon the shelf along with so 
excellent a painter as, say, Sir John Gilbert, 
who belongs to the same period. Tempera- 
mentally Delacroix may differ from our own 
Romantics, but he so far shared their aims 
and their origins that, judged by English 
standards, he seems less strange, loss original, 
than among his own countrymen. Thus 
there seems to us exaggeration when Mrs. 
Bussy speaks of him as " an isolated peak," 
declares that " his works resemblo those 
of no other master, ancient or modern," 
and brings forth Michael Angelo as " the 
only painter to whom we may fitly compare 
Delacroix." If wo were asked to name an 



earlier artist of analogous temperament, 
we should rather choose El Greco, who seems 
to have hud the same re.sth - ambition for 
tasks beyond his physical strength, the same 
love of tortuous and fantastic shapes, the same 
tendency to lay stress in his compositions 
on the more slender forms, the shriller 
notes of colour. Nor can we fail to see that 
the dark and lurid imaginings of Delacroix 
had their parallels among his contemporaries 
and successors, not in the art of painting, 
but in certain lesser arts for which they 
are as well suited. Some of the lithographs 
here reproduced remind us how a little later, 
in the ' Contes Drolatiques,' Dore worked 
the same vein, more flippantly perhaps, 
but with hardly less power. There is also 
a ' Faust ' illustration of two riders by a 
gibbet (pp. 50-1) which a casual observer 
would not hesitate to pronounce a thoroughly 
typical Cruikshank ; and when it is remem- 
bered how different were their Uvea and 
ostensible aims, it is wonderful what simi- 
larity there is in Delacroix and his great 
English contemporary when they attack 
such themes. The ferocity, the unscrupulous 
use of black and white to get sensational 
effect, and the intense sympathy with night- 
terrors are the same in both. 

In a series there is always a tendency 
to allot each artist to a writer especially 
susceptible to his attractions, so that 
one after another is awarded a super- 
lative place in a manner somewhat con- 
fusing to the reader. As monotonous he 
may find the critic's conduct in whittling 
down these pretensions to more reasonable 
proportions. Great man as he was, Dela- 
croix calls more than most artists for the 
latter treatment. He has a great name, 
but a name made for him largely by littera- 
teurs, whose judgments, however persuasively 
put, are apt to be untrustworthy, and to 
call for revision on lines more closely follow- 
ing the intrinsic merits of the artist. 

The Nature Poems of George Meredith. 
Illustrated by W. Hyde. (Constable & Co.) 
— It is a rare occurrence to find an entirely 
harmonious conjunction of poet and illus- 
trator, but Mr. William Hyde's pictures 
to ' The Nature Poems of George Meredith ' 
are, in themselves, poems of tone and design. 
Indeed, the artist appears to have seen eye 
to eye with the poet. It is difficult to single 
out any special instances for praise from 
these sixteen drawings, each of which is 
a small masterpiece of its kind ; but ' Winter 
Heavens,' with its luminous stars above 
the dark pines and the snow ; the romantic 
vision for the ' Hymn to Colour ' ; and the 
wonderfully atmospheric epitome of London, 
1 A City clothed in Snow and Soot,' are 
perhaps among the more remarkable 
examples of this artist's genius. There is 
no indication to show that the present volume 
is virtually a new edition published at a price 
more within the scope of shallow purses 
than the first issue, which appeared in 1898. 
We are, however, none the less appreciative 
of the publishers' enterprise ; while these 
plates compare not at all favourably with 
the admirable printing of those of the first 
and limited edition. 

The American Pilgrim's Way in England. 
By M. B. Huish. Illustrated by Elizabeth 
M. Chcttlo. (Fine-Art Society.)— Tliis large 
and sumptuous volume should have a wide 
success, appealing as it does both to local 
and national pride. The journey is to homes 
and memorials of the founders of Virginia, 
the New England States, and Pennsylvania, 
the Universities of Harvard and Yale, and 
other illustrious Americans. The map which 
serves as frontispiece indicates the wide 
scope of the volume, and the red line of the 
Pilgrim takes us from Raby in the North 



No. 4184, Jan. 4, 1908 



THE ATHENAEUM 



21 



to Ringmer and Warminghurst in the South, 
from Winthrop and Cambridge in the East 
to Plymouth and Budleigh Salterton in the 
West by virtue of Sir Walter Raleigh. The 
Midlands have a cluster of American associa- 
tions. Mr. Huish is fully justified in calling 
attention to the zeal of United States students 
concerning their forbears or namesakes 
of the past. He does not plan a route for 
the whole pilgrimage such as a motor-car 
might follow, for the reason that in writing 
of one man he has often to deal with many 
widely scattered places. He supplies, how- 
ever, details of railways and other methods 
of reaching the often obscure places of pil- 
grimage. His narrative is generally sound, 
and it is clear that he has taken pains to 
secure details on the spot in many cases. 
The pity of it is that he writes a journalistic 
style disfigured by clumsy and needless 
verbiage, and strays repeatedly beyond his 
subject, which ought to be interesting 
enough in itself. Surviving these irritations, 
we have come across a good deal which 
repays perusal, and suggestions for further 
research that might prove fruitful. 

There are many illustrations of tombs, 
portraits, &c, besides the coloured repro- 
ductions of Miss Chettle's drawings. The 
latter have suffered, we imagine, in the 
process of reproduction, but they are almost 
uniformly attractive. She has realized to 
the full the old-world charm of such buildings 
as Jordans, and her details, including some 
impossible colours for the plain man, are 
always poetical. ' Gainsborough Old Hall,' 
' The Old Mulberry Tree at Groton,' ' The 
Rivington Pike of Miles Standish,' and 
' Boston Stump ' are all charming pictures 
in different ways. There are also reproduc- 
tions of historical pictures by various artists, 
the best of which is Millais's of ' The Boyhood 
of Raleigh.' 

The Collector's Manual. By N. Hudson 
Moore. (Chapman & Hall.) — This hand- 
some and expensive volume on furniture 
comes to us from America through an 
English avenue. Mrs. Hudson Moore has 
written a good deal on this and kindred 
subjects, and her ambitious title is now 
designed to cover her advice on the topics 
of furniture, glassware, pewter, and china. 
As is usual with books of this sort, the chief 
utility lies in the numerous illustrations ; 
but evidently Mrs. Hudson Moore has expert 
knowledge, if it is a little casual, and if at 
times it lacks the endorsement of taste and 
judgment. Why does the author not men- 
tion urns in her chapter on brass and copper 
utensils, though she does refer to the sam- 
ovar ? And would Mrs. Moore stand by 
her statement that Hepplewhite's wheat-ear 
chairs are " not particularly pretty or 
graceful " ? Did Sheraton design painted 
chairs with rush bottoms ? Mrs. Moore 
is at her best in her chapters on glassware 
and on lustre. But our main quarrel with 
her is that she has not apparently thought 
it worth her while to edit her own book 
properly. Manifestly, the matter has been 
contributed at different times to American 
magazines or papers, and marks of its origin 
have not been deleted. There are references 
to her " correspondents," and to the " limited 
space here given " — a piece of slovenliness 
which detracts from the dignity of the 
volume. We must, however, find a line 
of praise for the chapter on cottage orna- 
ments. This is a subject which is as rare 
in a book of this sort for connoisseurs 
as the treatment of dressers and other 
rustic furniture. The author confesses her 
hobby to be the collection of Staffordshire 
ware, which is no doubt the reason why 
the section on china and porcelain is the best 
in the volume. The Staffordshire ware 



" Fleurs " is commended more particularly 
because it depicts the mansion of the Duke 
of Roxburghe who " recently married an 
American girl " ; as is the Blenheim set 
for a similar reason ! 

The Annual of the British School at Athens. 
— No. XII., Session 1905-6. (Macmillan 
& Co.) — In this number of the British School 
Annual the chief interest is definitely trans- 
ferred from Crete to Laconia, though there 
are still several articles that deal with 
Crete. The new Director, Mr. R. M. 
Dawkins, gives a short account of supple- 
mentary excavations at Palsekastro. Mr. 
Droop contributes a study of geometric 
pottery from Crete, which provides instruc- 
tive comparisons with similar pottery from 
the ^Egean Islands or the mainland, and 
tells in favour of the style being an intrusive 
one from the North. Another instalment 
of Mr. Duncan Mackenzie's articles on 
Cretan palaces and the iEgean civilization 
is mainly devoted to combating the newly 
revived Carian theory, and maintaining 
the Africo-Mediterranean origin of the type 
of house found not only in Crete, but also 
in Greece in the Mycenaean age. Shorter 
articles testify to the varied activity of the 
students of the School both in Crete and 
in Greece. Among these especial mention 
is due to the notes from the Sporades by 
the Director and Mr. Wace, who make a 
valuable contribution to our knowledge 
of some of the less-known islands, Astypalsea, 
Telos, Nisyros, and Leros ; and to Mr. 
Hasluck's reproduction of early maps of 
Crete and Constantinople, and his list of 
MSS. in the British Museum relating to the 
geography of the Levant. The most im- 
portant contribution to the history of art 
is Mr. G. Dickins's paper on Demophon 
of Messene. A careful review of all the 
evidence enables him to make out a strong 
case for dating Demophon early in the 
second century B.C. When the reconstruc- 
tion of the group, on which he is now 
employed, enables us to form a more con- 
clusive opinion as to its style, the question 
should be settled. 

The Spartan excavations, and the studies 
of Laconia associated with them, form 
nearly half the volume. These include 
detailed studies of topography and architec- 
ture, and of the various antiquities dis- 
covered. The most interesting part is 
concerned with the precinct of Artemis 
Orthia and her cult, and the amphitheatre 
built around her altar in Roman times, 
for the better enjoyment of the spectacles 
there to be seen, including the scourging 
of the Spartan youths. Among the most 
curious objects found are a series of terra- 
cotta masks of early date, which must have 
relation to some sort of character dances 
or dramatic performances. Good progress 
has been made with the topography of the 
town ; but the discovery of the precinct 
of Athena Chalcioecus, only second in 
interest to that of Artemis Orthia, does not 
come within the period of work recorded 
in this volume. But the ordinary sub- 
scriber, for whom this volume is issued, 
and also the special student, would cer- 
tainly appreciate the addition of a clear 
and concise general summary of the season's 
results. It is to be hoped that this want 
will be considered in future volumes. A 
prominent feature is Mr. Traquair's paper on 
the mediaeval fortresses and churches in 
Laconia. 

The Annual shows tlvroughout the results 
of good and varied work ; and the report 
on the excavations of Sparta, in particular, 
is full of promise, which has already been 
partly fulfilled. 



THE LANDSCAPE PAINTERS' 
EXHIBITION. 

This group of half a dozen landscape- 
painters has, with slight changes from time t o 
time in its membership, held together longer 
than has been usual among the many similar 
small bodies of artists who have banded, 
themselves together in recent years for 
purposes of exhibition. It is a fortunate 
survival, for few have been so worthy of 
public support, and the present exhibition 
at the Royal Water-Colour Society's galleries 
is one of the most satisfactory of the series. 
None of the men showing can quite be said 
to represent the younger generation of 
landscape painters ; but we can scarcely 
regret this, for landscape is not cultivated' 
by that younger generation in a way that 
seems to promise a to-morrow comparable 
with to-day. A review of the best work, 
here shows that it possesses a many-sided 
excellence such as we can hardly predicate- 
for its successors. There seems likely to be- 
an interval before anything so good is done 
again as has been done constantly in the 
last twenty yeais ; and it seems unlikely 
that, when it is so done, it will be on these 
lines. The broad and sturdy, yet delicate 
delineation of nature, which has continued in 
England in virtually unbioken line since 
the time of Constable, is here seen still in 
vigorous health, but apparently without 
successors. Its exponents have been a 
little given to compromise, and perhaps not 
often particularly acute thinkers ; but they 
were sympathetic and sensitive observers, 
and had an instinct for composition and a 
good deal of technical craftsmanship slowly 
acquired and unobtrusively employed. 

Such a work as Mr. Aumonier's large 
woodland picture in the present show must 
for these reasons come to be more and more 
valued in the immediate future, as we 
gradually realize how unattainable it has- 
become for us. There is nothing about it 
that is pushed to an extreme. Any one of 
its many virtues the younger generation 
might possibly better ; but they do not 
promise ever to unite its many qualities 
in a single picture so variedly delightful 
as a possession. True, this particular work 
would seem to have had exceptional advan- 
tages — to have been originally the product 
of a period when the artist's work, though 
broad and vigorous, still retained strong 
traces of the hard apprenticeship from 
which it had emerged, and then, in the 
hour of mature judgment, to have been 
most happily revised and reconsidered 
from the point of view of generalized expres- 
sion and design. It thus in a special way 
resumes the artist's qualities. Yet even 
in his moorland subject alongside, which 
has the air of having been done more in a 
single movement, and to have gained thereby 
greater technical fluidity and case, we see 
something of the same anxiety to offer a full 
satisfaction to Nature's manifold claims, 
even a little at the expense of the strictly 
intrinsic fineness that comes of the perfect 
proportion of parts in a picture. The 
typical Barbizon painter and that most 
continental of English landscape men, Wilson, 
differed from the representative British 
artist by a certain pride and reserve in the 
face of Nature — a deliberate abnegation of 
certain of her qualities, lest they should 
interfere with the classic and perfect expres- 
sion of the others. This feature, which 
makes their work an admirable school of 
painting to the real student capable of 
assimilating their spirit and applying it 
elsewhere, has also made them terrible 
corrupters of the last generation of art 
students. Any landscape less classically 
compact and self-contained wears a loose- 



22 



T ii E at ii i: \ .!•: U m 



N'u. n>i. Jah. 4, 1908 



fibred, bomonran aspeot beside the »m- 

tocrac \ <»i ii fine Harbison picture, with its 

, aim assumption Of Certain COn\ ■••lit ions : 

heaoe the few exacting amateurs of pa inting 
have been tempted toa narrow and intolerant 
admiration for the one contemporary 
ohool that bad been carried to a high 
degree of perfection. On the other hand, 
it i- ahamefulh easy to imitate the outward 
appearance of* one of these pictures suffi- 
cniitlv to doceive an ignorant buyer snob- 
bishly bent on seeming a man of superior 
taste, Beset by these and other contri- 
butory causes, the would-be landscape 
painter of to-day may well regret the time 
when severe and literal imitation of detail 
was required of him before he could command 
attention. The standard may have been 
unsuitable, but at least it was a hard 
standard, which served some purpose in 
deterring the least worthy aspirants to a 
too seductive craft. To-day landscape paint- 
ing is so peculiarly destitute of such a 
standard that, given even a humble capacity, 
the artist may be successful simply in 
proportion as he enjoys certain extraneous 
advantages, say of influential connexions 
or a good business head. 

To remedy this state of things we need 
to widen the field within which we are 
exacting towards landscape painters— not 
to allow slipshod copyists to gain by 
assumptions that they use to no advantage. 
Mr. Aumonier's picture is a reminder of 
what full-bodied representation landscape 
painting can achieve. Why should an 
artist be allowed to shirk it, except for some 
purpose of beauty ? Mr. James Hill also in 
his exhibit shows some of that thoroughness 
of research which landscape painters to-day 
rarely attempt, and which the public 
never asks of them. He is a seeker, and a 
poetic one, but relies too much on the broken 
atmospheric quality of each individual 
passage in his pictures, and not enough on 
the inevitable relation of part with part in a 
self-contained and interrelated scheme. In 
his flower subjects he seems to find it easier 
to achieve designs that give his paint this 
inner stability apart from its allusiveness. 
Mr. Leslie Thomson gives us less research, 
or at any rate appears less in the act 
of research ; but he shows in his Afterglow 
a power of getting wrought up with interest 
in a large canvas which is rare in these days, 
when almost every man's sketch is the best 
thing he does. This picture is a little marred 
by a slightly theatrical division into two 
masses of very hot and very cold colour. 

Beside the best work of these men, most 

of the exhibits of Mr. Peppercorn and Mr. 

Austin Brown appear a little coarse and 

facile. Mr. Peppercorn is not seen at his 

best : the inventor of an abstraction of no 

little charm, he here seems to be but his 

own imitator. Mr. Austin Brown, too, 

puzzles us by showing a number of clumsy 

imitations of Mauve, and then by the side of 

them a marvellously accomplished and 

most beautiful Moonrise, which is perhaps 

the best thing he has ever done. It would 

be an astonishing piece of virtuosity, were 

it not informed by such a serious and poetic 

power of design. There is just a suspicion 

of slipperiness in the drawing of the figures 

— of feeling for smooth and sinuous line 

rather than for its significance. Yet wdth 

what life, with what rhythmic irregularity, 

these figures dart about the reef (almost lost 

in the gloaming), looking apparently for 

limpets ! The simplicity, the desolation, 

of the dark reef stretching out to sea, are 

so impressive that all the figures cannot 

people its loneliness, and only make audible 

the silence. Rarely have we seen the more 

superficial mysteries of paint used with 

such tremendous emotional effect. 



3finr-^rt (Gossip. 



Thk editorial article in the .January 
number of The Burlington Magazine puts 
forward a nolmmw for allotting the decorative 
painting in the Houses of Parliament among 

our various art societies. Considerable 
space is given to the pictures and objects 
of art purchased from the Kaim Collection 
by Mrs. C. P. Huntington, which include 
fine works by Rembrandt and Hals. The 
article is illustrated with a large number 
of full-page plates, one of which, a repro- 
duction in photogravure of Rembrandt's 
' Scholar with a Bust of Homer,' forms the 
frontispiece to the number. Two articles 
deal with the Royal Collections. In the 
first Mr. Lionel Cust continues his studies 
of the pictures under his charge by a paper 
on the " Great Piece " by Van Dyck, while 
in the second article Mr. M. L. Solon dis- 
cusses the Sevres porcelain in connexion 
with Mr. Laking's book. The antique copy 
of Myron's 'Discobolus,' and the fifth-century 
Niobid found last year in Italy, are the 
subject of an article by Dr. Koester of 
Berlin. Mr. Weale's new book on Hubert 
and John van Eyck is dealt with at some 
length ; and among shorter notes promi- 
nence is given to the proposal for removing 
Can Grande's famous monument at Verona. 

The latest addition to the National 
Gallery is a picture of ' A Lady standing 
at a Spinet ' (No. 2143) by Jacob Ochtervelt. 
It has been presented by Mr. H. J. Pfungst, 
and hangs on the east wall of Room XII 
This artist's name now appears in the 
Catalogue of the gallery for the first time. 
There are probably not more than six pic- 
tures by Ochtervelt in England. 

In future the Victoria and Albert Museum 
and the National Art Library will be open 
on the evenings of Monday, Thursday, and 
Saturday — Thursday being substituted for 
Tuesday. 

Mr. Algernon Graves will publish 
during the next month or two the 
companion volume to his ' Royal Academy 
Exhibitors ' and ' The Society of Artists,' 
under the title of ' The British Institution, 
1806-67.' This new dictionary, if it reveals 
few names which do not occur in the Royal 
Academy volumes, will form a valuable 
supplement to that work, besides possessing 
important features of its own. The British 
Institution was never regarded as a rival 
to the Royal Academy, for some of the most 
constant exhibitors were either R.A.'s or 
Associates, and a just estimate of their 
work can only be obtained by taking into 
consideration the pictures which they sent 
to the British Institution. Beechey was 
represented on its walls at different times by 
32 works, Constable and Benjamin West by 
the same number, E. W. Cooke by 1 1 5, Etty 
by 78, Landseer by 94, Stanfield by 22, and 
Turner by 17. One important feature of 
the British Institution catalogues is that the 
sizes of the pictures are given up to 1852, 
and after that date the prices which the 
artists placed on their works. During the 
61 years of its existence over 28,000 pictures 
were exhibited at the British Institution. 

The New Year's number of The Builder 
contains a long article, accompanied by 
numerous illustrations, on the architecture of 
Vienna. The same journal promises a series 
of illustrations, from photographs specially 
taken, of ' The Renaissance and Modern 
Churches of Paris ' ; and also a series of 
articles on the remains of ' The Aqueducts 
of Ancient Rome,' written by Dr. Ashby, 
the Director of the British School at Rome. 
Messrs. Macmujlan announce Vol. I. of 
' A Catalogue Raisonne of the Works of the 
Most Eminent Dutch Painters of the Seven- 



teenth Century,' based on the work of John 
Smith, by Dr. C. Hofstede de Groot, and 
translated by Mr. EL G. Hawke. This 
important undertaking will be eagerly 
welcomed by critics. 

The same firm are publishing * Hercu- 
laneum: Past, Present, and Future,' by 
Prof. Charles Waldstein. 

Mb. Frederick Weumoiu: has been 
invited to contribute, from Monday next, 
a weekly cait&erie on fine art to The Pall 
Mall Gazette. 

An exhibition of students' works is now 
being held at the Metropolitan School of 
Art, Dublin. The exhibition includes the 
works to which prizes have been awarded 
under the local prize schemes, as well as 
those which have gained places in the com- 
petition for art masters' and teachers' cer- 
tificates under the Board of Education and 
the Department of Technical Instruction for 
Ireland. The craftwork shown is note- 
worthy, some of the enamels and the stained 
glass being particularly good. 

By the kindness of Mr. Hugh Lane, two 
important examples of the work of Titian 
and Goya respectively are now on loan at 
the National Gallery of Ireland. The Titian 
is an exceptionally fine half-length portrait 
of a young man in a fur- trimmed coat and 
red cap, supposed to be the younger Lorenzo 
de' Medici. It is an early work, and in 
perfect condition. The Goya represents the 
Donna Maria Martinez de Puja as a young 
woman, dressed in black against a grey 
background. It was painted in 1824, when 
Goya was seventy-four years old, and is 
signed and dated by him. 

The French Exhibition to be held 
in London this year, although known to 
the French Government to be a private 
venture, is likely to be favoured with a 
representation of some of the Frenc.i 
Ministries superior to that undertaken 
by them on the occasions of previous ex- 
hibitions held under Government auspices. 
We hear that the French Ministry of Educa- 
tion is specially active. The French " Fine- 
Art Section " is being organized under the 
presidency of M. Bonnat, and will produce 
an admirable representation of French art. 

The death is announced this week of M. 
Charles Hermann - Leon, the well - known 
artist, who studied under Ph. Rousseau and 
From'entin. He was a native of Havre, and 
obtained medals at the Salon in 1873, 1879, 
and 1900, Hermann-Leon was a member of 
the Societe des Artistes Francais, and a con- 
stant exhibitor, last year's Salon containing 
two of his works — 'Premiere Vision' and 
• Le Lievre.' He was sixty-nine years of age. 
This year's exhibition (which will be 
opened in May) at the Bibliotheque Nation- 
ale, will be devoted to the works of Rem- 
brandt. Another interesting exhibition will 
be opened in the spring at the Musee des Arts 
Decoratifs in Paris, of which the title, ' L'Art 
Theatral,' indicates its scope. 



EXHIBITIONS 
S »r. (Jan. 4I.-London. Paintings and Drawings by A. E. Bottomley. 
Owen Howcn. E. Downs. A. Oarrul hers Gould. D. heart, and 
Tatton Winter. N'cw Dudley Gallery. 
— Royal Academy Winter Exhibition. Private ,*!?»•. . 
_ Women's International Art Club. Annual Exhibition, Roya 
Institute Galleries. . , __ 

Hon. International Society of Sculptors. Painter*, and Gra\ers, 
Eighth Exhibition. Press View, lsew Gallery. .... _ 

S«\ (Jan. Ill-Mr. Arthur R-ackharus Illustrations to Alice n 
Wonderland, 1 and Landscapes by the late Henry H. Moon. 



MUSIC 
Austral (gossip. 

The Carl Rosa Opera Company began a 
fifteen nights' season at Covent Garden on 
Boxing Day. In the afternoon ' Tann- 
hauser ' was presented, with Mr. Julius 



No. 4184, Jan. 4, 1908 



THE ATHENAEUM 



23 



Walther as the erring minstrel and Madame 
Lucile Hill as Elisabeth. The tenor sang 
his music with notable intelligence, and made 
an impression in the Tournament of Song. 
Madame Hill's pure tones suited Elisabeth's 
phrases, and she gave an eloquent rendering 
of the Prayer. Miss Grace Nicoll sang the 
music of Venus with skill and effect ; and 
Mr. Charles Victor was a capable repre- 
sentative of Wolfram. ' II Trovatoro ' was 
remarkably well sung in the evening, the 
chief feature being the dramatic Azucena 
of Miss Doris Woodall. Leonora's exacting 
aiis were fluently interpreted by Miss Eliza- 
beth Burgess ; and Mr. Walter Wheatley 
was a sufficiently fervent Manrico. 

On the Friday evening ' Carmen ' was 
given, with Miss Woodall as the gipsy 
heroine. She sang the music of the part 
agreeably, but failed to realize its dramatic 
possibilities. Mr. Edward Davies, the Don 
Jose, exhibited an agreeable voice, and 
sang tastefully ; but Mr. Victor was not a 
specially convincing Toreador. 

' Cavalxeria Rusticana ' and ' Pag- 
liacci ' were associated at the Saturday 
matinee. The role of the hapless heroine 
in Mascagni's work was allotted to Miss 
Grace Nicoll, who sang and acted with 
vigour and success. Mr. Wheatley gave an 
effective account of Turiddu's impassioned 
music ; and Mr. Dillon Shallard was an 
excellent Alfio. In ' Pagliacci ' Mr. Julius 
Walther imparted fervour to his delivery 
of Canio's soliloquy ; and Miss Burgess 
was a bright and vocally agreeable Nedda. 
Mr. Victor sang the prologue in good style. 
' Faust,' presented in the evening, intro- 
duced a youthful Marguerite in the person 
of Miss Ina Hill, who has a delightfully 
fresh and flexible voice, and shows consider- 
able skill as an actress. Mr. Edward Davies 
was a capable representative of Faust ; 
and Mr. Winckworth sketched Mephisto- 
rheles on popular lines. The singing of the 
chorus has been extremely praiseworthy, 
and the duties of conductor have been shared 
by Mr. Walter van Noorden and Mr. Eugene 
Goossens. 

On Wednesday evening a bright and 
attractive performance was given of Mozart's 
' Marriage of Figaro.' Miss Doris Woodall 
not only sang " Voi che sapete" and the 
other music for Cherubino with much taste 
and skill, but also acted in remarkably viva- 
cious style. Madame Lucile Hill sang the 
Countess's phrases agreeably ; and Miss 
Lizzie Burgess was a bright and pleasing 
representative of Susanna. The Figaro of 
Mr. Charles Victor was somewhat deficient in 
buoyancy, but Mr. Winckworth was a capital 
Count. Under the guidance of Mr. Walter 
van Noorden the rendering of the delightful 
old opera was smooth and satisfactory. 

The Carl Rosa Company at Covent 
Garden will give Verdi's ' Otello ' next 
Tuesday. 

The directors of the Queen's Hall Orchestra 
have engaged Dr. Richard Strauss to conduct 
the greater portion of his music-drama 
' Salome ' on Thursday, March 19th. There 
will be given the scene between Salome 
and Jochanaan, the Dance of Salome, and 
the final scene of Salome. The work is 
dedicated to Sir Edgar Speyer, chairman of 
the Queen's Hall Orchestra. 

The Twenty-Third Annual Conference 
of the Incorporated Society of Musicians 
took place this week at Harrogate. On 
Tuesday a special service was held in St. 
Peter's Church, at which was performed 
a festival ' Te Deum ' by Dr. E. J. Crow, 
organist of Ripon Cathedral. A portrait, 
painted by Mr. E. Bent Walker, was to have 
been presented to Mr. Edward Chadfield 
on his retirement from the general secretary- 



ship of the Society. Unfortunately, how- 
ever, he was prevented through indisposition 
from being present. It is understood that 
he will accept the portrait, which will be 
placed in the library of the Society in London. 

The newly founded chamber-music society 
"The Irish Quartette" gave an excellent 
recital last week at the Leinster Hall, 
Dublin. The Quartette consists of Miss 
Madeleine Moore (violin), Miss Bell (viola), 
Miss Kathleen Gibson ('cello), and Miss 
Annie Lord (piano). Amongst the works 
performed were Beethoven's Quartet in 
e flat, Op. 16, and Hermann Goetz's Quartet 
in e flat, Op. 6. 

Fourteen manuscripts of Paganini, one 
of them being the Third Concerto, have been 
discovered among the archives of the city 
of Perosa. Large offers have been made 
from England and America, but the Italian 
Government intends itself to purchase the 
precious autographs. 

The Stradivarius violinof M. Eugene Ysaye, 
recently stolen from the Imperial Opera, 
St. Petersburg, was lent by Messrs. Hill & 
Sons for exhibition at the Loan Collection, 
South Kensington, in 1885. It is mentioned 
in 'Antonio Stradivari,' by W. H., A. F.,and 
A. E. Hill, among violins of which the exact 
date could not be given, or on which figures 
might have been tampered with. The firm 
thought it possible that the last two figures 
of the date inscribed, 1732, had been 
altered ; nevertheless, they were satisfied that 
the instrument, in a fine state of preserva- 
tion, was the work of Stradivari's latest 
years. It exhibits varnish of a reddish- 
brown colour, but not the usual back-joint. 
Its tone is very powerful, but M. Ysaye 
prefers that of his Guarnerius, which some 
twenty-five years ago was bought at Messrs. 
Foster's saleroom by the late W. E. Hill for 
600 guineas. 

The directorship of the Warsaw Con- 
servatoire of Music has been offered to M. 
Paderewski, who is now at Boston, and 
accepted by him. 



perfobmances:next week. 

Six. Concert, 3.30, Albert Hall. 

— Sunday Society Concert, 3.30, Queen's Hall. 

— Sunday League Concert, 1. Queen's Hall. 

Mon.— Sat. Carl Rosa Opera Company, 8, Covent Garden. (Wednes- 
day and Saturday, Matinees, 2.) 
Wkd. Fraulein Else Gipser's Pianoforte Recital, 8, Bechstein Hall. 
Fm. London Trio, 3.30, iBolian Hall. 
Sat. Chappell's Ballad Concert, 2.30, Queen's Hall. 

— Kruse Quartet, 3.15, Bechstein Hall. 



DRAMA 



THE WEEK. 

Savoy. — Arms and the Man : an Anti- 
Romantic Comedy. By Bernard Shaw. 
(Revival.) 
It really looks as if Messrs. Vedrenne and 
Barker's policy of appealing boldly to the 
general public for support of the " intel- 
lectual drama " were going to secure 
them the reward of audacity, and as if 
the play which may bring them luck at 
the Savoy would be one of Mr. Shaw's 
earliest essays, now revived for the first 
time since its original production at the 
old Avenue thirteen years ago — ' Arms 
and the Man.' Certainly there could be 
no piece from the Shaw repertory more 
calculated to conciliate the average play- 
goer than this, with the possible exception 
of ' You Never Can Tell.' It is easy to 
discover in it already outlined seme of 
the chief articles of the " Shavian philo- 
sophy " — its repudiation of romantic con- 
ventions and ideals, its mockery of the 
glorification of war, its ridicule of chivalry 



in connexion with the feminine sex ; 
already there are signs of propagandism, 
but of a propagandism scarcely truculent. 
On the other hand, there is more story, 
more action, more normal treatment of 
character, more drama, and better still, 
there is more geniality here than in 
many of Mr. Shaw's later works. How 
delightful is the opening of the play — the 
meeting of the romantic girl in her night- 
dress and the refugee soldier, travel- 
stained and weary, who makes such 
short work of her heroics about war and 
military courage ! And nowadays the 
merest tyre of a playgoer can perceive 
how substantially true is the playwright's 
picture of his professional soldier — the 
man who refuses to court danger or to 
romanticize his calling. Who knows what 
a difference might have been made 
in Mr. Shaw's development had that 
first-night Avenue audience, instead of 
jeering at what was new to it, suspended 
judgment about the sections of the play 
it did not understand, and given due 
weight to the scenes which had afforded 
amusement ? Mr. Shaw's ideas had not 
then been crystallized by opposition and 
lack of appreciation into imcompromising 
stiffness, and he might have learnt from, 
as well as have instructed, the public. 
Well, the merry farce is in no danger of 
such a reception now ; last Monday night 
every jest was caught up by the audience 
almost before it was spoken on the stage. 
A more appreciative audience Mr. Shaw 
could net have desired; nor could be 
have wished for a better interpretation. 
Mr. Robert Loraine's matter-of-fact soldier 
and Miss Lillah McCarthy's hero-worship- 
ping Raina afforded constant delight ; 
all the minor parts were well filled ; and 
Mr. Granville Barker, by his vivacious 
energy, almost made real Raina's comic - 
opera lover, who is of course only a 
personification of the popular ideal of a 
soldier. 

Drury Lane. — The Babes in the Wood. 

ADELrm. — Aladdin. 

Lyceum. — Robinson Crusoe. 
Even London can offer few mere impres- 
sive sights than Drury Lane Theatre 
during the Christmas holidays, packed 
with a pantomime audience. The least 
sentimental of spectators may be im- 
pressed as he watches those rows upon 
rows of faces, extending in tiers from the 
footlights almost to the ceiling of the great 
playhouse, all intent upon amusement ; 
young and old, in fact, mingling for once 
in a common mood of irresponsibility and 
childish gaiety. But more agreeable still 
is the experience to be gained by observing 
the demeanour of the audience from one 
cf the circles — by listening, fcr instance, 
to the roar of welcome which attends 
the beginning of the overture, or by 
noting the waves of laughter that run 
over the building in response to some 
jest of a favourite comedian. The 
superior person may scoff at pantomime, 
yet every one who remembers that 
Drury Lane during this season of the 
year houses nightly, and often twice a 
day, two or three thousand playgoers of 



24 



THK A Til ENiE U M 



No. 41M4, Jan. 4, 1908 



different ages, §0X68, education, and 
disposition, ami keeps them amused for 
four hours and DEM re, must pay his tribute 
to the class of entertainment which can 

achieve such ■ result. 

What is said above of J)rury Lane is 
true no less of the Adelphi and the 
Lyceum, the two other West End houses 
which are devoted just now to the cult 
of pantomime. There also the prevailing 
spirit is one of geniality and enthusiasm, 
and the difficulty of the managements is 
not to get people into their theatres, 
but to find room for the crowds that 
come. Yet we are told by authorities that 
the past theatrical year in London has 
been one of the most unsuccessful ever 
known — that receipts have been low, 
and the theatres in many cases half 
empty. The explanation is jimple. 
Managers usually persist in conducting 
their theatres on happy-go-lucky principles 
— without any definite, well-considered 
policy. Contrast with their procedure 
that of the purveyors of pantomime. 
They map out their plans months in 
advance, they adhere to one particular 
type of entertainment, they study a 
particular class of audience. Take,' for 
example, Drury Lane, the Adelphi, and 
the Lyceum. To the superficial observer 
the pantomimes and the audiences cf 
these three theatres may seem very much 
the same, but the expert will mark con- 
siderable dissimilarities. To be sure, the 
entertainment provided at all three houses 
is the customary hotchpotch of nursery 
tale and musical extravaganza, ballet 
and boisterous farce ; but in point of 
fact each one is carefully contrived to 
please a special public. 

' Robinson Crusoe ' at the Lyceum is 
intended for a popular audience which 
likes its effects broad, its colouring strong, 
its humour laid on heavily ; and there 
is not a doubt that Messrs. Smith and 
Carpenter have gauged their patrons' 
tastes to a nicety now in pantomime, as 
hitherto in melodrama. They have dis- 
covered in Mr. George Le Clerq a comedian 
with original methods, and the fact that 
his most telling trick consists in an over- 
emphasis of aspirates speaks volumes. 
Then, too, they have found in Miss Ouida 
Macdermott a singer of rare dramatic in- 
tensity, and it is significant that she is the 
daughter of a famous music-hall artist of 
the eighties. As for the " coral " ballet, it 
is striking, though perhaps a trifle garish. 

The Adelphi ' Aladdin ' is calculated 
for that public which loves musical 
comedy, and so it is decked out with 
pretty Oriental stage-pictures such as 
we have had at the Gaiety, and depends 
for its entertaining qualities upon the 
personality of its chief performers. These 
are two in number, and are both recruited 
from the " variety " theatres— Mr. Mal- 
colm Scott, a " female impersonator " 
with a dry but unforced humour, and 
Miss Fanny Fields, a lively comedian 
with an instinct for dancing, a quaint 
Anglo-German accent, and the most 
infectious of laughs. It is to the credit 
of these players, and of the music-halls, 
that their various " turns " are free from 



anything that could offend, and the 
Adelphi piece, for which they work so 
hard proves far and away the most 
amusing of current pantomimes. 

On the other hand, Mr. Collins at 
Drury Lane has succeeded in maintaining 
the reputation of his theatre for elaborate 
spectacle, yet has provided a genuine 
children's entertainment. The garden 
scene which furnishes the pictorial climax 
of the first half of his pantomime is a 
triumph, even for " the Lane," in refine- 
ment of colouring and brilliance of light- 
ing. Youngsters, too, must be hard to 
please who do not enjoy their special 
ballet of " Lollipop-land," or do not 
chuckle over the adventures of the babes, 
the naughtiest of innocents, when one is 
Mr. Walter Passmore and the other is Miss 
Marie George. 

One if not two reforms might be urged 
upon pantomime-managers. It is too 
much, perhaps, as yet to ask for the banish- 
ment of the comedian who masquerades 
as a woman. That would rob us this year 
of Mr. Fragson's clever portrait of the 
Drury Lane babes' governess, and of Mr. 
Malcolm Scott's droll geography lesson 
in the guise of Mrs. Twankey. But surely, 
with all respect to Miss Agnes Fraser, 
who makes as gallant a Robin Hood as 
any actress could, and to Miss Millie 
Legarde, a vivacious Aladdin, it is time 
that the " principal boy " disappeared from 
our stage. It would make all the differ- 
ence to the greenwood scenes at Drury 
Lane were Robin Hood and his unscrupu- 
lous brother represented by actors of 
the stamp of Mr. Lewis Waller. 



To Correspondents.— G. N.— M.— A. K.— G. W. M.— 
E. W. G.— A. H. K.— E. A. B.— P. C. P.— Received. 

W. H. C— J. M. B.— Many thanks. 

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Articles of Interest on the following Subjects. 

THIRD SELECTION. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY and LITERARY HISTORY. 

Translations of Galen— Books on Gaming— John Gilpm s Route 
to Edmonton— Mrs. Glasse— ' Globe ' Centenary— Goethe- 
Oliver Goldsmith— Thomas Gray— Greene's 'Frier Bacon and 
Frier Bongay '—Grub Street— A. H. Hallam's Publications- 
Harvey, Marston, Jonson, and Nashe— Hawker of Morwen- 
stow— Heber's ' Racing Calendar '—George Herbert's Proverbs 

Herrick— Heuskarian Rarity in the Bodleian— ' Historical 

English Dictionary '—Hood's ' Comic Annual.' 

«Tnp pa PHY 

" The Starry Galileo " — Letters of German Notabilities — W. E. 
Gladstone — Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey — Duchess of Gordon — 
Duke of Grafton and Lord Thurlow — Thomas Guy's Will — Nell 
Gwyn— Serjeant Hawkins— Sir John Hawkwood — Sir Richard 
* Hotham— Victor Hugo. 

ECCLESIASTICAL MATTERS. 

Genesis i. 1 — Nameless Gravestones — Greek Church Vestments 

Hagioscope or Oriel — Heretics Burnt — Hexham Priory and 

the Au<mstales — Holy Communion, Substitutes for Bread — 
Honest Epitaphs— Huxley on the Bible—' Hymns Ancient and 
Modern.' 

FINE ARTS. 

Gainsborough's lost ' Duchess '— Grinling Gibbons s Statue of 
James II. — Sir John Gilbert's Drawings in the 'London 
Journal' — Miss Gunning's Portraits — Haydon's Historical 
Pictures — Pictures by Sir G. Hayter— Hogarth— Holbein 
Portraits — Hoppner Portraits. 

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Caimacam or Kaimakam — Camelry — Cecil, its Pronunciation 

Celtic Words in Anglo-Saxon Districts — Chaperon applied to 

Males Chic recognized by the French Academy — Chi-ike — 

" Chink " of Woods — Comically — Corn-bote — Creak as a Verb 

Crowdy-mutton — Deadfold — Dewsiers — " Different than " — 

Dive, Peculiar Meaning — Dude — Electrocute — English Accentu- 
ation— Ey in Place-names — Fashion in Language — Fearagur- 
thok, Irish Word — Felibre — Filbert — Flapper, Anglo- Indian 
Slang— Irish "Flittings" — Floyd v. Lloyd— Folk or Folks — 
Foulrice — Frail — Gallant, its Varying Accent — Gallimaufry — 
Gambaleery — Gaol and Goal — Garage — Gavel and Shieling — 

Chetto Ghost-words — " Good afternoon " — Doubtful Grammar 

in A.V. and Prayer Book — Greek Pronunciation — Gutter- 
snipe — Gwyneth — Halsh — Hattock — Help with an Infinitive — 
Helpmate and Helpmeet — Henbane — Heron — High-faluting — 
Hooligan — Hopef ul and Sangiy _a — Huish — Hullabaloo — 
Hurtling. 



PROVERBS AND QUOTATIONS. 

" Cambuscan bold " — " Carnage is God's daughter " — " Chalk oa 
the door" — "Lug the coif" — "Comparisons are odious" — 
"Crow to pluck" — "Crying down credit" — "Cutting his stick" 
— "Who sups with the devil" — " Down to the ground" — "Dutch 
courage " — " Embarras des richesses " — " English take their 
pleasures sadly" — "Enjoy bad health" — "Fall below par" — 
" Farewell, vain world " — " Fegges after peace " — " Fert, Fert r 
Fert," on Italian Coins — " First catch your hare " — " Flea in 
the ear " — " Forgive, blest shade " — French Sermon in Proverbs 
— Familiar French Quotations — " God works wonders now and 
then " — " Gone to Jericho " — " Green grief to the Grahams " — 
" Grass widow " — Gratitude Defined — " Green-eyed monster "" 
— " Heart of grace "— " Hook it "— " Hop the twig "— " Horse- 
marine." 
SONGS, BALLADS, and NURSERY RIMES. 

" Ask nothing more of me, sweet " — ' Bailiffs Daughter of 
Islington ' — ' Beggar's Petition ' — ' Canadian Boat Song ' — 
• Charlie is my Darling ' — ' Cherry Ripe ' — ' Comin' thro' the 
Rye' — ' Dulce Domum ' — " Gentle shepherd, tell me where " — 
" God bless the King ! — I mean the Faith's defender " — " i 
dwelt in a city enchanted " — " I '11 hang my harp on a willow 
tree " — " In the days when we went gipsying." 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Acacia in Freemasonry — Adelaide Waistcoat — Adulation Extra- 
ordinary — Old Advertisements — iEolian Harp, its Construction 
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in War — Bread by Troy Weight — CIV. Nicknames — Originator 
of Christmas Cards — Beginning and End of Centuries — Clerks 



-Chess 



Legend 



-Chimneys in Ancient Houses- 



in Chancery- 
Introduction of Chocolate — Twenty-four-hour Clocks — Con- 
vivial Clubs — Local Names for the Cowslip — Earliest Cricket 
Match — Death from Fright — Dutch Fleet captured by Cavalry 
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and Locomotive — Gates on Commons — Genius and Large 
Families — Gentleman Porter — Germination of Seeds — Slang 
for Gin — Gipsy Wedding and Funeral — Golf and Pall-mall — 
Goths and Huns — Guillotine — Gun Reports — Hair Powder last 
Used — Hansom Cab, its Inventor — First Silk Hat in London. 



JOHN C. FRANCIS and J. EDWARD FRANCIS, Bream\s Buildings, Chancery Lane, London, E.C. 



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No. 4184, Jan. 4, 1908 



T H E A T H E N M U M 



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THE CORPSE-DOOR: a Danish Survival. (With PL V X 

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VI., VII.).— A. LANG, M.A. LLD. 

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who will be Head of the Department. The appointment is open to 
Men and Women equally, and will take effect at the beginning of the 
Easter Term. 

Applications, with twenty-five copies of Testimonials, should be 
sent not later than JANUARY 31, to the Secretary, from whom 
further particulars may be obtained. 

ETHEL T. McKNIGHT, Secretary. 

WANTED, for a large GIRLS' SCHOOL in 
MELBOURNE. AUSTRALIA, a MISTRESS who will be 
Head of the Teaching Staff and also Mistress of Method in connexion 
with the Training Department of the School. 

Salary 200J. or more. 

Residence provided during Term without resident duties. 

Passage outward provided. 

Applicants must be members of the Church of England and have 
had previous experience in the Training of Teachers. 

Applicants should apply at once, enclosing Testimonials, &c, to 
Box 1329, Athenasum Press, 13, Bream's Buildings, E.C. 

DATLEY EDUCATION COMMITTEE. 

WANTED IMMEDIATELY, in the BATLEY GTRLS' GRAMMAR 
.school, a FORM MISTRESS to teach chiefly English and Mathe- 
matics. Degree and training or experience essential. Commencing 
Salary 1 107. per annum.— Form of Application to be obtained from I he 
undersigned, which must be returned to me not later than 
JANUARY '14, 1908. 

G. R. H. DANBY, M.A. 

Education Offices, Batley. 



si 



OUTH AFRICAN COLLEGE SCHOOL, 

y~J CAPE TOWN, 



A SCIENCE MASTER WANTED for the above SCHOOL, to teach 
Chemistry and Physics. 

Duties to begin on APRIL 6. Candidates must possess the Privy 
Council Certificate, and a Science Degree. Salary 25c?. per annum, 
with prospects of increase. Applications, stating age. with six copies 
of Testimonials and Health Certificate to reach the Registrar, S. A. 
College, Cape Town, on or before FEBRUARY is NEXT. 

EDITOR WANTED— The PUBLISHERS of a 
Popular ILLUSTRATED MAGAZINE for LADIES require the 
services of an experienced EDITOR.— Apply, in first instance, to 
A. B., Box 1331, Athemcum Press, 13, Breams Buildings, E.C. 

"REQUIRED, as SECRETARY to a Member of 

Jl\j Parliament, a GENTLEMAN of birth and position (age not 
above 27i. One who has some knowledge of Country Pursuits and 
Agricultural Interests preferred, but this is not essential.— Apply, 
stating qualifications fully, t" Box 1823, Athemeum Press, IS, Bream's 
Buildings, Chancery Line, B.C. 

T ADY SHORTHAND TYPIST REQUIRED 

lJ as SECRETARY to Manager of Publicity Department of 
important Newspaper. Must i„- aole to compose a really good Letter, 
competent to take charge of large Correspondence, and of systematic 
habits.— Write Bon 200B, Willing*, 128, Strand, \* 0. 



Situations Wlantcb. 

ART KDITOR.— A GENTLEMAN of i 
tional qualifications an i H ae, Book, and 

newspapei Illustration In OPEN to RE ENGAGEMENT -A 
X., care "f Peti I Barper, 0, Nen Bi Idge Btn et, E I . 



Yearly Subscription, free by post, Inland, 
15s. 3d. ; Foreign, 18s. Entered at the New 
York Post Office as Second Class matter. 



OECRETARY (LADY) REQUIRES POST. 

O Skilled Corres]iondent. Research. Precis Writing, Reports, Com- 
mittee Work. Book-keeping. Several years' experience. Educated 
Public Schools and Abroad.— Box 1328, Athenaeum Press, 13, Bream's 
Buildings. Chancery Lane. E.C. 

VOUNG LADY desires ENGAGEMENT as 

i SECRETARY to Musical, Literary, or Private Gentleman. 
Three years' experience in Book-Keeping and Correspondence. Would 
travel.— Apply G. G. Box 1330, Athenaeum Press, 13. Bream's Buildings, 
Chancery Lane, E.C. 

GENTLEMAN, 24 years old, Oxford Graduate 
(Honours), desires post as PRIVATE SECRETARY. Literary 
work preferred.— Ad dress T. E. N.. care of Seripps's Advertising 
Offices, 13, South Molton Street, W. 



iHiscfllaraous. 



PRIVATE TOURS FOR GENTLEWOMEN— 
SUNNY ITALY, FEBRUARY 26. One Month. Rome, Naples, 
Capri, Sorrento, Pompeii, Florence, Venice, Milan, Genoa. References 
exchanged.— Miss BISHOP. 27, St. George's Road, Kilburn. 

T ADY desires TRANSLATION WORK— 

-Li French, German, into English. First-class Honours in both, 
L.L.A. Exam. Lived Abroad.— Miss F. D. WRIGHT, Willingdon, 
Eastbourne. 

pULTURED RUSSIAN GENTLEMAN is 

\J anxious to give LESSONS in RUSSIAN or POLISH, to obtain 
Business Correspondence Work, Book-Keening, &c. Highest 
references.— Address Miss FRANK, 3, Elvaston Place. S.W. 

ACADEMICIAN, Dr.Phil. (Ethnology, Compa- 
rative Knowledge of New Languages), desires SITUATION 
with a Publishing Firm (Periodical), as PRIVATE SECRETARY or 
any other suitable Literary Occupation.— Please. address S. K., 1568, 
care of Rudolf Mosse, Stuttgart, Germany. 

A GENTS WANTED for LONDON and 

XI THROUGHOUT the COUNTRY who have had CANVASSING 
experience in FIRST-CLASS BOOKS. The most substantial offering 
in the Book Line for high-class competent Men.— Apply by letter for 
particulars or interview to SYNDICATE, care of George Radford, 
5, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, W.C. 

QUEEN MARIE ANTOINETTE. — BARON 
CARL DE VINEK. 12, Rue de Presbourg, Paris, is writing a 
Book on the PORTRAITS of QUEEN MARIE ANTOINETTE, and 
would feel most obliged for anv communications given to him on 
authentic Portraits in Private Collections— Portraits Painted, Drawn, 
in Tapestry, Modelled in Wax, China, Marble, &c, but no Prints or 
Engravings. 

WANTED, LONDON PHILOSOPHICAL 
MAGAZINE, NOVEMBER, 1906.— Write, stating price, MAY 
& WILLIAMS, 160, Piccadilly, London. 

TO SCENE PAINTERS, SCULPTORS, and 
Others. — A handsome BUILDING, which has for many years been 
occupied by a Scene Painter. TO BE SOLD or LET. It comprises 
spacious Hall, 100ft. in length, soft, in width, and soft, high, with 
small Living Accommodation adjoining; oocupless pleasant position 
facing Blackheath and near Two Stations.— Messrs. DYER. SON .t 
HILTON, Auctioneers, SO, Budge Row, E.C. : and Blaekheath (13826). 

rpRAINING FOR PRIVATE SECRETARIAL 
■*- WORK AND INDEXING. 

Secretarial Bureau: 32a, CONDUIT ST., BOND ST., LONDON, W. 
Founded lsos. Telephone: SS4S6 QsRRARD, 

.MISS PETHERBRIDGE (Nat. Sci. Tripos). 

Employed m the India Office is— Indexer of the Bast India 
Company's Records: Dutch and Portuguese Translator. 

The Diapers Company's Records Catalogued and Arranged. 

indexeu of— The Records ,,f the County Borough of Cardiff; The 
Warrington Town Records : The Blue Hooks of the Royal Commissions 
on: London Traffic The Supply of Food in Time of War, Motor Cars. 
Canals and Waterways ; The Minutes of the Education Committee of 
ihe Somerset County Council, 

MISS PETHERBRIDGE trains from Three to Six Pupill 

year for Private Secretarial, and Special Indexing Work The 
training is one of Apprenticeship, Pupils starting as Junior Members 
of the Staff and working up through all the Branches. It is practical, 
on actual work, each Pupil being Individually coai lied. The training 
consists of indexing which includes Research Work and Precis 

Writing- Shorthand. Typewriting, and Business Training. 

THE TECHNIQUE OF INDEXING. By Mart PrTBXRBRIDOl, 
.'is. ::./ post free. 



M. 



Catalogws. 

B A R N A R 



D, M. A. 



(Foi i"' i I Theological Scholar of 

( lirlst'i College, Cambridge). 

10, DUDLEY HOAI) (opposite the Opera Botue), 
TUNBREDQE WELLS. 

CATALOGUE in, JUST ISSUED, oontains:— 

MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS including OCCULT AM' ol.it 
SCIENTIFIC, 

CATALOGUE l*, oan still be had.— Books on 

KENT. HISTORICAL TRACTS. AMERICANA. 



30 



T II K AT II K N .K I' M 



No. U85, Jam. 1 1. 1908 



ANCIENT and MODERN COINS.- Colli 
tod AnUqamriaoi <wr in<itr.i t<> uppw i- kpink » mm, 
• - m MIBMATIC ( IIMU 
l.AK The flnr.l li n mul Kngllili Culni on Ww uil fot 

B.Uu- - -I'INK A >"V I .»iim.. Kij-tI.. Vaii.cn 

■ u.l » «Uli>f ui r«. It. 17, »uj 18. Plcculillj. Loudon. W. KlUbli.llixl 
uu»»: . I .rj 

wooooun. KAiu.Y Boost mss.. 4c 

Ll'.I(,IITn\> [LLU8TRATBD CATALOGUE, 
c.iiiiiiiinm 1MB f" 11 * 11 " 11 " 
Thlik BTO, urt cloth. S3n. ; Imlfniorocco. SOn. 

P»rt XIII <'il Chat, »itli IM hadmflM i n--I n.li iit; IkTiien'H 

1010, Osplo, 1477, ami a 

|.\..»- i-.n.ly. I'rUflt. 



in. 



FroUuii. I'niiltilv Bindlnm OkpfTBI 

lan«oulltM'( Inn nt Kail\ (In. .in. If 



J. k 3. I.KIOI1TON. 
40. Brewer Street, Gulden Squnre. London. W. 



CATALOGUE Na 48.— Drawinga of the Early 
Enflilh Bchool— Turner' t l.llx-r Slu.li.nuni and "tlifi Bra ITlngl 
nft.r ffurner— Ktoblngi to Turner, 8. Palmer, Whlatlei Japanese 

I't.l.iur l'rintB- Kin.- Ait I'.tx'k- -Workl to Itu-kin. Pott fret.-, Six 
■ — WM. WARD, >, (liuri'li Tamo*, Richmond, Surrey. 



M 



A G G S B R O S.. 

109. Strand, London. W.C. 

DEALERS IN RAKE AND VALUABLE BOOKS. 

PRINTS. AND AUTOGRAPHS. 

CATALmil'ES H nt ]vst free to all parts of the World. 

Exiiort Orders solicit. .1. 

Telegruiihic and Cable Ad.lres.8 : " Hililiolite. London."— Telephone : 

"Oerrard MM." 



BERTRAM DOBELL, 
SECOND HAND BOOKSELLER and PUBLISHER. 
77, Charing Cross Road, London. W.C. 
A large Stock of old and Rare Books in English Literature, 
including Poetry and the Drama— Shakespeariana— First Editions of 
Famous Authors— Manuscripts-Illustrated Books. 4c. CATALOGUES 
free on application. 

BOOKS. BOOKS.— CATALOGUE of RECENT 
SECOND-HAND PURCHASES i>o6t free. Please state wants. 
—GALLOWAY 4 PORTER. University Booksellers. Cambridge. 

JUST PUBLISHED. 

CATALOGUE of ENGRAVED BRITISH 
PORTRAITS— Fancy Subjects, by and after the Best Masters. 
Post free on application.— GUSTAV LAUSER, Printseller, 25, Gurrk k 
Street, London, W.C. 

BOOKS.— ALL OUT-OF-PRINT and RARE 
BOOKS on any subject SUPPLIED. The most expert Book- 
finder extant. Please state wants and ask for CATALOGUE. I make 
a special feature of exchanging any Saleable Books for others selected 
from my various Lists. Special List of 2.000 Books I particularly want 
post free.— EDW. BAKER'S Great Bookshop, 14-10 John Bright Street. 
Birmingham. Oscar Wilde's Poems, 2.U.. for 10s. Gil. ; Ballad of 
Reading Gaol. 5s. Who s Who. 2 vols. 1907, lis. net. for 5s. 



IBitsituss for Disposal. 

SMALL PUBLISHING BUSINESS in FINE 
BOOKS FOR SALE at low price. Excellent reasons for dis- 
posal—Write. FORMAT care of Keynell's Advertisement Offices, 
44, Chancery Lane, W.C. 



JVuiljors' Agents. 



mi 



^HE AUTHOR'S AGENCY.— Established 1879. 

-L The interests of Authors capably represented. Agreements for 
Publishing arranged, MSS. placed with Publisher!.— Terms and Testi 
inonials on application to Mr. A. M. BUKGHES, 34. Paternoster Row 



$al*2 by Ruction. 



MESSRS. PUTTICK & SIMPSON will SELL 
to AUCTION at their Galleries, 47, Leicester Square, W,C„ on 
WEDNESDAY. January IS, and Following Dav. at io minutes past 
1 o'clock precise];, valuable BOOKB. comprising the LIBRARY of the 
late CHARLES DOUGLAS IIALFORD. Esq.. removed from Prince's 
Gate; a LLBRAEY removed from Ireland, and other Properties dis- 
order of the Executors), including well-bound Sets of Standard 
Authors, rare First Editions. Books with Coloured Plates. Siwrting 
Books, Galleries and Works relating to the Fine Arts. Extra-Illus- 
trated Books. County Histories and Topographical Works, amongst 
m bleb, will be found Sir Walter Scott's Waverley. First Edition, in the 
Original Boards; Lamb's Rosamund Gray, First Edition; Mrs. 
Leicester'! School; Tales from Shakespeare ; Elia. and others by 
Charles Lamb, all First Editions— Egan's Life In London— West- 
macotts' English Spy. tine uncut copies of the First Editions— Florio's 
Montaigne, First Edition, 1608— The SECOND FOLIO SHAKE- 
SPEARE. Young's Night Thoughts, with Plates by Blake, Coloured— 
a fine Copy of the Laurence Gallery, some Plates being in proof state 
— Views of Vienna, with very fine Coloured Plates, 17H0— Autograph 
Letters— Engravings— and many other rare and interesting items. 



M 



British and Foreign Lepidoptera, <lc 
TUKSDAY. January /',, at half-pant 1! o'clock. 
R. J. C. STEVENS will OFFER at his Rooms, 



King street. Oovent Garden, London. W.C, the OOLLEC 
TION nt ISKIT1SH LEPIDOPTERA, formed to Mr. H. A. AULD- 
COLLECTIONS o! BRITISH and EXOTIC LEPIDOPTERA. formed 
to the late Mr. A. H. SHEPHERD— valuable Mahogany Cabinet! for 
Entomological Specimens— Lepidoptera In Papers— Ooleoptera in 
Sawdust— and other Natural History Objects. 

On view day prior, 10 to 8, and morning of Sale. Catalogues on 
application. 

Sales of Miscellaneous Property. 

MR. J. C. STEVENS begs to announce that 
BALES are held EVERT FRIDAY, at his Rooms, as. King 
Street, Oovent Garden, London, W.O., for the disposal of MICRO- 
SCOPES. BLIDE8. and OBJECTIVES — Telescope!— Theodolites 
Levels— Electrical and Scientific Instruments— Cameras, Lenses, and 

all kinds of Photographic Apparatus— Optical Lanterns, with Slide! 

and all Accessorial in ureal variety by Bert Makers— Household 

Furniture— Jeweller. v— ami other Miscellaneous Property. 

On view Thursday 2 to 5 and morning of Sale. 



Valuable M and Scientific //....ii, inchidh 

1.,1,,,,,-u ../ the ton Cpt. j. si. JOB A FRMDBA 
(*old by ordt i i,f !/,■ Bxeeuton). 

MESSRS BODG80N ft 00. will BELL by 
Al OTION, at their Rooms, III I 
WEDNESDAY Januan .-.', and Two Pollowlni (>;.). I 
VALUABLE MISCELLANEOUS liooKH. in. lulling the ABOVE 
LIBRARY and utl mmialng Chamberlalne'i 1 

tions ol lit .11m in. Original Edition, old in. him.., Pyne'i Royal 
donees. I>.rn. Panel vols. — Hutolilni'i H la tor? ..i !• I. 

Edition. 4 Mils —Gould » Monograph ol the Humming Birds, 6 vote.— 
Merer"! Illustration', of IlrltM. Birds, original Edition 4 roll 
Curtis'! Botanical Magazine, 78 mis. 1787 1840 Edwards I Botanical 
Register, .i.i vols- Annall of Natural History, the Kin Sei 
plate. s.i vols.— MIcToecoploaj Bo u tions, *■■ i-u I9M, and 

Natural History Book!— British Museum Catalogues. SO >ol» — 

i tin.. Set of Dibdln'i BlbUotheca Spenosrtana, 7 vols.. Uirge Pa|n-r— 

Siuilh's Catalogue Raisoiuie. i mis— Propert'l Miniature Art- I 
from the Kelmsoott Prea -'11 n- Nuremberg Chronli la, lin -The Tudor 
TraniUtionr, Japanese Vellum Edition, 21 rob. fmliaai t'l Cliiiinli Im. 

With Noel Humphrey!' Illuuilnations, handsomely Is'Ulnl in i vols. 
— Best Edition of l.vtton. 47 vols, cloth— Library Sets of Dickens, 
Thackeray, and Marryat— (Euvrea de Vlotor Hugo. Large Paper, 
18 roll half m. .io.... — Books on Cricket and other Sports— Original 
ns's by Kate Greanawar, Aubrey naaidilai. ainf niliaie ■ fine 
■ ion ot Chinees Coloured Drawing*, in \i vols, folio, old morocco 

—Arundel Society's Chrome Lithographs. Ac. 

Catalogues on application. 



MESSRS. CHRISTIE, M ANSON, & WOODS 
respectfully give notice that thev will hold the Following 
8ALESby AUCTION, at their Great It. suns. King Street. St. .1 
o'clock precisely. 



respect fully giv 

I to AUCTION, i 

Square, the Sales commencing at 



On FRIDAY, January 17, PORCELAIN, 

OBJECTS OF ART. and DECORATIVE FURNITURE from 
various Sources. 

On SATURDAY, January 18, ANCIENT and 

MODERN PICTURES and DRAWINGS of Mr. THOMAS 
Mi LEAN. 



Hoolu a iid Manuka , 

MES8RS 801 BEBY, WILKINSON A HODGE 
will SELL by A 

•\\ January It. \u . 
Following l>,ti«, at 1 oVl 
lii'lu 

Io AI'.IHt'K Bill 
■ WI.MillAM lit i. Ill 
Property ol Miai HAMMOND I HAM1.H 

McC'AKTHl imeramith Rmd. and other*. cnatwWiig 

l-rinustl Ilooki- French lllu.trtite.1 Work.- Toik*i 
-I -.rliuv Books— TracU and 
Library. i\ oils, I 

— Col ,.s — Muilr — Classical Works - 

Planrthoium I -■■ Dniwing. I 

« tola l*r.j-rir»l Editions of the Writing, of Tlia/kr 

- Am. worth. Wilde. Leigh Hunt. L- 
Swift, Swinburne, Ac. -Law Itei-.rls, Vti vols ItfTl-l • 

May b* rlewed two day« prior. Catalogue! may l<e haiL 

i. PARK PLAi B, LEEDS. 
Re F. DYKB8, deceased. 

AfE88R8. H0LU8 & WEBB, instructed l,v 

J-TX the Executors, will SELL l.v AUCTION, at ther ' 

n JAM.'AKV B. B, and -a. the remarkably fine LIBKAItV 
ot HooKs. in. In. ling Volume* of ti 

Chaucer. First English Translation, ot l.wiayi. 

and Cervantes' Don Ouixote— Best Editlnni of the Dramatists— 
Tudor Translations — Villon Society — Fine-Art Books — Limited 
Editions of illustrated French Works 

Catalogues (price 8d. each) can be had from the AUCTION. 1 
3, Park Place, Leeds. 

On view Two Dayi prior to the Sale. 
Sale at 11 o'clock each day. 



For Type-writers and Magazines, &c, 
see pp. 54, 55. 



ON SALE AT 



EDWARD HOWELL'S BOOK STORE 

83, CHURCH STREET, LIVERPOOL. 



NAPOLEON I., by HORNE, 2 vols. 8vo, inlaid to folio size, and extended to 6 thick vols, folio, 
with 1,400 Portraits, Coloured Views, and rare Autographs and two cases of rare Coins, bound 
uniform, whole bound in polished morocco, an unique set £350. 

MILTON'S PARADISE LOST, 1668, folio, bound in pigskin £12 12s. 

CHAUCER.— The rare Kelmscott Press Edition, 1896, a superb and unique copy £140. 

MILTON'S PARADISE LOST, the rare First Edition, full morocco, an immaculate copy £85. 

CHAUCER, 1598, rare Black Letter copy, full morocco, a remarkably fine copy £25. 

SPENSER'S FAERIE QUEEN, 1611, folio, superbly bound in morocco £50. 

NUREMBERG CHRONICLE, 1493, with 2,250 Woodcuts, thick folio, an immaculate tall copy 

£50. 
£20. 
£250. 
£22. 



NUREMBERG CHRONICLE, 1493— another copy, not quite so tall 

SHAKESPEARE, 16S5, the rare Fourth Folio, fine tall copy, full morocco 

WHITE'S SELBORNE, the rare First Edition 

EMMA, LADY HAMILTON, by H. GAMLIN, 4to, extra-illustrated with 54 Portraits and 
Views, new crimson morocco, gilt edges, unique copy £10. 

DANIEL'S RURAL SPORTS, 4 vols, folio, large paper, full morocco £10 10s. 

BRYAN'S DICTIONARY OF PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS, 2 vols, imperial Svo, extra 
illustrated with 120 fine old Portraits, new half-polished calf, unique copy, 1S86 £5 15s. 

PARKINSON'S HERBAI Theatricum Botanicum, 1640, folio, over 1,000 Woodcuts, fine sound 

copy, in old calf £5 10s. 

FULL PARTICULARS ON APPLICATION. 



CATALOGUES ON APPLICATION. 



JUST READY, price 42s. net (postage $d. ) 

CELTIC ILLUMINATIVE ART 

IN THE GOSPEL BOOKS OF DURROW, LINDISFARNE, AND KELLS 
With Historical Introduction, and Descriptive Letterpress facing each Plate. 

BY 

Rev. STANFORD F. H. ROBINSON, M.A. 

An entirely new work on Celtic Art, consisting of a series of Collotype Reproductions includ- 
ing several enlargements from specially ornate pages, which help to convey a more adequate 
apprehension ot the marvellous wealth of detail and beaut; of the ornament in these Celtic Illuminated 
MSS. The book contains a beautiful series of Celtic Capital Letters and Monograms (seven full 
plates) in Colours. 

Dublin : HODGES, FIGGIS & CO., Limited, Publishers to the University, 104, Grafton Street. 



No: 4185, Jan. 11, 1908 THE ATHENiEUM 31_ 

A LITERARY FOUR-IN-HAND. 

^1 Mr. John Lane begs to inform his patrons that he will open the Publishing Season by starting 
from the Bodley Head four new Authors, viz. : — 

1. A NEW HUMOURIST F. J. Randall LOVE AND THE IRONMONGERS 

2. A NEW CLASSIC W. Compton Leith APOLOGIA DIFFIDENTIS 

3. A NEW CRITIC R. A. Scott-James MODERNISM AND ROMANCE 

4. A NEW POET Lascelles Abercrombie INTERLUDES AND POEMS 
Mr. Lane believes that these books will run through the Season. The following are the fixtures : — 

JANUARY 15. 

APOLOGIA DIFFIDENTIS. By W. Compton Leith. Demy 8vo, 7s. 6d. net. 

V The publisher is conscious that it is unusual to hail a new writer as " a classic," but Sir Thomas Browne, Pater, 
R. L. S., and Kenneth Grahame were once new writers, and he claims for Mr. Compton Leith that he has written a 
book worthy to be placed along with the writings of such authors. By some APOLOGIA DIFFIDENTIS may be 
voted precious— it is certainly intimate — but those who have the delicate perception to appreciate a new style will read 
and re-read the book. It stands apart from the highway of modern introspective literature ; it is too true to be 
precious, too classical to be treated as ephemeral. By its overwhelming sincerity it will command respect, and not a few 
will sympathize with a soul battling against the heartlessness of circumstance. 

JANUARY 22. 

LOVE AND THE IRONMONGERS. By F. J. Randall. Crown 8vo, 6s. 

^[ The robustious essence of Twentieth -Century Humour. The story of how a moribund jester landed a number of 
very respectable people in topsy-turveydom, and how they were extricated therefrom by a further twist of the deceased 
man's testament, will appeal to all who possesses what has been called the fourth of the great Cardinal Virtues — Humour. 

JANUARY 22. 

MODERNISM AND ROMANCE. By R. A. Scott-James. Demy 8vo, 7*. 6d. net. 

^f The literature of every period is at one and the same time a mirror and a guide. Mr. Scott-James's study of 
MODERNISM AND ROMANCE aims at indicating the scope of these functions in the literature of our own day. 
He takes a few conspicuous tendencies of the age— the scientific spirit, self-consciousness, democracy, realism, pessimism, 
and the new romantic movement— and shows how almost every new book may be regarded as a symptom of health 
or disease in the social organism. The book is not a series of essays, but a continuous treatment of the dominant 
characteristics of contemporary life as revealed in contemporary literature. 

JANUARY 29. 

INTERLUDES AND POEMS. By Lascelles Abercrombie. Crown 8vo, 5s. net. 

^f Some weeks ago the well-known editor of a distinguished weekly declared he had discovered a new poet — a real 
genius. On his being asked if the poet's name was Abercrombie, his astonished reply was " Yes." " I thought so," 
was the retort, " I have just accepted a volume from him entitled INTERLUDES AND POEMS, and one of the 
most distinguished living writers wrote me a spontaneous letter drawing attention to Mr. Abercrombie, as 'not only 
a poet, but a poet of very great and original powers. . . .1 mean, this is really that vara avis, a man of genius.'" Poetry, 
if it is to possess vitality, must deal with vital questions. Consequently the subject-matter of the poetry of different 
generations appears to vary. In reality it is not variation, but development, and with development of subject comes 
development of form. Mr. Abercrombie perhaps has more marked development of form than any of his predecessors 
since Whitman. It is because he is treating of ideas forced upon him by his generation. But behind the new 
standpoint, the new teaching, there is recognizable the old music flowing in new channels. 

N.B. — The publisher feels impelled to explain, or at least to apologize for the unconventional form 
in which he announces his four new authors, but in order to display their respective points the 
typographical substitute for limelight seems the one resource to any one desirous of directing critical 
attention to his Pegasus team. The publisher's modesty is perhaps the result of a recent reading 
of 'Apologia Diffidentis ' ; or possibly of an inward conviction that nowadays "Good wine needs no 
bush " has lost its application in the Twentieth Century. 

JOHN LANE, THE BODLEY HEAD, LONDON AND NEW YORK. 



••'.•. , 



T II E A T ii 1: x .!•: r M 



No. H85. Jan. 1 1. 1908 



MACMILLAN & CO.'S 

NEW BOOKS. 



HURST & BLACKETTS LIST. 



FROM 



A CATALOGUE RAISONNE 

OP THE WORKS OF 

THE MOST EMINENT DUTCH 
PAINTERS OF THE SEVEN- 
TEENTH CENTURY. 

Baaed on thfl Work of John smith. By C. 
HOFSTEDE DE GROOT. Translated and Edited by 

EDWARD (i. H.WVKK. In 10 vols. 6vo. Vol. I. 
I6a net. 
Vol. I. JAN STERN. GABRIEL METsu, G ERARD 
nor, I'll. iik DE hooch, CABEL fabritius, 

JOHANNES VKK.M KKH. 

VOL. I. NOW READY. 

THE EVERSLEY TENNYSON. 

Annotated l>v ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON. Edited 
bv DALLAM. LORD TENNYSON. Vol.1. POEMS. 
With Portrait. Globe 8vo, 4*. net. 

BY LORD ACTON. 

THE HISTORY OF FREEDOM, 

AND OTHER ESSAYS. Edited, with an Introduction, 
by J. N. FIGGIS, M.A., and K. V. LAURENCE, M.A. 
Svo, 10*. net. 

HISTORICAL ESSAYS 
AND STUDIES. 

Edited, with an Introduction, by the Same. 8vo, 10s. net. 



NEW IMPRESSION NOW READY. 

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No. 4185, Jan. 11, 1908 



THE ATHENAEUM 



3:3 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 11, 1908. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Two Volumes on French Poetry 33 

Highways and Byways in Kent 31 

The Oxyrhynchus Papyri 35 

Shakspeare's Warwickshire Contemporaries .. 36 

Travel 37 

Short Stories 39 

Our Library Table (Sociological Papers ; Devon- 
shire Characters ; Discoveries ; Sartor Resartus ; 
Venetian Life ; Suffolk Records Index ; The Literary 
Year-Book) 40—41 

The Book Sales of 19o~ ; 'The Licensed Trade' ; 
John Cumming Nimmo ; Shakespeare's Birth- 
place Trust ; The Douglas Cause.. .. 41 — 43 

List of New Books 44 

Literary Gossip 44 

Science— Chemical Literature ; Lorimer Fison ; 
Societies ; Meetings Next Week ; Gossip 46—47 

Fine Arts— Old Masters at the Academy ; Notes 
from Paris ; The Aurelian Wall at Rome ; 
Gossip; Exhibitions 47—50 

Music— Gossip ; Performances Next Week.. .. 50 

Drama— The Mystery of Edwin Drood ; The 
House; Dear Old Charlie; Gossip .. 50—52 

Index to Advertisers 52 



LITERATURE 



The Oxford Book of French Verse : Thir- 
teenth Century — Nineteenth Century. 
Chosen by St. John Lucas. (Oxford, 
Clarendon Press.) 

The Claims of French Poetry : Nine 
Studies in the Greater French Poets. 
By John C. Bailey. (Constable & Co.) 

Two books have been published almost 
simultaneously with the single, unusual, 
and laudable aim of commending French 
poetry to English readers. One, ' The 
Oxford Book of French Verse,' is the 
best selection that has been printed in 
England, and contains a sane, vigorous, 
and enlivening preface dealing in a brief, 
but enlightening way with the whole sub- 
ject. The other is a collection of essays, 
somewhat disconnected, but attaining a 
certain unity from their attempt to show 
that " the widespread opinion in England 
that French poetry is merely rhetoric in 
verse " (for which Matthew Arnold was 
partly responsible) may be somewhat 
insular. Here we shall find a good 
deal of controversial matter, and by no 
means so coherent and convincing a 
judgment of things as in the preface and 
notes of the anthology. Mr. Bailey's 
is a book of rather lengthy discussion ; 
the other is definite in choice and 
comment. 

It is possible to complain a little that 
the Oxford selection, good as it is, is in 
part constructed on the theory that not 
good poems only are to be chosen, but 
also poems characteristic of a period or 
a writer. Thus Moliere, who has no 
claim to be represented, apart from his 
drama, in a book of poets, has his sonnet, 
and very poor it is. A note at the end 



tells us that Benserade was a Court 
versifier, and that " the wretched sonnet 
about Job caused a vast deal of windy 
argument. Its rival was Voiture's equally 
vapid ' II faut finir mes jours.' " Is it 
not a little disconcerting to turn from 
this sensible note to the poems of Benserade 
and Voiture which are given in the body of 
the book, and to find these two vapid 
productions ? Why insert, here and there, 
other deplorable specimens of bad writers 
and unhappy ages, when the sharp salt 
of correction is waiting in the notes, as 
when we read of the " ponderous and 
affected " Du Bartas : " Goethe admired 
him " ? With every detail of every 
selection no single person can, of course, 
expect to be entirely satisfied ; but a 
large proportion of the Oxford pieces 
could hardly be bettered. The space, 
indeed, devoted to the greater men, 
Villon, Chenier, Vigny, less known, per- 
haps, than Hugo, Musset, Lamartine, is 
much to be commended ; and to see good 
room given to Du Bellay, and a corner to 
an almost unknown Amadis Jamyn, is 
to discover even more clearly the 
merits of the anthology. Most of the 
poems are printed in full, and it evinces 
commendable courage that the whole 
of Villon's great ballad of the ' Belle 
Heaulmiere,' which even Mr. Swinburne 
hesitated to render without the aid of 
carefully arranged asterisks, is here to 
be read as it would appear in any 
French edition. One large omission, which 
takes away a good half of the structure 
of ' La Maison du Berger ' of Vigny, 
might perhaps have been indicated more 
clearly than by asterisks, which might 
mean the absence of a stanza only. 

The nctes contain in a brief space 
just the right sort of information, 
such as the place of birth and the 
best accessible edition of works ; while 
the dates of birth and death are exactly 
where they should be — at the beginning 
of the selections from each poet. The 
Introduction, in fewer than thirty small 
pages, gives a rapid and brilliant survey 
of French poetry from the thirteenth 
century to the nineteenth, and though 
here and there are touches of rhetoric, as 
in the vision of Rome, it is on the whole 
written with a delightful energy, often 
pleasantly defiant, for the instinct which 
speaks out with this emphasis is nearly 
always the right one. Gautier has never 
been better summed up, nor Marot (for 
contrast), whose poems were " personal, 
but not poetic." How good is this on 
Ronsard ! — 

" Ronsard was a great poet, having 
authority ; he was also a scholar, with the 
scholar's weakness for imposing rules ; 
and, unfortunately, the first to take advan- 
tage of such rules, and to strengthen them, 
and contract their limits, are usually those 
who are dasignod by nature to be pedants 
and not poets." 

Of such was Malherbe, and " to Malherbe 
we owe the perpetualizing of these forms 
reduced to their lowest terms of mechanical 
accuracy by a frigid intelligence." It is 
in writing of Ronsard that Mr. Lucas — 
politely, but justly — notes, with reference 
to the vital quality of Ronsard's poetry, 



that " even Pater writes of these poems 
as if they were specimens of remarkable 
tapestry in a museum." That is true of 
the references to the Pleiade in the ' Studies 
in the Renaissance,' but what of the 
ecstatic pages in ' Gaston de Latour ' on 
this poetry, which " boldly assumed the 
dress, the words, the habits, the very 
trick, of contemporary life, and turned 
them into gold " % What of " The juice 
in the flowers, when Ronsard named 
them, was like wine or blood " ? And it 
may be questioned whether Chateaubriand, 
for all the suggestiveness of his imagina- 
tive but excessive prose, was, so largely 
as Mr. Lucas imagines, the origin of 
the Romantic movement, not only in 
fiction and descriptive prose, but in 
poetry also. 

In one of the pages of his essay on 
Victor Hugo, Mr. Bailey, the writer of 
the second book before us, defines his 
intention very clearly. " The answer," 
he says, 

" I am trying to get at here is that of no 
specialist al all, but of the plain lover of 
literature, and especially of poetry, of those 
who find in poetry at once tin most delightful 
of human arts, and the least imperfect utter- 
ance man has achieved of what he has in 
him at his greatest moments." 
Cumbrously expressed as it is, there is 
something pleasant and premising in 
such a statement, and the whole book is 
a development of it. It begins, indeed, 
with the thesis, not unreasonable, that in 
Horace, not in Virgil, we find the natural 
genius of France ; and proceeds to an 
argument to the effect that French poetry 
as a whole is to be judged in Racine, as 
English poetry is to be judged in Shak- 
speare, and that Racine, as most men are 
ready to agree, is, as a poet, very much 
the smaller man. Most of the remaining 
part of the book goes to prove that Racine 
does in no complete sense represent the 
poetic genius of France, and it cannot be 
said that justice is done to the writer of 
' Phedre ' when he is characterized as 
merely an " ingenious rhetorician." 
" There are things which are French," 
Mr. Bailey says, rather condescendingly, 
" and which it is useless to look for in an 
Englishman." Nothing could be truer, 
and few Englishmen have ever seen all 
that a Frenchman sees and admires in 
the strange and subtle genius of a great 
dramatic poet, whose technique, in the 
famous " Ariane, ma sceur," anticipates 
what seems to us the new decadent " En 
robe d'or il adore " of Verlaine. 

Mr. Bailey is at his best when he accepts 
and praises, but it is a little difficult to 
follow him in his apology for Marot. 
More of the essence of the matter is said 
in the single phrase which we have quoted 
from Mr. Lucas than in the whole of Mr. 
Bailey's essay. And that one who cannot 
see the essentially French genius of 
Racine should almost accept the really 
local French estimate of La Fontaine 
as the Homer of France shows a curious 
uncertainty of judgment. Why judge 
Racine from the point of view of the 
Englishman, and La Fontaine from the 
point of view of the Frenchman ! " What 
he tried to do he did perfectly," Mr. Bailey 



34 



T II E AT II i: \ .K U M 



No. U85, .Ian. 11, 1908 



Kays of La Fontaine S<> did Racine. 
Is there more essential poetry in a table 
of La Fontaine than in a play of Racine 

or drama as essential ( " He raielv 
stirs our Mood, and never inspires us," 
Mr. Bailey admits of La Fontaine. Yet 
he cannot realize that in Racine, under- 
neath all the formality of the speech, 
there is a little living flame, which never 
so much as flickers in the choice words 
of the amiable fabulist. 

In the essays on Ronsard, Chenier, 
Hugo, Leconte de Lisle, and Heredia, 
Mr. Bailey is at his best. It is a joy 
to read so sane, discriminating, and 
enthusiastic an account of the poet who 
was half a Greek, not only by birth, but 
also by genius, the more classical Keats 
of France, Andre Chenier. Mr. Bailey 
does not seem to realize how little 
Chenier is really known in England, 
and how little his qualities are of the 
kind for which most English readers of 
poetry care. Even he himself has not, 
perhaps, seen the personal warmth and 
modernness of the love-poems, the ' Ele- 
gies,' in which, like other critics, French 
as well as English, he finds " no great 
interest." But, with this customary ex- 
ception, all that he says is good and 
just, and should bring many new readers 
to one of the rarest of French poets. 
Ronsard is happily praised and presented, 
and the essay might be read in company 
with Mr. George Wyndham's dainty and 
delicate renderings, in which the verse 
is carefully modelled on the English 
verse contemporary with that of the 
Pleiade. Hugo is lauded at great length, 
and with ample and well-chosen quotations. 
The essay is extravagantly eulogistic, 
and at times unpardonably so, as in a 
comparison between Hugo and Milton, 
which is more out of place than any 
conceivable French comparison of Racine 
with Shakspeare. Mr. Bailey, who sees 
the rhetorician in Racine, does not see 
him, a splendid giant, dominating the 
whole work of Hugo. His immense 
enthusiasm is not without its value, at 
a time when Hugo is probably little read 
in England, and justice is scarcely 
done to one who seems already becoming 
a solid part of the past. This essay, 
then, c in be read with profit, and should 
be read with attention. 

The study of Leconte de Lisle, though 
one of the briefest, is one of the most 
perfect essays in the book. Justice and 
sympathy are singularly mingled ; the 
whole atmosphere of this poetry of the 
heat and languor of the East is rendered, 
its brooding over annihilation, its " cres- 
cendo of silences." It is true that Leconte 
de Lisle is " the most monotonous of 
first-rate poets, always on a high level, 
but always the same " ; yet true also 
is the statement that the writer of so 
vast a poem as ' Le Sommeil du Condor ' 
(how many poets can be vast in twenty- 
eight lines ?) "in his measure is as as- 
suredly a man who has come from a 
strange country as Dante is the man 
who has been in Heaven and Hell." 
The comparison with Matthew Arnold 



is good, that with Landor is better. As ps 
are rightly reminded, 

" Landor was a greater human being alto- 
gether than Leconte de Lisle ; and, for 
tins particular work of the classical idyll, 
he was helped by the fact that he had far 
more in him of the qualities of the two 
peoples out of whom what wo know as 
Europe has developed, more of the manliness 
of Rome, and more of the rippling freshness 
of Greece, than was ever possible to a man 
like Leconte de Lisle, who, as I have said, 
never really became a European at all." 

No more really European, perhaps, was 
the " pupil," in a sense, of Leconte de 
Lisle, the Cuban Heredia, who is studied 
in the last of these essays, with rare know- 
ledge and admiration of what Mr. Bailey 
calls something of a Pindaric genius. 
The epithet is hardy, and may be con- 
tested, for Heredia was no eagle. He 
carved as Gautier would have the artist 
carve, in his own form, " marbre, onyx," 
his medallion. To Mr. Bailey there is 
much more in these splendid " Trophees," 
which he seems to see, in some temple 
of Art, " among her cloudy trophies 
hung." Yet does Heredia really go 
beyond the bounds of the Parnassians ? 
Was he not always in the true sense a 
poet of the past ? 



Highways and Byways in Kent. By 
Walter Jerrold. Illustrated by Hugh 
Thomson. (Macmillan & Co.) 

The best part of this issue of a charming 
series is the abundance of dainty drawings 
by Mr. Hugh Thomson. For such a 
work as this the county of Kent, rich 
in scenery and an infinite variety of 
old buildings, affords a superabundance 
of subjects, and with most of those selected 
by Mr. Thomson no one can fail to be 
pleased. " Pretty " is an epithet that, by 
constant and inappropriate use, has almost 
come to be regarded as a contemptuous 
word ; but it is difficult to think of any 
better expression to apply to such pleasant 
pictures as those Mr. Thomson has given 
us of Shorne Churchyard ; the Falstaff 
Inn, Gadshill ; the Norman Church, St. 
Margaret's ; the bridge over the Medway 
at Teston ; Canterbury from a distance ; 
and many others. In dealing, however, 
with so prolific an illustrator, it is best 
to be candid, and we think that some of 
his work suffers from undue haste. 
This is particularly the case with 
the view] "on p. 10 of the twin towers 
of Reculver ; this ancient building 
appears to be slipping down from the 
summit of a hastily constructed haystack. 
The two drawings of Leeds Castle are 
certainly inadequate ; nor has the most 
been made of East Farleigh. In the 
latter case the picture, though pretty, 
gives the idea of a really small bridge. 
One other complaint must be made : 
the two pictures of the central 
tower of Canterbury Cathedral give 
considerable prominence to the maze 
of scaffolding by which it was surrounded 
at the time when these views were taken 
— a bit of realism which might with 
advantage have been omitted. Notwith- 



standing these criticisms, the general 
oharm of the drawings prevails over any 
possible defects in a few cases. In this 
hook Mr. Thomson shows a thorough 
command over his pencil in the treatment 
of street buildings. There is much vigour 
and power in his ' Byway in Ashford ' ; 
and we doubt if that difficult subject, 
Mercery Lane, Canterbury, has ever 
been so effectively sketched. 

If an artist cannot fail to be embarrassed 
with the multiplicity of subjects in a 
general work on the county of Kent, still 
more must a like difficulty arise when 
one undertakes to write about a district 
that is so crowded with varied interest, 
and has been the scene of so many 
historic events. On the whole, those who 
know the county well can scarcely fail to 
be satisfied with the comprehensive topo- 
graphical selection made by Mr. Jerrold 
of the places best worthy of description. 
The city of Canterbury ; the isle of 
Thanet ; Sandwich, Deal, and the Good- 
wins ; Dover and Folkestone, with their 
respective neighbourhoods ; the great 
flats of Romney Marsh, and Lympne ; 
the district of Ashford ; Cranbrook 
and the " Hursts " ; the district 
of Maidstone ; Tonbridge and " the 
Wells " ; Penshurst, and the valley of 
the Eden ; Westerham and Sevenoaks ; 
Otford and " the Hams " ; Dartford and 
Gravesend ; Rochester and the Thames 
marshes ; Sittingbourne, Faversham and 
Sheppey ; and finally Kent near London, 
are all treated in this work, leaving 
but little to complain of in the way of 
omission. With such a vast number of 
subjects, the treatment cannot fail to be 
sketchy ; but we think that in several 
places more room might well have been 
found for solid information had the 
numerous poetical quotations and repro- 
ductions of second-rate ballads (all of 
which are fairly well known) been con- 
siderably curtailed. Occasionally Mr. 
Jerrold slips. For instance, when giving 
a brief description of the old village of 
Heme and its singularly fine and interest- 
ing church, he states that the latter 
" is worthy of more than passing mention, for 
it was here that Nicholas Ridley, bishop and 
martyr, held his first cure, and here, for the 
first time in England it is said, lie caused the 
■ Te Deum ' to be sung." 

This is an extraordinary statement to 
make with regard to the glorious hymn 
of St. Ambrose. Was it not sung on the 
shores of Kent many centuries before 
the days of Ridley, when St. Augus- 
tine landed with his little band of mis- 
sionaries ? Possibly Mr. Jerrold meant to 
WTite " English " instead of " England "; 
but even if this was intended, the state- 
ment would be incorrect. 

The writer's comments on old churches 
or other ancient buildings are singularly 
few ; but he delights in rough-and-ready 
criticisms as to modern work. When 
dealing with Canterbury Cathedral, he 
has the temerity to say that " among the 
things which one would like to forget is 
the gimcrack pulpit in the nave." Critics 
of taste and weight for the most part 
admire this beautiful design of the late 



No. 4185, Jan 11, 1908 



THE ATHENAEUM 



35 



Mr. Bodley, and it has more than once 
been described as the finest modern 
pulpit in England. Even those who 
think it out of place in the great medieval 
nave can scarcely fail to admire its 
impressive features and its excellent 
execution. At any rate, it is a substantial 
and thoroughly genuine example of crafts- 
manship ; and Mr. Jerrold in our view 
could hardly have found a more in- 
appropriate adjective to apply to it than 
" gimcrack." 

There is, however, a good deal of 
pleasantly written and slightly inform- 
ing matter throughout these pages, and 
certainly the writer takes some pains 
to relieve them from possible dullness 
by the insertion of somewhat remark- 
able anecdotes. Thus, when he reaches 
the high-perched church of Cudham, 
though he has nothing whatever to say 
of its distinctly interesting fabric, he 
informs us that 

" on one occasion the vicar of Cudham was 
called upon to baptize four children of the 
same birth — twinned twins— and the story 
runa that a boy being sent to the clergyman 
to come and baptize * a parcel of children,' 
the vicar enquired how many there were, and 
the boy answered, ' Three when I came, but 
God knows how many there may be before 
you get there ! ' The four were all buried 
four days later." 



The Oxyrhynchus Papyri. Part V. Edited 
by B. P. Grenfell and A. S. Hunt. 
(Egypt Exploration Fund.) 

We have before us another large volume 
from the indefatigable explorers to whom 
Hellenic studies owe so much, and this 
time the instalment is of monumental 
value. We do not think that any previous 
volume has given us such varied treasures. 
We will not spend more than a line on the 
early copies of known texts from Plato or 
Isocrates, which only show us that our 
tradition in the mediaeval MSS. is very 
good, and that much earlier copies from 
Egypt seldom add to the solid knowledge 
of a speech or dialogue which we already 
possess. Strange to say, the new texts 
in this volume teach the same sort of 
truth, or an analogous truth, in plain 
terms. As the mediaeval texts of the 
great authors generally contain the best 
tradition, so the selections from them 
which have survived contain the best 
specimens of their work ; what was for- 
gotten or neglected was generally of less 
moment ; and if we except the poems of 
Bacchylides, one of which at least is a 
noble addition to our Greek lyric poetry, 
the recent discoveries are not such as to 
make us lament our losses. Whatever 
specialists may think, the literary world 
is not much richer by reason of Herondas, 
or Timotheus, or even, we venture to say, 
the texts contained in the present 
admirable volume. 

That, of course, is not the opinion of the 
discoverers. They tell us that the paeans 
of Pindar, so far as they are here recovered, 
create a poignant sense of what has 
been lost ; and doubtless the German 
professors who long to write acute com- 



mentaries on new texts will be of that 
opinion also. To us it seems that no 
passage in the present work will ever be 
quoted as a splendid specimen of Pindar's 
art, and this the authors, in one place 
at least, seem to admit. We will not 
quote their prose versions, which aim at 
accuracy rather than poetic style ; but 
even these, candidly considered, will 
show that the ideas in these paeans of 
Pindar were commonplace, only enhanced 
into poetry by the dignity of the language 
and the artificial graces of lyric metre. We 
cannot but feel that Pindar was in some 
sort analogous to our own Wordsworth, 
who, along with much prosaic stuff, 
gives us the noblest poetry. But then 
Wordsworth's diction sinks with his 
subject ; that of Pindar is always lofty 
and impressive. 

We turn back to the theological frag- 
ment at the opening of the volume. 
This contains a passage from a lost Gospel, 
which the editors refer to the second 
century. Its composition may be much 
earlier, for St. Luke tells us that before he 
wrote his Gospel " many had taken in 
hand " to give an account of the life of 
Christ. No one who knows the literary 
temper of that period has failed to admire 
the peculiar simplicity and directness of 
the Gospels, in contrast to the rhetorical 
tendencies of the age. It was an age of 
decadence in style, owing mainly to this 
very fault. The Synoptic Gospels are 
wholly free from it. Not that they were 
the words of untutored nature. Blass 
has shown that the opening chapter of 
St. Luke's Gospel is the work of a skilled 
writer, whose art was superior to that of 
his surroundings. Hence we may surmise 
that a large number of worse Gospels 
were rejected by the instinct of the pious, 
and the judgment of the wise, so as to 
leave us nothing but the four. They are 
to be compared to the ' Iliad ' and 
' Odyssey,' which survived out of a crowd 
of lesser Greek epics. The present frag- 
ment is valuable as supplying another 
specimen of the rejected sort. We have 
no sympathy with the modern fashion of 
scenting Gnostic heresies in every frag- 
ment of the kind. It seems to us no more 
than a vulgar attempt to dress up the 
teaching of Christ by rhetorical effects, 
with the sacrifice of truth and accuracy. 
The description of the Temple court seems 
to be false. The account of the Pool of 
David, in which hogs and high priests 
bathe in common, is manifestly absurd. 
It seems difficult to believe that such an 
essay could have lived for a day if the 
canonical lives had already been well 
known. But these points we leave to the 
theologians. 

The third text which cannot but 
excite the learned world is that of a lost 
historian treating in great detail the 
period following the Peloponnesian War. 
The chapters now recovered deal with the 
events of 396 and 395 B.C., already known 
to us through Xenophon's ' Hellenica,' at 
which time Conon and Agesilaus were the 
leading personalities, and the anti-Spartan 
combination was beginning which re- 
sulted first in the loss of Sparta's naval 



supremacy by the battle of Naxos, and 
then of her military prestige by that of 
Leuctra. The new writer differs suffi- 
ciently in small details from Xenophon to 
show us that he is an independent autho- 
rity, while there are internal evidences 
that his book was written about the same 
time as Xenophon's. The discrepancies 
in question are only of interest to specialists 
who have devoted their lives to the study 
of the period. To anybody else it does 
not signify one straw whether certain 
Theban politicians were bribed by Persian 
gold to pursue an anti-Spartan policy, 
which was in any case their interest ; 
whether certain portions of a campaign 
in Asia Minor were carried on against the 
Satrap Pharnabazus or the Satrap Tith- 
raustes ; whether one Spartan admiral 
replaced another a month later or not ; 
or whether it was the Phocians that stole 
Locrian sheep on Mount Parnassus, or 
Locrians that stole Phocian sheep, and 
so produced a war. It is, indeed, a most 
remarkable tribute to the amazing interest 
of Greek history that now, in the twentieth 
century after Christ, learned men should 
be busy over such matters, and should 
spend their lives in endeavouring to 
ascertain the most detailed information 
about petty operations three centuries 
before Christ. On the whole, this inde- 
pendent history renders valuable support 
to Xenophon, for it shows that he has 
recorded the general course of this moment 
in Greek affairs with intelligence, and 
a sound appreciation of the motives of 
the actors. We may concede to the 
editors that the new author puts Agesilaus 
and Conon respectively in truer perspective ; 
but if he chanced to make Conon his hero, 
as Xenophon did Agesilaus, it would 
account for all the allusions in the frag- 
ments just as well. 

But who is this author ? Three men 
can be named who treated the period 
besides Xenophon. They are Ephorus, 
Theopompus, and the almost unknown 
Cratippus. Blass decided for the last, 
against whom we find no definite objec- 
tion, but little positive evidencein his favour. 
Since Blass's death two eminent Germans 
— Wilamowitz and E. Meyer — have sought 
to make out a case for Theopompus, and 
have not only persuaded themselves, but 
also half-persuaded the editors. But their 
arguments are flimsy enough, and we are 
surprised to see Messrs. Grenfell and Hunt 
lay stress on such a reason as this : that 
Stephanus Byzantinus quotes Theopompus 
for the form KapTracrexx; (a man of Car- 
pasia), as if it were formed from Carpasos. 
Possibly the similar sound to Carpathos, 
and parallel forms such as 2«A.y«iis and 
I'ayaAao-o-ei's, may have made men 
doubtful regarding the form ; but who 
will venture to say that if Stephanus 
Byzantinus quotes Theopompus as using 
such a form, because this author happened 
to be familiar to him, Cratippus may 
not have used it also ? A similar argu- 
ment, indeed, breaks down with the 
editors, because Ephorus happens to 
use a rare form as well as Theopompus. 

To put aside such trifles, the really 
weighty argument, which persuaded Blass 



36 



T II K A T II K\ & I M 



No. U85, Jan. 11. 1908 



and whi< h persuades us, is that the style 
of Theopompus, both from what we have 

and uliat ue hear about it, cannot be 

identified with thai of the mw fragments. 

They are tame and dry, poor in \ ocabulai \ . 
and rather remind us of l'olybius than 

of the fiery pupil of [socrates ; and this 
fiery pupil is now supposed by Prof. 
M yer to have begun bis writing in a tame 

and jejune way, and to have blossomed 

out later into violent eloquence ! The 
feeling for style seems to us to be weaker 
in German than in English scholars, 
probably because the latter have spent 
much time in writing exercises in Greek 
prose. The case of "Aristotle's 'Polity 
of the Athenians'" naturally occurs to 
us as a parallel. While there are still 
many English scholars who refuse to 
believe that this tract can be from the 
pen of Aristotle, on account of its poor 
and jejune style, the Germans have 
sih need every objector by their violence, 
and even the gentle Blass, the best judge 
among them all, used to lose his temper 
when its authorship was questioned. 
Our specimens of Theopompus's style 
are not so complete as those of Aristotle's, 
but they are enough to show that he 
and the new author were men of con- 
trasted tones of mind, and we predict 
that the majority of English scholars 
will not support the qualified submission 
of Messrs. Grenfell and Hunt to their 
German advisers. 

Yet what could be more praiseworthy 
than to call in the aid of these and other 
great scholars, so as to make this volume 
a record not only of the editors' skill 
and learning, but also of the judgment 
of learned Europe on these new texts ? 
Profs. Harnack, Bury, Schurer, Schone, 
and many others have helped and sug- 
gested, as well as the editors' learned 
colleague at Queen's College, Oxford, Mr. 
Walker. In deciphering they themselves, 
from their vast and unique experience, 
stand almost above criticism. It is indeed 
a proud thing for English scholars, espe- 
cially for Oxford men, to see such a 
volume appearing in their midst. 

As a matter of convenience, we should 
have preferred to see the commentary on 
the texts at the foot of each page, instead 
of printed in the sequel ; but there 
may be difficulties or expense involved in 
such an arrangement which prove a serious 
obstacle to it. Still, we express our pre- 
ference, and hope the editors will consider 
it in the next volume. 



SJiakespeare' s Warwickshire Contem- 
poraries. By Charlotte Carmichael 
Stopes. (Stratford-upon-Avon, Shake- 
speare Head Press.) 

To add to our knowledge of things and 
persons that may illustrate Shakspeare 
is indeed a worthy object ; and Mrs. 
Stopes's modest aim is no more than to 
help '" beginners to realize the sort of 
people amongst whom Shakespeare began 
his life, and ended it." Such work may 
be extremely useful, especially so when 
it is undertaken, as in this * case, with 



considerable local knowledge and abun- 
dant painstaking researoh into records. 
It i-- not to be expected that such a book 

should be without errors, but the materia] 
which it collects, though here and then- 
it needs sifting, Lfl distinctly valuable. 
When Mrs. Stopes begins to ;'iic- or to 
criticize we cannot always BOCepI bet 
judgment ; but so long as she , ,,11 
and (piotes manuscript ami contemporary 
authorities we are very glad to learn 
through her assistance. 

A good deal of what is now published 
has been in print before, but this is virtu- 
ally a new book, and it is certainly one 
which every Shakspearean student should 
read. For the most part the persons 
dealt with are Warwickshire or Cotswold 
folk, still dwelling in their own land ; 
but the first chapter contains a conspicu- 
ous exception, for it is concerned with 
Richard Field, the printer of ' Venus and 
Adonis,' and his master Vautrollier. 
Mrs. Stcpes gives a list of the books 
issued by the Blackfriars house, and adds : 

" If any one carefully studies the titles and 
contents of the books issuing from this 
printing press , he would not have far to go 
for the sources of most of Shakespeare's 
special knowledge, perhaps for all that he 
shows in his early work beyond Holinshed's 
Chronicles." 

The suggestion, though perhaps some- 
what exaggerated, is worth following up. 
Certainly the list of books is astonishingly 
wide, extending as it does from the Fathers 
to Plutarch's ' Lives,' and the 'Dialectics ' 
of Aristotle as rendered by the famous 
John Case, author of the ' Spha?ra Civi- 
tatis,' whose grim visage looks down 
upon the high table of St. John's College 
in Oxford to-day. The associations of 
Field's printing house were at any rate 
interesting, and however little Shak- 
speare may have known of them, it is a 
fair inference that he was acquainted 
with the master, a Stratford boy by birth, 
and saw r on his shelves the books that he 
had printed before the first work of the 
young poet was published. 

Later chapters go over more familiar 
ground. The Lucy tale, for example, has 
been written down almost too often, and 
Mrs. Stopes's view of it is not convincing. 
She has, nevertheless, some arguments of 
interest. For example, she does not 
believe that the John Shakspeare found 
on the list cf recusants was the poet's 
father, because, 

'• first, Mrs. Shakespeare's name is not asso- 
ciated with her husband's, as is the case 
with the Wheelers and other known recu- 
sants ; second, because 1592 is just the time 
of the turn of the tide, in which prosperity 
came back to the house of Shakespeare, 
instead of departing from it. But the other 
John Shakespeare of Stratford-upon-Avon, 
Master of the Shoemakers' Company, was 
then a ividowcr. He evidently was in trouble 
at the time, and he disappeared from 
Stratford immediately after this recusant 
list was sont in." 

As to the deerstealing story, Mrs. Stopes 
thinks it impossible, because Sir Thomas 
Lucy had no deer at Charlecote ; but he 
had elsewhere, and Justice Shallow is 
represented as a Cotsall man. not a 
Warwickshire man at all. On other 



point offers to 

the 'Dictionary of National Biography,' 

BS when .she doubt- the .-toiy of I'. 

being tutor to Thomas Lucy, and shi 

that it has given contradictory d : ite-, for 

the births 01 Richard and William Lu 

The stories of John Somervile (wl 
contrary to the usage of the monumi 

in Wootton Wawen Church and of I 

poet of 'The Chase, 1 she spells with a 

double /) and of Edward Arden 
not BO well known ; and the 
certainly worth telling again as il; 
trating the network of papist plots, real 
and imaginary, through which Fngliah 
gentlefolk had to find their way in Eliza- 
beth's time, the inhumane treatment 
of suspected persons, and the " casual " 
nature of prison discipline. The same 
points are illustrated by the history of 
the Throckmortons when we find the 
daughter of the Lieutenant of the Tower 
going in and out of their rooms as she 
pleased. It is a fact not always remem- 
bered that the Romanist prisoners of 
Elizabeth, and notably the recalcitrant 
bishops, were not kept under very close 
supervision, except in special cases. As 
to the Ardens, by the way, Mrs. Stopes, 
who argues sharply with some of her 
contemporaries, does not refer to the 
specially complete investigation in Mr. 
French's ' Shakespeareana Genealogica ' ; 
and the pedigree she prints on p. 1 10 gives 
a wrong date for the execution cf Edward 
Arden, and is, indeed, contradicted by her 
own text a few pages earlier. Another 
interesting family is that of the Conways 
of Arrow and Ragley. Here again Mrs. 
Stopes is at issue with the ' Dictionary 
of National Biography ' as regards the 
date of Sir John Conway's ' Meditations." 
which, she notes, could not have been 
written during his imprisonment at Ostend 
in 1588. Less convincing — to say the 
least — is an argument that Dr. John 
Hall, Shakspeare's son-in-law, was con- 
nected with Idlicote in Kineton hundred, 
rather than with Acton, Middlesex. About 
Dr. Hall's medical practice (on wliich she 
says not a little) Mrs. Stopes has the 
suggestion that when he treated " Mr. 
Drayton, an excellent poet, labouring of a 
tertian," it was really the occasion of the 
" merry meeting " with Shakspeare and 
Jonson which brought on the illness — 
but that there was no ill consequence 
from the hard drinking, and not perhaps 
any hard drinking at all : — 

" It is much more probable that at the 
unhealthy springtime, after the early floods, 
Shakespeare also had a tertian ague or 
influenza, from which his son-in-law could 
not recover him, even with ' syrup of 
violets.' " 

Other families with whom Mrs. Stopes 
deals arc the Trussells of Billesley. the 
Cloptons, the Grevilles, and the Under- 
bills. She has short chapters also, which 
should be capable of considerable expan- 
sion, on the clergy and the schoolmasters 
of Stratford. There is a good deal, 
indeed, that is suggested by the book 
which is worth further annotation. Is it 
entirely hopeless to attempt to discover 
where Shakspeare was married ? Can we 



No. 4185, Jan. 11, 1908 



THE ATHENAEUM 



37 



not get a little nearer the solution of the 
mystery of Anne Whateley ? At present 
these things remain with the inquiries 
as to " what song the sirens sang, and 
what was the name Achilles bore when he 
was among the women " ; yet we cannot 
but believe that, as in the case of Bishop 
Barlow's consecration, further evidence 
may any day be discovered. 

Meanwhile we suggest two lines on 
which investigation might be fruitful. 
They occur to us after reading Mrs. 
Stopes's pages. The first is the Oxford 
connexion of Shakspeare, which might 
be elucidated by closer investigation of 
the association between Fulke Greville, 
on whom the University conferred the 
degree of M.A. in 1588 ; his servant 
Will Davenant ; Davenant's father, the 
innkeeper ; and the college of John Case 
and William Laud, to the library of which 
the " oinopolos " presented a book. The 
second is the career of Thomas Jenkins. 
The Chamberlains' accounts at Stratford 
show on January 10th, 1578/9, paid 
" to Mr. Jenkins, scolemaster, for his 
half-yere's wage, 10/.," which seems to 
show that he came there at Lady Day, 
1578. Later entries refer to further 
payments, ending in 1579 ; and John 
Cotton obtained the bishop's licence to 
teach boys at Stratford on September 25th, 
1579 — at first, it would appear, as Jenkins's 
assistant, and afterwards as his successor. 
There seems little doubt that this Jenkins 
was he who took the degree of B.A. at 
Oxford from St. John's in 1566, and that 
of M.A. in 1570 ; who had from the 
college a lease of the house which it held in 
Woodstock from the Queen's Majesty, 
" commenlye called Chawser's Howse " ; 
and whose signature is found in the college 
books from 1566 to 1572. If, then, this 
Jenkins is he who taught at Stratford, 
he may very well be the prototype of Sir 
Hugh Evans, and there is another con- 
nexion suggested between Shakspeare and 
the particular college in Oxford of which 
he could certainly have known through the 
Davenants, and which was famous for 
its interest in play-acting, as we know 
from ' Narcissus ' and ' The Christmas 
Prince.' The history of Jenkins is worth 
further investigation than Mrs. Stopes 
has yet given it. 

There are many other interesting by- 
ways which this book suggests, and the 
names that crop up continually show that 
one might have said in the sixteenth as in 
the twentieth century, " How small the 
wcrld is." The references to the con- 
spirators of the Powder Plot, for example 
(some at least of whom may have been very 
well known to the only begetter of the 
porter who was so hard on an " equivo- 
cator "), are interesting ; so is the mention 
of Elizabeth Tanfield, the wife of that 
Chief Baron of the Exchequer under 
Elizabeth and James who " outlived all 
the judges on either bench," the grand- 
mother of the great Falkland, and the 
original of the exquisite picture at Ditchley. 
We are easily led into bypaths ; we 
should like to pursue the history of the 
Conways and their successors as it can 
be traced in Collins's ' Peerage,' that 



most valuable eighteenth-century store- 
house of family history, cr the later history 
of the Somerviles and the Knights, Lady 
Luxborough and Jane Davis. Mrs. Stopes 
does not carry us so far ; but her very 
useful and suggestive work encourages us 
to hope that much more is still to be 
found out about the literary history of 
Warwickshire and the contemporaries of 
Shakespeare. 



TRAVEL. 



The Rowley Letters from France and Italy. 
(T. N. Foulis.) — Frenchmen in these days 
are apt to complain that Paris, invaded 
by hordes of barbarians, is no longer entitled 
to be called a French city. Of all the France 
that lies outside the capital of France the 
' Rowley Letters ' take no account. In 
Italy the view is more extended : we are 
carried, not to Rome only, but also to Naples, 
Florence, Perugia and Assisi, Siena, Bologna, 
and Milan. The ' Letters,' behind which 
it is easy to discern a writer of genial disposi- 
tion, with a taste for good literature and an 
eye for the humorous side of life, are so 
amiably written, and breathe such a spirit 
of enjoyment of things seen, that it appears 
ungracious to point out that they are lacking 
in any savour of originality. They make 
pleasant, if not informing reading, and con- 
tain few inaccuracies, though it is unfortunate 
that the writer should have referred to 
Sodoma, the alien in Siena, as " Siena's 
own." He is not, evidently, of the modern 
Franciscans. One " whole day " spent in 
Assisi appears to him an ample, if not 
excessive act of devotion to its " cheerful 
saint." 

In his preface to Indian Jottings : from 
Ten Years' Experience in and around Poona 
City (Murray), Father Elwin tells us that 
whilst he records no startling events, he- 
describes the ordinary life and surroundings 
of a missionary in India. That is so, and 
his descriptions are clear and good. It 
is positively refreshing, after reading the 
raptures of globetrotters on the beauties 
and delights of Oriental cities and bazaars, 
to come on his plain, unvarnished tale con- 
cerning Poona City, which, he says, 
" may be taken as a fair type of a purely native 

city A more dilapidated, filthy, and wretched 

place than the Poona of to-day could not well be 
imagined That any human beings can be con- 
tent to live in such surroundings is incomprehen- 
sible, although it must be confessed that to purify 
the city of Poona has now become an impossibility, 
because the subsoil is saturated with the dirt of 
ages. It is to all intents and purposes an undrained 
city. On either side of the narrow streets is a 
gully, sometimes covered in with rough slabs of 
stone, with large chinks between them, but often 
not covered at all. In these gullies every sort of 

abomination has accumulated for ages People 

empty into them refuso from their houses, and 
they do not seem to see any drawback in having a 
foul and stagnant drain under their doorstep. In 
the hot weather, when many people sleep out of 
doors, more often than not they spread their 
blanket on the stones which cover this drain, and 
inhale the offensive atmosphere all night. During 
the rains the contents of these gullies are partially 
set in motion, and tho evil odours which arc then 

let looso must be smelt to be believed It is not 

surprising that Poona has become a veritable hot- 
bed of plague.'' 

All this, though very bad, is nothing in 
tho eyes of the author compared with the 
parlous spiritual condition of the inhabi- 
tants. Of this he writes with a zeal which 
might be envied by a Puritan or Wahabi 
iconoclast. The people are heathen : their 
worship is the abomination of idolatry ; 



and there is no city in India so infested with 
idols as Poona. 

" But no amount of word-painting or power of 
imagination would enable any one who has never 
seen it to form a correct mental picture of that 
squalid, pathetic, absorbingly interesting, and yet 
altogether diabolical place known as Poona City." 

It may be questioned whether this aggressive 
attitude is expedient or seemly in a country 
eminently tolerant of all manner of belief, 
including the author's. 

But apart from this the jottings show 
close and accurate observation, and good 
judgment in the deductions made from 
them. The Persian wheel, with its earthen- 
ware pots dipping into a well and with 
every revolution emptying the water into 
a trough, whence it irrigates the fields to 
the accompaniment of creaking wooden 
machinery, recalls old memories. So also 
does the description of the tall, narrow 
platform raised in the fields, on which boys 
are stationed to scare the birds or beasts 
which damage the crop. The question of 
the general loyalty or disloyalty of Indians 
is wisely and temperately discussed, and 
the difficulty experienced by the Govern- 
ment of India in getting at the real mind 
of the people is well exhibited. 

When writing of caste the author gives 
the impression that he believes it io be 
altogether evil. It is not so ; it has saved 
the purer races in India by preventing inter- 
marriage with others phj^sically and mentally 
inferior, and it has to a certain extent helped 
to keep the higher races from excess in 
eating and drinking and insanitary habits. 

We commend the book to all who are 
interested in India ; it is well produced, 
and the illustrations are sufficient. 

A result of making the journey to India 
and Kashmir quicker and easier has been 
to increase greatly the numbers of visitors 
from this country, and the books written 
by them. These books are of many kinds : 
there are standard works more or less 
official ; books on sport and travel ; and 
books, among which we class A Holiday 
in the Happy Valley : with Pen and Pencil, 
by Major T. R, Swinburne (Smith & Elder), 
that are mainly records or diaries of pleasant 
days spent in novel surroundings. When, 
as in the present instance, the country is 
Kashmir, and the writer has the merits 
of accurate observation and truthful de- 
scription, and is moreover no mean artist, 
the result can scarcely fail to be satisfactory. 

Tho route followed from India was by 
Abbotabad and Mansera, tho more usual 
road being joined at Chakoti, a rest-house 
picturesquely situated on the left bank 
of the river Jehlam, there contracted in 
channel, swift and turbulent. Srinagar 
was duly reached, early impressions were 
recorded, and excursions made to well- 
known places of attraction in the neigh- 
bourhood, such as the Lolab and Lidar 
valloys, Wangat, and Oulmarg. The de- 
cadence of many Kashmir manufactures 
is noted — that of the shawl trade specially ; 
and there are many remarks as to recent 
changes which will interest those who knew 
the country in old days. These remarks, 
however, lose much of their value, because 
tho yeai in which they wero written is 
nowhere recorded. This is a common fault; 
we are told, e.g., with much precision) 
what happened on May 1th or May 6th 
and even learn the events of various hours 
and minutes; hut the year is not Stated. 
Incidentally a clue is given, for on arrival 

at Srinagar on or about. April 6th telegrams 
from Lahore reported the disastrous earth- 
quake at. Dharmsala j and again on Octo- 
ber 30th, at Ddaipur on the way home, 
preparations were Being made for tin- visit 

9 



sa 



Til E A tii i;n .k I' M 



No. llv-,. Jam. 11.1 



<>f tli.' Prinoe of Wales, who wu expected 
in tli>' course of u fortnight. Neverthel 
roedciri may justly complain if they have 
to employ research in order bo eetablish 
Mich dates. 

Borne <>f tic author's reflections show 
sound appreciation of circumstanoes ; thus 

of a (lusty journey over country where 
scarcity was impending, between Delhi 
anil Aura, he writes : — 

" \\Y have given pesos and, to a certain extent, 
prosperity to the, teeming millions of India, and 
they have increased and multiplied until the land 
is overhurthened, and Nature, with relentless will, 
bids Famine and Pestilence lay waste the cities 
and the plains. Then Science, with irrigation 
works and unproved hygiene, strives hard to gain 
a victory, but still the struggle rages doubtfully." 

The illustrations, all coloured, deserve 
mention : artistically, their merit varies 
widely, but all give the impression of great 
endeavour to ensure fidelity ; typo and 
binding are appropriate. Appendixes con- 
tain information as to game licences and 
restrictions, and a note of expenses, which 
were evidently kept within reasonable 
limits. The index and notes will be useful 
to future travellers ; and the map serves 
its purpose. 

Mr. Boyd Alexander's expedition From 
the Niger to the Nile (Arnold) is one of the 
most notable achievements on record since 
the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition closed 
what we may call the era of the great ex- 
plorers. Its results, chronicled in these 
two volumes without undue technicality, 
are important in two directions — geo- 
graphical and zoological ; and these have 
been so fully dealt with in specialist publica- 
tions as to absolve us from the necessity 
of dwelling on them in any detail. The 
ethnographical part of the work strikes 
us as somewhat perfunctory. Mr. Alex- 
ander's route brought him into contact 
with some little-known, if not in some 
cases entirely unknown tribes, and he has 
made careful notes of all the information 
obtainable about them ; but it is evident 
that the non-human fauna of the country 
interests him more than the human. This 
is not said by way of detraction — non omnia 
possumus omnes ; and it certainly implies 
no inhumanity on the part of the explorers. 
The contrary, indeed, is proved by the 
almost uniformly friendly relations main- 
tained with the natives, and the fact that 
the " boys " remained with them to the 
end of the journey, though we can scarcely 
agree with the author in calling this fact 
" unprecedented," since we have (to take 
one instance only) the case of Livingstone's 
Makololo followers. It is surely by an over- 
sight, by the by, that Bukar is said (vol. ii. 
p. 186) to be " one of the original lot that 
started with us from Nigeria," as there is 
nothing to show that this is not the same 
Bukar who joined the expedition on Lake 
Chad, as related on pp. 88-90, being then 
a slave engaged in picking indigo for the 
Lowan of Kowa. A curious case of " posses- 
sion " or "alternation of personality" 
(whichever one likes to call it) on the part 
of a Hausa is related on p. 280 (vol. ii.). 
The deaths of two out of the four Europeans 
taking part in the expedition lend a tragic 
interest to the narrative, of a kind happily 
less frequent than it used to be in African 
travel-books. With regard to the author's 
eloquent defence of the Congo State (vol. ii. 
pp. 338-45), while giving full credit for 
tho generous spirit which dictates it, 
we can only say that he has based his 
conclusions on insufficient evidence, which, 
unimpeachable so far as it goes, is utterly 
inapplicable to tho whole of that vast terri- 
tory, and leaves the matter very much where 
it was. 



Mr <'"ii tanoe Larymore'e hook, A 
/'• ident'a Wift m Nigeria (Rout ledge & 
Sons), is brightly written indeed, wi feel 
that tin- somewhat hackneyed ex] 

fails to do it justice. It p all tin 

advantages of the re idi at i lo • r acquaint- 

uith a country without losing the 

freshness and vividness common] >'•'! 

with first, impressions only. The second 
part, 'The Household,' tells one just 
things one wants to know, and will 
be invaluable to the not inconsider- 
able number of ladies whose destinies 
call them to the new Protectorate. The 
remarks on servants, horses, gardens, poul- 
try, &c, are not only marked by excellent 
good sense, but are also agreeable reading 
even for those who have no personal concern 
with these thorny subjects. It is perhaps 
sufficient to say that, having once taken up 
the book, we found it extremely difficult 
to lay it aside. Many passages might have 
been marked for quotation, but we must 
content ourselves with a bare refei-ence to 
two especially interesting (and incidentally 
instructive) ones : the account of Capt. 
Moloney's death (pp. 54-6), and the in- 
quiries made by Mr. and Mrs. Larymore 
at Bussa as to the drowning of Mungo Park 
(pp. 174-5). The following little touch 
from the description of the visit to Kata- 
gum may serve to show the spirit in which 
the volume is written : — 

" They made friends at once, and the Sariki and 
his immediate followers were my almost daily 
visitors. On one of these visits, with a sort of shy 
reproach he touched the skirt of my coloured linen 
frock, and asked gently why, when I came to his 
house to see him, I did not wear pretty clothes 
like that — his people only saw me in a black gown 
(my habit !). After that I had to sacrifice comfort 
to friendship, and be careful to ride into town in 
my lightest muslin ! " 

It is not surprising to find that Mrs. Lary- 
more left Africa — " the country we both 
love so well " — with regret. 

Across Widest Africa. By A. Henry 
Savage Landor. (Hurst & Blackett.) — 
Mr. Savage Landor represents a type of 
traveller which we find it difficult to 
regard with sympathy. His journey 
through Africa is certainly a noteworthy 
achievement, and covers a large extent of 
little trodden ground. But the reckless 
generalities in which he frequently in- 
dulges, as to phenomena which occur " all 
over tropical Africa," naturally make one 
cautious about accepting his information 
unsifted. Without giving way to an un- 
reasonable optimism, one may be permitted 
to wonder whether all the various tribes 
met with were so repulsive as they are 
painted ; and when we find a reference to 
" the natives of Asia, with whom it is always 
a pleasure to converse," we cannot lie]]) 
remembering the author's Tibetan experi- 
ences, and suggesting that it is distance 
and lapse of time which lend the enchant- 
ment. Mr. Landor's defence of the Congo 
State, like Mr. Alexander's, scarcely needs 
refutation ; it is sufficiently discounted by a 
glance at his route-map, which shows that 
his way lay for only a short distance within 
the northern border of that vast territory. 
The conditions at Banzyville are evidently 
far from typical, and the high character 
and proved capacity of the Italian officers 
in charge of that and the neighbouring post 
afford no evidence as to what has happened 
elsewhere. Moreover Mr. Landor is either 
not aware, or has found it convenient to 
ignore the fact, that the Italian Government 
has, since the date of his journey, prohibited 
any officers in its service from engaging in 
that of the Congo State. 

The perusal of Mr. Landor's adventures 
frequently inspires the wish that it were 



possible to h< nr th<- version of the other party 
■ in' d. for our own Dart, if we ar 

ird the episode of his photographing 
terrified women at the ford (vol L p. 153) as 

characteristic of his habitual conduct, we 

must confess that, though it can scarcely 

be regarded in the light of an "atrocity,'' 

we should be surprised to find that 

his relations with the natives had I 
agreeable. 

All due qualifications being made, there 
is a large amount of interesting reading in 
these two handsome and well-ilhi-ti 
volumes. Mr. Landor, it may 1 rved, 

refuses to accept the theory that malaria 
is propagated by mosquitoes, or sleeping- 
sickness by the tsetse-fly. But medical 
experts may be left to deal with his views 
on these points, if they think it worth while. 

In the Strange South Seas. By Beatrice 
Grrimshaw. (Hutchinson & Co.) — It Is a 
pity that a lady with so much enterprise 
in travelling and talent for literature should 
have been seduced by a bad tradition into 
writing a book inferior to her last. Many 
things in it are truly excellent — notably, 
certain personal descriptions, and the 
author's judicious observations on lepers, 
missionaries, and manners. But the book 
is tainted throughout with the taint of 
journalism, and the trail of the tourist is 
over it, in spite of the occasional gird at 
" globetrotters " and " the tripper element " 
in which the writer indulges. Our author 
is greatly concerned for the Man Who Could 
Not Go, and she w-ants to convey to him 
the full flavour of the South Seas. 

The islanders have their private life, and 
this Miss Grimshaw is very far from divin- 
ing, or even trying to divine. After two 
years among the Polynesians she still 
regards them chiefly as comical characters ; 
she believes that Capt. Cook founded 
whatever civilization thej r have ; she 
cannot distinguish half-castes from natives 
(as witness the photographs of "natives" 
at p. 30); she mistakes Euiopean music 
or imitations of it for the native article ; 
and believes that Mormon missionaries are 
" cariying coals to Newcastle," whereas 
the Polynesians do not practise polygamy, 
any more than Mormon missionaries preach 
it. 

" Murea " should be spelt Moorea ; 
" pareo," pareu ; " papa," papaa ; " tiere," 
tiare. So far as we are aware, there is no 
other record than that on p. 193 of Endy- 
mion having been snatched into the air 
by an eagle. 

It was inevitable that a book should 
be wTitten about last summer's famous 
motor-car race from Pekin to Paris, and Luigi 
Barzini has performed the task in a most 
creditable manner. His record, entitled 
Ptkin to Paris, translated by L. P. de Castel- 
veeehio, with Introduction by Prince Bor- 
ghese (E. Grant Bichards), occupies well 
over six hundred large pages, and is furnished 
with a hundred illustrations from photo- 
graphs, mid a good map showing the route 
traversed by Prince Borghese's Itala oar. 
It is a straightforward, graphic piece of 
journalism, and provides a full and detailed 
account of the adventurous journey. It may 
be considered over-long by some, but the 
reviewer has found its interest well sustained, 
and it has no '' padding." 

The suggestion of a race for motor-cars 
from Pekin to Paris was started in the 
columns of the Paris Matin. After a host 
of enthusiastic warnings, offers, and pro- 
mises in the same journal came a concise 
statement from Prince Borghese, an- 
nouncing that he would compete in the 
race with an Itala car. Later, the author 
of this book, a journalist on the staff of the 



No. 4185, Jan. 11, 1908 



THE ATHENiEUM 



39 



Corriere delta Sera, wis commissioned to 
proceed to Pekin, and accompany the Prince 
throughout his journey. Thiee other cars 
and a tricycle attempted the same feat ; 
but Prince Boighese's was the vehicle which 
actually reached the winning-post, the Paris 
office of the Matin, on August 10th, after 
leaving Pekin on June 10th, and completing 
the entire journey on its own four wheels, 
though not always under its own power. 
Sixty out of the first 150 miles from Pekin 
had to be accomplished with the aid of 
tow-ropes attached to men and mules. 
Time after time the car had to be dug and 
lifted out of quagmires, dragged through 
rivers or, by help of levers, inch by inch, 
up slippery banks, and over boulder-strewn 
mountain sides. In his Introduction Prince 
Borghese says : " There are people who say 
that our journey has proved one thing 
above all others, namely, that it is impossible 
to go by motor-car from Pekin to Paris ! " 
In a sense, that comment is justified by 
these pages, notwithstanding the various 
means of progress. Men and oxen, 
boats and rafts, had frequently to be 
employed ; and the Prince had to an ange 
beforehand an elaborate system of supply 
stations at frequent intervals along his 
route, or he would have been unable to 
obtain fuel and lubricants for his machine. 
The journey did not prove that the Paris 
to Pekin route is suitable for motor-cars, 
but it did show that the modern automobile 
of good make may be relied upon to carry 
its owners wherever other wheeled vehicles 
could carry them, and to withstand the 
strain of continuous travel in difficult 
circumstances. But, whatever the practical 
value of Prince Borghese's journey, 
we are glad to have this account of it, 
for the simple reason that it forms a 
deeply interesting book of travel. The 
author makes no display of technical motor- 
ing knowledge, but the car used is well 
described in an appendix. 

The general get-up of Tangerine : a 
Child's Letters from Morocco, edited by T. 
Ernest Waltham (A. & C. Black), is remark- 
ably good, especially in view of its price. 
It consists of juvenile letters composed 
during a holiday spent in Tangier. The 
writing is naive and agreeable ; it is, indeed, 
more to our taste than the preface, which 
is, we think, the least readable portion of 
the book. Mr. Waltham speaks of having 
bribed Moors in Tangier with nothing more 
sophisticated than a few bright beads." 
We venture to think that only their native 
courtesy, and the strong sense of dignity 
which characterizes the Arabs of North 
Africa, prevented the bribed ones from 
indulging in Mr. Waltham's presence in the 
merriment his bribes must have provoked. 
He has allowed inventions of purely Euro- 
pean origin to appear in these pages, and 
we gather from his preface that his own 
knowledge where the real Morocco is con- 
cerned is no more adequate than that which 
may naturally be looked for in the letters 
themselves. In short, we have here a 
number of pretty and uncorrected impres- 
sions formed during a short stay in the 
one city in Morocco which is not character- 
istic of its primitive side. It is the 
city of Morocco's foreign residents — the 
gateway through which one may pass into 
tin! real Moghreb. The book is generously 
illustrated by a rather good selection 
of photography. Many of the subjects 
will be familiar to tourists who have bought 
pictures in the shops of Tangier's Inner 
Sok ; but some of them are fresh. One 
seriously labelled ' A Riff Murderer ' is 
amusing. It is odd that the Spanish guide 
employed to escort the writer of the e 
letters on excursions should have so far 



indulged his uncorrected fancy as to suggest 
the belief that a wild man from the 
hills who threatened to shoot would permit 
himself to be photographed in the act of 
aiming. Children ought certainly to enjoy 
a travel book which is designed for their 
especial edification, and deals with a land 
of marvels. 

Greece and the Aegean Islands. By Philip 
Sanford Marden. (Constable & Co.) — Every 
book on Greece is interesting, for, as our 
author justly remarks, no two travellers, 
if independent of one another, ever visit 
exactly the same series of places. The pre- 
sent tourist leaves out Laconia and Messene. 
Thessaly and Eubcea ; on the contiary, 
he gives us a bright sketch of Thera, and 
something concerning Cos, Cnidus, Samos, 
&c. He went about in a steamer with an 
American party, who were in a great hurry, 
and he tells us at every turn that there was 
something of interest a few miles off, and 
no time to see it. This feeling of perpetual 
scampering spoils our enjoyment, and makes 
us impatient to ask the question, Why on 
ear'h should a man in a hurry imagine 
that his experiences are of any value ? Mr. 
Marden honestly tries to avoid subjects 
which he does not understand, and to tell 
us merely what he saw as he ran along ; 
but of course he could not avoid mistakes. 
He tells us that there is now a fierce con- 
ti oversy going on as to whether the beehive 
stiuctures about Mycenaj were built for 
treasure houses or for tombs. No man 
of sense has the smallest doubt that they 
were tombs, or that precious things were 
deposited with the dead. The author tells 
us in his preface that, " in mercy to non- 
Hellenic readers, he has sought to exclude 
with a firm hand quotations from the Greek 
language." We feel that no very strong 
hand was necessary, and that the mercy 
was not confined to non-Hellenic readers, 
when we meet such statements as this : 
" [Corfu] in Greek still bears the name of 
Kerkyra, a survival of the ancient Corcyra, 
the name by which it was known in the days 
when Athens and Corinth fought over it." 

In many other places we find super- 
ficial and inaccurate statements. Mr. 
Marden thinks the Museum at Athens 
incomparable for its series of specimens 
of Greek sculpture " from its earliest strivings 
to its highest ultimate success." This is 
not so. Archaic things it has in plenty, 
also Hellenistic things ; but of the golden 
age very little, owing doubtless to the 
Roman plundering in the centuries imme- 
diately before and after Christ. He de- 
scribes the theatre at Epidaurus as an 
amphitheatre, showing that ho does not 
know the meaning of this term. The photo- 
graphs illustrating the book aro for the 
most pait excellent and well chosen ; the 
style is bright and clear, but very trans- 
atlantic in colour. Thus we find " in the 
vicinity of the 16th century b.c." ; Thera 
has to send for water, " aside from what 
she collects from rain " ; " The proprietor, 
so it developed [i.e., turned out] spoke 
Italian " ; "a lantern did materialize mys- 
teriously from somo nook " — a florilcgium 
which wo gather from twenty pages of the 
book. On the whole, we think it will 
amuse, but hardly instruct, the reader. 



SHORT STORIES. 



Lady Catherine Mjlnes Gaskell gives 
an impression of knowing .her country well. 
Apart from any actual merit in the stories 
themselves, Prose Idyls of the West Hiding 
(Smith & Elder) has a distinct flavour of 
its own which suggests a breed of men and 
women and a typo of country different 



from those of the rest of England. The 
author gives no elaborate descriptions of 
scenery, but by the far more effective method 
of touches here and there, hardly noticeable 
in the flow of the narrative, suggests wide 
distances, and lonely moors dotted about 
with dark, strenuous, industrial towns, 
which haunt the memory. In the same way 
her people have an air of ruggedness, one 
might almost say savagery, which makes 
them hard to fathom for the civilized 
denizen of softer climes. In the West Riding 
clergymen often find a difficulty in 
getting on with the inhabitants : this is 
confirmed remarkably by the striking story 
' T' Wife Bazaar.' which illustrates the 
methods a parson has to adopt before he 
can gain respect and consideration ; and 
it is not every clergyman who is able or 
inclined to adopt such methods. The 
stories in themselves are not particularly 
interesting, but as a vivid picture of the 
life and moral atmosphere of a country-side 
the book is of exceptional merit. 

Mr. J. S. Fletcher is most at home in 
Yorkshire, but The Ivory God, and other 
Stories (John Murray), are not predomi- 
nantly Yorkshire. As a rule, the tales 
are conventional in attitude, though the 
workmanship is efficient. Whether they 
have a supernatural tinge or not, they are 
eminently readable, but are hardly likely to 
be read a second time. One must suppose 
that the exigencies of magazine litera- 
ture dictated most of them. Some are 
frivolous, and others are tragic ; but all 
are deft. Directness and simplicity of 
narration constitute the most noteworthy 
feature in Mr. Fletcher's performance. He 
has a better instinct for the short story 
than most writers of fiction ; but his work 
appears in many of these tales to have been 
somewhat perfunctory. 

Mr. Algernon Blackwood has a perfectly 
ghoulish taste for the gruesome and the 
uncanny, and its extreme ghoulishness 
makes it hardly suitable for art. After 
reading a book like The Listener, and other 
Stories (Eveleigh Nash), one is set wondering 
what it is which differentiates such stories 
from those of the great masters in the tale 
of terror. Poe and De Quincey and Steven- 
son could write of horrors so as to arrest 
the attention, but they were never repulsive, 
as Mr. Blackwood is in some of his stories. 
It certainly is not the subject which makes 
the distinction, for some of Mr. Blackwood's 
horrors might well have been welcomed by 
those authors ; it is rather the attitude 
of mind with which the subjects are en- 
visaged. The feeling resulting from a 
really attractive tale of hoiTor, if one may 
use the expression, is that the horror is 
merely used as an instrument to reveal the 
ordinary workings of the human mind. 
Just as a vivisector sometimes flunks it 
necessary to give pain and use exceptional 
circumstances to discover the most ordinary 
physical processes, so real artists use 
the distorted and the horrible to explore 
the normal workings of the mind. But 
Mr. Blackwood seems to perform his tin- 
pleasant operations as an end in themselves. 
He seems to be only concerned, in such 
stories as ' Tho Listener,' and ' Miss 
Slumbubble and Claustrophobia,' in re- 
lating nauseous terrors ; and in tho drab 
monotony of his victims he loses sight of 
any psychological meaning which might 
be attached to them. In contrast, however, 
to his other stories stands ' Max Hensig.' 
Sere he ^ives real action, both physical 
and mental ; ho interests the reader in tho 
narrator of the story, and immediately 

produces a sketch where the horror is kept 
to its true ancillary position. ' Max Hensig ' 



40 



Til E A Til KN ,K I'M 



X". U85, Jan. 11, 1908 



is not a great story, still it win worth 

telling. 

'The range of Mr. Stephen Qwynn's 
subjects in The Otade fa th< Foreti (Dublin, 
Miiiin- 1 .v Co.) is oonaiderable, Borne oi 
them being oonoeived more or Less frivolously, 
and others with a serious desire to Bet forth 
Irish problems of the day. In tho matter 
of construction and art tho story which 
gives the volume its title is the Best. It 
is a pure comedy, almost a romantic farco ; 
oertainly a comedy of errors which makes 
extremely pleasant reading. The second 
tale is intended to show the power of abnega- 
tion in the Irish peasant, and has its pathetic 
side. Tho third is merely a conventional 
story fit for ordinary magazine consumption. 
The fourth is dasigned to deal with the ques- 
tion of tho Irish hunger for land, the fifth 
is a study in social temperamonts, the 
sixth spoctacular, and tho last a picture in 
genre. All show a genuine talont in the 
author, without rising to any height of 
achievement. 

Irish Neighbours. By Jano Barlow. 
(Hutchinson & Co.) — The author of 'Irish 
Idylls ' has lost none of her gifts. Her 
tales are as racy of the soil as they were 
when they first reminded us of Gait or 
Ferrier in another field. The present series 
of seventeen stories will be read with pleasure 
by all who can appreciate the workings and 
expression of the Irish mind. Perhaps the 
first story is about the best. When " Mur- 
tagh Gilligan " leaves his Western cabin 
to seek his fortune in the East, his horror 
at seeing the sun " rising on him " from the 
sea, where he had been wont to look for 
sunset, sent him back on foot that day from 
the ill-omened region. But the width of 
view ho attained was worth the journey. 
There is an admirable small boy described 
in ' An Invincible Ignoramus,' the longest 
of the tales, dealing with a higher social 
circle. Of the rest, ' The Libby Anns,' 
three generations of an impoverished family, 
who are relieved at once by the appearance 
of a son from America ; ' A Dinner of Salt 
Leaves,' which gives a pathetic picture 
of poverty on the West Coast ; ' The Clock 
and the Cock,' and ' A Test of Truth,' have 
impressed us most. 

What Ascott R. Hope does not know about 
schoolboys is hardly worth knowing. His 
latest volume, Dramas in Duodecimo (A. & C. 
Black), is a collection of seven short stories, 
" abstracts and brief chronicles of youth." 
They are of even merit, the most successful, 
perhaps, being ' The Midsummer Night's 
Crime,' in which a boy, locked up all night 
in a bathing-place, believes himself to have 
witnessed the perpetration of a brutal 
murder by two members of the Yeomanry. 
After the Mayor and the colonel have been 
summoned from the Yeomanry Ball in 
breathless haste to the scene, the crime 
proves to bo nothing worse than the drowning 
of the bath-keeper's dogs. The mystery 
is guarded with equal skill in ' All in the 
Wrong,' but is not so well worth guarding. 
' Tho Amateur Dominie : Very Tragical 
Mirth,' speaks for itself. The arm-chair 
critic, suddenly called on to stand the fire 
of a classroom full of boys of rather more 
than the usual ingonuity in attack, fares no 
better than might have been expected. 
Not less diverting is ' Tho Red Ram,' which 
tells how an Irish professional football 
player is passed off as a pupil in a young 
gentlemen s academy for the purpose of 
playing against " tho College." Altogether 
thero is abundant evidence that the author's 
hand lias not lost its cunning. Indeed, 
if anything, it has grown too cunning ; 
for the practice of putting a separate head- 
lino at the top of every other page, though 



it gives scop.- to a memory fertile of quota- 
tions, distracts the reader from the StOTy. 

and is therefore not to be commended. 
77k: Crested 8eat, by .lames Brendan 

Connolly (Duckworth & Co.), a baker's 

dozen of stories dealing with the life and 
work of the fishermen who sail from Glou- 
cester, U.S.A., appeals to have been printed, 

as well a.s written, on tho other side of the 
Atlantic. It is full of the slap-diush faults 
which go with over -hurried production; 
and its sentiment throughout is not merely 
very American, but childishly anti-British. 
The author's purview is, in fact, extraordi- 
narily and bittorly parochial. He has evi- 
dently imbibed some violently anti-British 
notions regarding tho Newfoundland 
fisheries, and is cheerfully oblivious to the 
fact that political opinion on both sides of 
tho Atlantic holds Great Britain's attitude 
on this question to have been quixotically, 
and even unjustifiably, generous to the 
United States. He also shows a puerilo 
ignoranco of facts familiar to most people 
in connexion with British maritime customs 
and traditions, and appears to resent the 
high esteem in which Newfoundlanders 
are held as a race of brave and able sailor- 
men. He suggests that on board British 
ships the seamen are quartered in the hold 
among the cargo, and that British officers 
refuse food and shelter to castaways picked 
up at sea. Mr. Connolly has a real gift for 
the spinning of simple sea-yarns^; and it 
is a pity that he should waste it by writing 
too hastily, or allowing local prejudice to 
dull the interest of his narratives. 

Stories and Sketches, by Mary Putnam 
Jacobi (Putnam's Sons), are apparently 
the work of a lady who later devoted herself 
to medical and scientific work, and have 
been collected since her death. They 
mainly strike a reader of to-day as illus- 
trating the remarkable advance which 
has been made in the short story since the 
sixties of last century. There was in those 
days no fear of tiring tho reader with 
longueurs or the absence of action. Mrs. 
Putnam Jacobi's earliest tales were written 
when she was seventeen, and her latest 
at the age of twenty-nine. All found a 
welcome in American magazines of repute ; 
and they make interesting studies from 
the historical point of view. Undoubted 
talent is exhibited in them, but they 
belong to another day ; and probably the 
author was wise in giving up literary work 
for the scientific life to which she adhered 
subsequently. 



OUR LIBRARY TABLE. 

Sociological Papers. Vol. III. (Mac- 
millan & Co.) — The Sociological Society's 
third volume maintains its high level. 
The contributors of papers are G. Archdall 
Reid, W. McDougall, J. L. Tayler, J. Arthur 
Thomson, Patrick Geddes, A. E. Crawley, 
R. M. Wenley, W. H. Beveridgo, G. de Wesse- 
litsky, Mrs. Sidney Webb, and H. G. Wells. 
Tho excellent custom is continued of append- 
ing reports of discussions, and, together with 
these, tho comments passed on abstracts of 
tho papers circulated amongst experts unablo 
to be present when they were read. 
Some valuable material (if theory rather 
than bruto facts can be said to constitute 
" material ") has been collected in this way, 
notably in connexion with Mr. Crawley's 
brief but suggestivo paper on the nature 
of roligion. Whilst the wide range of topics 
covered by the papers suggests that sociology 
is a science of somewhat uncertain or (shall 
wo say ?) unlimited scope — a view with 
which ono section of the Society would appa- 



rently agree, whibt the other hulf would be 

violently displeased it is at any rat'- all to 

the credit of the Society that it should bring 

i her into one area of discussion com- 
petent thinkers r e pr e s en ting so many dis- 
tinct interests. indeed, may we not as 
would be peace-makers venture to define 
a science as simply " an area of di " ! 

At all events, this is L ■ rare than to say 
with Mr. H. G. Wells (p. 377) : "A science 
is a thing lacking in style, making no OSS of 
insight, and disregarding values." If, how- 
ever, Mr. Wells is disposed to bo hard on 
science, Mr. Bernard Shaw is half inclined 
to be its patron, speaking of " the Darwinian 
biology " as "a science which leaves out 
the main factors of evolution, and still has 
made remarkable contributions to our know- 
ledge of lifo." Ho proceeds, in that auto- 
biographical vein which he has made his own: 
"I, being a writer of fiction like Mr. Wells, 
maintain that tho dramatic and Utopian method 
is much the higher ; I begin with the synthesis 
ready made in my own imagination, which leaves 
men like Comte and Spencer far behind. But if I 
make the accusation that they leave out factors, 
they can accuse me of that too." 
But biology, whether utterly damned 
or faintly praised, nevertheless manages to 
have half this volume pretty well to itself, 
thanks to the exploitation of the new science 
of eugenics, with which the Sociological 
Society has identified itself from the first. 
And that even the man of science can be 
Utopian after his fashion is shown by Mr. 
McDougall, whose " practicable eugenic 
suggestion " is that civil servants should 
receive an increase of salary as often as there 
are additions to their families. We com- 
mend the theme to Mr. Shaw for his next 
play. The scene might be laid in Rome, 
where the jus trium liberorum flourished 
under the emperors, and where, if we 
remember rightly, the poet Martial was 
made an honorary father-of- three. 

Devonshire Characters and Strange Events. 
By S. Baring-Gould. (John Lane.) — Mr. 
Baring-Gould prefers studies of travel, or 
delving in forgotten books in search of 
curious information, and collecting folk-lore, 
to writing novels. But it seems as if there 
is no limit to his industry outside the old 
creative province. He has written hymns ; 
he has written histories ; he lias written 
biographies ; and he has a weakness for 
just sucli books as his latest. Looked at 
rawly, it may be set down as superior 
bookmaking ; but there is always more than 
that in Mr. Baring-Gould's work. He 
exposes himself to the charge in many pages, 
and in his choice of many episodes ; but he 
lias always something better at the back, 
something which repays the reader for 
quarrying. Not that the quarrying is a 
difficult job ; on the contrary, it is very 
easy and very alluring. One can turn over 
these chapters on Devon oddities and Devon 
characters with the certainty of finding 
them readable. But it is often tho read- 
ablcness of I'it-Jlits. For example, there is 
the story of Eulalia Page, meet subject for 
a ' Newgate Calendar/ or that of Caraboo, the 
impostor who pretended to be a Malay 
princess. This sort of provender is unworthy 
of Mr. Baring-Gould's talent and time. On 
the other hand, the author enriches his 
account of White Witches in the county 
with personal experiences of his own ; and 
he reduces the legend of Arscott of Tetcott 
to its proper and sordid proportions. Devon 
was the home of sea-captains, and several 
of those papers are concerned with Devon 
adventures by sea and land. The tales of 
Sir John Fitz, and of his daughter, after- 
waids Lady Howard, were well worth a 
place here. Tho account of the pirates of 
Lundy is interesting ; the strango case of 



No. 4185, Jan. 11, 1908 



THE ATHENJEUM 



41 



Joanna Southcott deserved resuscitation ; 
and there is a good paper on two hunting 
parsons, of whom Jack Russell is one. A 
friend who knew the North Devon of those 
days describes it thus to Mr. Baring-Gould : — 

" North Devon society in Jack Russell's day was 
peculiar — so peculiar that no one now would 
believe readily that half a century ago such life 
could be — but I was in the thick of it. It was not 
creditable to any one, but it was so general that 
the rascality of it was mitigated by consent." 

Mr. Baring-Gould testifies to the efforts 
made by Bishop Phillpotts to put down the 
hunting habits of his clergy, but the poor 
bishop has, if we remember aright, inherited 
a reputation for slackness in other quarters. 
No doubt he gave up his task in despair. 
What could he accomplish in the face of 
such obstinate men as the Rev. John Russell, 
who kept his pack at eighty, and, when 
abandoning it at the personal request of 
his diocesan, handed it over to his wife ? The 
other parson, of inferior quality, Froude, has 
been painted by Blackmore in ' The Maid of 
Sker,' and, we believe, without exaggeration. 

This book is thus frankly a book of gossip, 
and, as we have said, makes capital reading. 
It deals with the byways of history and 
biography. It takes no account of the 
great and significant names, such as Raleigh, 
and Drake, and Joshua Reynolds. It deals 
exclusively with minor characters. In 
his Preface Mr. Baring-Gould appeals, in 
the interests of his publisher, for information 
concerning the pictures of James Gandy, 
a pupil of Van Dyck. 

As regards the technical side of Discoveries, 
by William Butler Yeats, the latest produc- 
tion of the Dun Emer Press, we are glad 
to observe a marked improvement in every 
direction in type-setting and press-work. 
There is still room for advance in the 
mechanical work of getting the book ready 
for the purchaser, but on the whole the 
volume is very creditable to the Irish ladies 
who produce it. It is even printed on paper 
made in Ireland. The essays by Mr. Yeats 
deal with the connexion of art with the 
life of everyday people. The key-note 
to ' Discoveries ' is, " What moves natural 
men in the arts is what moves them in life, 
and that is, intensity of i ersonal life." 
This has been said before many times in 
many ways, but Mr. Yeats proceeds to build 
up a little canon of criticism applied to the 
needs of everyday art, interspersed with 
dainty cameos which serve as suggestions 
for fresh essays. Every one who is an 
amateur of English knows the quality of 
Mr. Yeats's prose : it seems to grow more 
rhythmical as it grows more simple in 
expression. It would be a pleasure to quote 
passages for their beauty of sound, but it 
would be unfair to separate them from 
the frame in which they are set. Let us 
add that the edition consists of two hundred 
copies only. 

It is a little difficult to say anything 
new about Sartor Reaartus as issued 
by the Doves Press. Their press-work 
and type - setting are probably the 
best in the world ; their paper is 
not unworthy of tho work ; and their 
type, whilo not unimpeachable, is modelled 
on the finest originals — in fact, as producers 
of the printed book they stand almost alone 
at the head of their craft. It is still more 
difficult to say anything new of Carlyle's 
book. With its crabbed vigour it has, 
perhaps, influenced more young men than 
any other book of its century. When Carlylo 
himself spoko slightingly of it, he was pro- 
bably moved by tho universal homage paid 
to it rather than to his later and more rea- 
soned works. One wonders how many 
men still living have written to liim about 



' Sartor Resartus ' — the number must be 
great. To Carlyle-worshippers a copy of 
this edition will be nearly as valuable as 
that unique example printed with the 
initials of the nouns in capitals, German- 
wise, not now to be found. 

A bevised and enlarged edition has 
appeared of Mr. Howells's Venetian Life 
(Constable), which we praised as long ago 
as 1866 for the " certainty of hand, and 
brightness of colour," shown by " a lively 
American traveller." Since that day Mr. 
Howells has become one of the leading 
men of letters in the United States, but 
he has no reason to be ashamed of his early 
offspring. A new chapter, ' The Author 
to the Reader,' explains the genesis and 
advance of the book, and also the judicious 
alterations which have been suggested 
by time and riper reflection. With its 
excellent type, and twenty attractive illus- 
trations in colour by Mr. Edmund H. 
Garrett, the volume should be in demand 
as one of the best of books on Venice. 
Specialists in art will hardly approve 
of all Mr. Howells's views, but that side of 
Venetian life is amply represented by other 
books. 

Suff oik Records and MS S.: Index. Compiled 
by H. B. Copinger. (Manchester, privately 
printed.) — The five volumes of Mr. Copinger's 
lists of records and other documents dealing 
with the history of Suffolk have been more 
than once praised in these columns. An 
additional volume has now been issued, 
which forms a complete index to all the 
names of both persons and places that 
have been mentioned, It makes an in- 
valuable supplement, and appears to be 
compiled with the greatest care. We have 
tested it in a variety of places, and have 
not succeeded in finding a single blunder 
or omission. 

The Literary Year-Booh for 1908 (Rout- 
ledge) contains a good deal of matter which 
will be useful to editors and journalists, 
the main features being a ' Directory of 
Authors ' ; an ' Index of Authors,' arranged 
provisionally under the subject-headings 
of their literary works ; a section on ' Law 
and Letters ' '; another on 4 Libraries,' 
which is good, and may be regarded as 
authoritative, since it is recognized by the 
Library Association ; lists of publishers, 
agents, &c. ; and a classified ' List of Cheap 
Reprints.' The last feature is of real value. 
We cannot say the same for the new classifi- 
cation of authors attempted, nor are we 
satisfied with the ' Directory ' on which 
it is founded. In these sources of informa- 
tion we find included as living at least 
five writers who are dead, and were fairly 
woll known in their various spheres : Romilly 
Allen, Montagu Burrows, Moncure Conway, 
Harry Quilter, and W. G. Rutherford. 
The first has been succeeded in the editorship 
of The Reliquary by Dr. J. C. Cox, who is 
not mentioned under any of the archaeo- 
logical sections. Omissions, indeed, aro 
so numerous, and the qualifications for 
insertion under a particular heading often 
so feeble, that we are not inclined to trust 
this list at all. There is a heading ' Intro- 
spection,' including six persons, who are 
stated in the introduction to be mainly 
guilty of " window-garden books." It is 
a somewhat obscure description, which 
may apply to Mr. A. 0. Benson, but seems 
hardly suitablo to our old contributor Dr. 
Jessopp, whose name, by tho by, is misspelt 
here and elsewhere. Wo fail to find Mr. 
E. V. Lucas under ' Humoui ,' Mr. H. H. 
Davies under ' Drama,' Dr. Galton under 
' Anthropology,' or Mr. G. W. Forrest 
under Indian History. Why have a 
section with ono namo in ' Abyssinian 



History ' and omit ' Political History,' of 
which much has been written of late ? Tho 
section on ' Journalism ' is ludicrously inade- 
quate, as is that on ' Latin Language and 
Literature.' We doubt whether such a list is 
desirable ; but if it is, much more pains must 
be taken with it to make it at all representa- 
tive. The same remark applies to the ' Direc- 
tory of Authors.' It does not show sufficient 
supervision. The knighthood is noticed, 
for instance, of Sir John Laughton, but 
why not Sir W. M. Ramsay and Sir John 
Rhys ? The proof-reading throughout of 
names has not been well done. 



THE BOOK SALES OF 1907. 

ii. 

Not many sales were held during February, 
and the military and naval works belonging 
to Major-General Terry, to which reference 
has already been made, were almost the only 
books sold during that month to which 
particular attention need be directed. On 
March 15th and following day one of those 
miscellaneous sales which are frequently 
productive of sensational prices brought a 
total of nearly 13,000/., about half tho 
amount being obtained from manuscripts 
consisting chiefly of mediaeval service- 
books, impossible to describe in a few words. 
The autograph MS. of " Scots wha hae wi' 
Wallace bled," on a folded sheet of 8vo paper 
is, however, more tractable. It was found 
in an old scrapbook belonging to the late 
Mr. A. Hamilton, and realized 355?. A 
number of poems and letters sent in one 
packet by Burns to his friend and patron 
Alexander Frazer-Tytler sold for 365/., 
and some other MSS. in the handwriting of 
the poet for 3501. These are large amounts, 
but the feature of this sale consisted of a 
number of extremely scarce and valuable 
books relating to Sir Martin Frobisher and 
Sir John Hawkins. What was described 
as the first edition in English of Frobisher's 
first voyage, but may have been the 
second edition of his second voyage, 1578, 
sold for 1,000/. (new calf, one leaf wanting) ; 
the first edition of the second voyage, 1577, 
for 760/. (modern calf extra) ; and the 
original separate edition of Frobisher's third 
and last voyage, 1578, for 920/. (calf extra) ; 
while the original and only separate edition 
of Hawkins's second voyage, 1569, made 
630/. (new calf). These four small 8vo 
books, by no means in ideal condition, con- 
sequently realized the very large sum of 
3,310/. At this sale ' King Glumpus ' (seo 
The Athenaeum of February 23rd, 1907, 
p. 225, and March 2nd, p. 254) fetched 153/. ; 
The Exquisites,' another farce with illus- 
trations (coloured in this instance) by 
Thackeray, 1839, 8vo, 76/. ; a copy of 
' A Relation of Maryland,' 1635, small 4to, 
with the large folding map (often wanting) by 
Cecil, 400/. (unbound, blank leaf missing) ; 
' Paradise Lost,' 1667, a sound copy in the 
original sheep, 125/. ; and a copy of the 
first edition of ' The Vicar of Wakefield,' 
2 vols., Salisbury, 1766, 92/. (old calf). 
Original editions of a number of works by 
Charles Lamb also fetched good prices. 
These were ' The Adventures of Ulysses,' 
1808, 8vo. 31/. (original boards without 
label); "Talcs from Shakespeare,' 2 vols., 
8vo, 1807, 22!. (morocco extra) ; ' Blank 
Verse,' 1798. Svo, 30/. (boards, not original) ; 
and ' John Woodvil,' 1802, 8vo, a presenta- 
tion copy, 35/. (original boards). 

The sale held by Messrs. Christie, Manson 
& Woods on March 20th was of a miscel- 
laneous character, and, as often happens in 
the King Street rooms, many of the books 
were extra-illustrated or in some other 
way investod with a peculiar interest ; 



IJ 



T II E A.T II KX;Kr M 



No. 



U85, Jan. 11, lfl 



for example, the ' Parthenia,' 1646, which 
had some oontemporary MS. music inserted 
at the end, 40/. (old oalf), and an illustrated 
oopy of ' The Bristol Riots, by a Citizen*' 
enlarged to f<»!i<> riae. This realized ■(*>/. 
(unbound). The library of the late Dr. 
William Roots of Kingston-on-Thames, and 
other properties sold by Messrs. Hodgson on 

March 20th and following day, consisted 

primarily of Americana and books in <>l<l 

bindings, the whole fortified by several 
manuscripts, extra-illustrated books, and 
works relating to Napoleon. The MS. 
usod for setting up in type Thackeray's 
essay on George 11. in 'The Four Georges' 
reached 81/., though it had the author's 
corrections only, and was not otherwiso in 
his handwriting. The highest amount 
obtained for any of the Americana was 36/. 
for Theodore de Bry's ' Grands Voyages, 1 
Parts I. to IX., first edition (except Part VI., 
second edition), the whole in 2 vols, folio 
(morocco extra) ; and it is worthy of note 
that the original drawing by " Phiz " to 
illustrate the Trial Scene in ' Pickwick ' 
sold for the handsome sum of 50/. 

A portion of the library of the late Mr. 
George Gray, formerly Clerk of the Peace 
for Glasgow, immediately preceded, in 
point of date, the Van Antwerp sale to 
which reference was made in the former 
article. Though of nothing like the same 
importance, it contained, nevertheless, some 
scarce works, for instance, Zachary 
Boyd's 'The Garden of Zion ' and 'The 
Second Volume of the Garden of Zion,' 
together 2 vols, small 8vo., 1644, fairly 
good copies, 70/. (morocco extra) ; an 
autograph letter of Burns on four pages 4to, 
respecting some " Daughters of Belial " 
who had made themselves obnoxious to his 
landlady by singing and rioting on the top 
floor of her house in Edinburgh, 141/. ; 
and another copy of the Kilmarnock Burns, 
1786, bound this time in morocco extra, 
260/. At this sale the first three editions 
(1746-52-74) of the poetical trifle by 
Dougal Graham (a bellman in Glasgow) 
relating to the Rebellion of 1745 sold for 
171/., the published price of the three tracts 
being but 1*. 4JeZ. The first edition, that 
of 1746, is represented, so far as is known, 
by the single copy sold on this occasion, and 
the other two are also excessively rare. 

This brings us to the portion of the 
library of Sir Henry Mildmay sold at 
Sotheby's on April 18th and two following 
days, remarkable chiefly for some fine illu- 
minated manuscripts. Shakespeareana, and 
a nearly perfect copy of Gower's ' Confessio 
Amantis, printed by Caxton in 1483. This 
sold for 310/., but was eclipsed by several 
of the Shakspeare volumes. Thus a very 
short and imperfect copy (12 in. by 7i in.) 
of the First Folio sold for 680/. ; and" the 
' Sonnets,' 1609, 4to, for 800/. (much cut 
down, old morocco). This, in the light of 
the 2,000/. obtained by private sale for a 
copy of the 1612 edition of ' The Passionate 
Pilgrime ' about twelve months ago, was 

Eernaps cheap. The total amount realized 
y Sir Henry Mildmay's sale was 7,455/., 
some illuminated ' Horae ' in script of English 
execution, but with Franco-Flemish minia- 
tures and docorations, selling for as much as 
1,300/., or more than a sixth of tho whole. 

Other important libraries sold about this 
time, to which reference must be incident- 
ally made, included those of the late Mr. 
Samuel Adams of Now Barnet, sold by 
Messrs. Futtick & Simpson on April 25th 
and following day ; Mr. Robert T. Gill of 
Brighton, most of whose books were in 
modern and expensive bindings, usually 
calf or morocco extra, frequently with gilt 
edges and inlaid with leather of various 
colours ; and the late Mr. Henry Charles 



Harford, the laal being the most important, 
and productive of some high prioi i. Seven 
tracts bound together, including the 'Journal 
oi Klajor Georgt Washington, ' 1764, sold 
for -in;,/, (hall oalf); Roger Willian 
'The Bloudy Tenet of Persecution, 1 1644, 

and "The Bloody Tenet \d more I Moody,' 

1662, in 1 vol., 4to, 40Z. (calf); 'Hamlet,' 
printed by W. S. for John Bmethwicke, n.d. 
(1636 7), 4to, 172/. (unbound, damaged); 
Thomas Gabriel's ' Historical Account of 
Pensilvania,' lf>os, k;o/. (original boards); 

and a folio volume comprising Capt. John 
Smith's 'True Travels,' 1630, Sir Richard 
Hawkins's ' Observations on his Voyage 
into the South Sea,' 1622, and Ligon's 
' History of Barbados,' 1657, 100/. (calf). 

The selected portion of the libiary of 
Mr. W. Bromley-Davenport of Chelford, 
which was sold at Sotheby's on May 10th 
and Uth, was catalogued in 378 lots, realiz- 
ing some 4,570/. Of this total 2,175/. was 
obtained for ancient MSS. ; and three collec- 
tions of illuminated miniatures and initial 
letters cut from fourteenth- and fifteenth- 
century MSS., and mounted in scrap-books, 
fetched 410/. The printed books were also 
extremely important, either on their own 
account or for special reasons. Queen 
Catherine of Aragon's copy of Agrippas 
' De Incertitudine et Vanitate Scientiarum,' 
1530, small 4to, realized 37/. ; the ' Bas- 
timens of France,' by Androuet du Cerceau, 
2 vols., folio, 1576-9, 40/. (original French 
calf) ; a copy of the first edition of Francesco 
Berlinghieri's ' Geographia ' (1481), folio, 
77/. (imperfect, old vellum) ; ' Le Livre 
de Jehan Bocasse de la Louenge et Vertu 
des nobles et cleres Dames,' first French 
edition, Paris, Verard (1493), 112/. (old calf ) j 
and an imperfect copy of the first edition of 
the ' Book of St. Albans,' 1486, consisting of 
51 leaves only (instead of 90), 61/. (morocco). 

This sale, though important, was put 
into the shade by that held on May 31st 
and following day, also at Sotheby's, when 
moie than 16,000/. was realized for a com- 
paratively small number of books. The 
explanation is that this collection comprised 
the exact kind of works for which money 
does not appear to be a suitable equivalent, 
that is to say, early and important editions 
of the older English classics. The prices 
fetched by many of these were enormous, 
e.g., Shakspeare's First Folio, 1623, 2,400/. ; 
the Third Folio, first issue, having the 
portrait on the title and the verses opposite, 
1663 (instead of the issue 1664), 1,550/. ; 
John Bale's ' Tragedye or Enterlude many- 
festing the Chefe Promyses of God unto 
Man,' 1538, 4to, 170/. ; the same author's 
' A Newe Comedy or Enterlude concerning 
Thre Lawes,' 1562, 4to, 101/. (damp -stained) ; 
the ' Comedie termed after the Name of 
the Vice, Common Conditions,' n.d. (1576 ?), 
255/. ; ' Everie Woman in her Humour,' 
1609, 4to, 103/. ; Fulwell's ' Like will to 
Like,' 1587, 4to, 101/. ; Greene's ' George 
a Greene, the Pinner of Wakefield,' 1599, 
4to, 109/. ; John Hey wood's ' The Four 
P's,' Copland, n.d., 4to, 151/.; John Phillips's 
' Pacient and Meeke Grissill,' n.d., 4to, 
250/. ; ' The First Part of the Contention 
betwixt the two famous Houses of Yorke 
and Lancaster,' 1594, 4to, tho foundation 
of Shakspeare's ' Henry VL, Part II.,' 
1,910/.; 'The Merchant of Venice,' 1600, 
4to, 510/.; 'King Lear,' 1608, 4to, 250/.; 
' Hamlet,' W. S. for John Smethwicke, n.d., 
4to, 180/.; 'Arden of Faversham,' 1592, 
4to, 1,210/. ; and others, most of them 
unbound, as all tho above were. At this 
salo also a superb copy of La Fontaine's 
'Fables Choisies,' Paris, 1755-9, 4 vols., 
folio, from tho library of the Comto d'Artois, 
sold for 140/. ; tho original MS., in 3 vols., 
of Sir Walter Scott's ' History of Scotland ' 



6101. ; a complete copy of Tfn 8nob, e le v e n 
numbers on paper of various colours, 1102. ; 
an imperfect copy of Caxton'e "The Golden 

ode,' ii rn oak board 

and Myron's 'Fugitive Pieces' of 1806, 

to which reference was made in the former 

article, 182/. (original wrappers). This was 
Byron's own corrected copy, made for the 
published edition of the ' Hours of Idle- 
in Imi7, and was accompanied by a 
letter of directions to the printers, S. & J. 
Ridge of Newark — an interesting relic. 

Noting en passant Sir Francis Seymour 
Hoden's ' Etudes a l'Eau-forte,' the scries 
of 25 proof etchings on China paper, 1866, 
which realized 200/., we come to Mr. Percy 
Fitzgerald's large collection of dramatic 
literature, sold at Sotheby's on June 14th. 
The total readied was nearly 1,000/., though 
individual prices were not high, most of 
the plays having been bound in calf or half- 
calf, and often cut into. The copy of 
Shakspeare's First Folio, some leaves in 
facsimile and others from the Second Folio, 
sold for 135/. ; the first collected edition 
of Beaumont and Fletcher's ' Works,' 1647, 
folio, for 28/. ; the scarce first edition of 
Dekker's ' The Whore of Babylon,' 1607, 
small 4to, for 24/. (defective and stained) ; 
' The Two Noble Kinsmen,' 1634, small 4to, 
for 25/. 10s. (mended, morocco) ; and Sir 
John Suckling's ' The Discontented Colonell,' 
first edition, n.d., small 4to, for 24/. (boards). 
Mention must also be made of one of the 
four large, fine-paper copies of Scott's 
' Lay of the Last Minstrel,' sold on the 
14th of June for 72/. This copy had a 
drawing and also a MS. poem by Scott 
inserted. 

The remaining portion of the season, 
which virtually ended on July 27th, was 
occupied with a dozen collections, notably 
those of Mrs. Craigie ; Mr. Stuart Samuel, 
already referred to as containing some 
valuable manuscripts ; the Dukes of Al- 
temps, removed from Rome ; and a miscel- 
laneous assortment sole, on July 26th and 
27th, including some Bronte relics, about 
which much was written at the time. Of 
these, Mr. Samuel's library was the most 
important ; in fact, it constituted one of 
the most interesting sales of the year. It 
was at this sale that Browning's ' Pauline,' 
1833, containing a long autograph note by 
the author, brought 225/. (morocco extra) ; 
and the 8 parts of ' Bells and Pomegranates,' 
presentation copies, 120/. (two covers mis- 
sing). Mr. Samuel laid great stress on books 
containing manuscript alterations, additions, 
and inscriptions, and had collected a large 
number of these much-desired volumes. Such 
prices as 70/. for ' Alice's Adventures in 
Wonderland,' 1865 ; 30/. for ' Through the 
Looking-Glass,' 1872 : 45/. for Coleridge's 
'Sibylline Leaves' (1817); 99/. for 'Bleak 
House ' ; and 53/. for Richardson's ' Clarissa,' 
8 vols., 1748, besides others too numerous 
for mention, were all justified by one or 
other of the highly exceptional circumstances 
to which reference has been made. 

The new season, which opened early in 
October, and will, following the usual prac- 
tice, close with the last days of next July, 
has, even thus far, been productive of a great 
deal. A number of books from the library 
of Macrcady were sold on October 21st ; 
and the sale of a portion of the library 
of tho Earl of Sheffield ; some scarce 
Americana sold by Messrs. Hodgson on 
November 21st ; the collection of works 
relating to Napoleon disposed of by the 
same firm on December 10th; and above all 
the early editions of Shakspeare belonging 
to Earl Howe, sold, in part at least, by 
Messrs. Sotheby on the 21st of the same 
month, will be well within the memory, 
having been referred to recently in Tlie 



No. 4185, Jan. 11, 1908 



THE ATHENiEUM 



43 



Athenaeum. There would be little use in 
traversing again such familiar ground, 
and all that need now be said of these sales 
is that they accentuated the points raised 
in the preceding article, and singled out 
the fashionable books of the day, for 
which hardly any price within the ever- 
widening bounds of reason can be considered 
too high. It is these books, and the often 
apparently outrageous prices they fetch 
all over the country, which stimulate a 
search for hidden literary treasure in 
all kinds of out-of-the-way and unsus- 
pected quarters. This search results 
sometimes in the discovery of exceed- 
ingly important volumes, which have 
been condemned by a combination of 
circumstances to a lengthy period of neg- 
lect, though these circumstances may be 
regarded as having contributed in a great 
measure to their salvation. Certain it is 
that during the last twelve months these 
books of great price have come from some- 
where in vastly increased numbers. They 
have swollen the average, upset calculations, 
and fortified a decidedly erroneous belief 
that old books of whatever kind are becoming 
the exclusive property of the rich. During 
the last twelve months some 160,000Z. worth 
of books have been sold in the London 
rooms, and in this estimate are not included 
innumerable products of third- and fourth- 
rate sales, which have been advisedly left 
unnoticed. The general average now stands 
at about H. 5s., taking one lot with 
another the year through, and this is a 
notable increase on the preceding average 
of about 21. 12.s. The sudden rise is entirely 
due to the unusual number of scarce and 
important books of which I have spoken as 
having been sold during the year just come 
to an end. J. Herbert Slater. 



'THE LICENSED TRADE.' 

The Cathedral, Manchester. 
YorjR reviewer, who noticed Mr. Pratt's 
book in your issue of January 4th, has 
repeated some statements of his author 
which are no longer true. The number of 
Prohibition States in America is not now 
three, but six, Georgia, Oklahoma, and 
Alabama having lately adopted Prohibition. 
It is highly probable 'that others will follow 
soon. But the progress of temperance 
legislation in America and our Colonies is 
not to be measured by the rise or fall of 
State Prohibition. Another method, that 
of Local Option, has been found a readier 
and sounder plan, under which vast areas 
in the States and in Canada are now " dry " 
areas. It will be remembered that Local 
Option is the plan favoured by British 
reformers. 

I am anxious that your readers should 
know the exact truth. I write as a scholar 
and as a reformer also, and I find that 
literary people are, as a class, the least 
acquainted with the facts and arguments 
that concern temperanco legislation. 

E. L. Hicks. 



JOHN CUMMING NIMMO. 

Mr. John C. Nimmo, whose death was 
briefly recorded in The Athenaeum last week, 
was intimately connected with tin- publishing 
business, for he Rained his experience in 
the firm of his brother, Mr. William ['. 
Nimmo, and was allied by marriage with tho 
firms of Bartholomew, Philip, and Whitaker. 
After his brother's death he continued 
in business at 14, King William Street, 
Strand, in partnership with Mr. Bain, until, 



after a short time, the latter left Eng- 
land to take charge of the Toronto Library. 
From the year 1884 Mr. Nimmo managed 
his business alone, and applied himself 
chiefly to the production of library editions 
and elaborate illustrated works produced 
with scrupulous finish. Among his earlier 
publications were complete editions of the 
chief Elizabethan dramatists, edited by 
Mr. A. H. Bullen. The purchase from 
Messrs. Fawcett of Driffield of the well- 
known books of the Rev. F. O. Morris 
added a valuable series of works on natural 
history to his catalogue ; while later, 
in a felicitous moment both for himself 
and for English literature, he commissioned 
Mr. J. A. Symonds to translate Cellini's 
' Autobiography,' thus initiating a friendly 
acquaintance that ended only with Mr. 
Symonds's life. Mr. Nimmo's other great 
achievement was, as noted last week, the 
issue of the " Border Edition " of the 
Waverley Novels, under the editorship of 
Mr. Andrew Lang, with a large number 
of etched illustrations of singular merit. The 
best etchers of England and France found him 
a liberal patron, since no one else used the 
medium for book illustration so freely or so 
well. He was also one of the first to adopt 
consistently the net system of publishing. 
In later years failing health and other 
troubles impaired Mr. Nimmo's activity, 
but he deserves to be remembered as one 
who really loved books, and spared neither 
his energies nor his money to make his 
publications perfect. C. J. H. 



SHAKESPEARE'S BIRTHPLACE 
TRUST. 

January 3rd, 1908. 

I think the public will be interested to 
learn that the Trustees of Shakespeare's 
Birthplace have just succeeded in adding 
to their collections two rare editions of 
Shakespeare's works, to take their place 
beside the two equally rare volumes which 
were acquired last year. The Trustees 
have now purchased perfect copies, in 
admirable condition, of the original edition 
(in quarto) of Shakespeare's ' A Midsummer 
Night's Dream,' 1600, and of the second 
edition (in quarto) of ' The Merry Wives 
of Windsor,' 1619. 

The recent history of these newly-acquired 
quartos increases the interest normally 
attaching to such bibliographical rarities. 
The two volumes long formed part of the 
famous Rowfant Library of Frederick 
Locker-Lampson. It will be remembered 
that in 1904 the whole of that splendid 
collection was, to tho general regret, sold 
to a bookseller of New York, who subse- 
quently disposed of the Shakespearoana 
to an American connoisseur. But the 
migration proved temporary. In the spring 
of last year the American collector resold 
most of the Locker-Lampson Shakespeareana 
in London. Among the volumes tliat 
were then offered for sale were the two which 
have now become the property of the 
Trustoes, and are, in virtue of that transfer 
of ownership, now dedicated in perpetuity 
to tho use of the British public. Tho 
Trustees believe that the British public 
will share their satisfaction in bringing 
the maritiino wanderings of these rare 
memorials of Shakespeare's work to a happy 
termination on this sido of the Atlantic, 
and in thus providing at least two of Locker- 
Lampson's Shakespearean quartos with a 
permanent haven in this country. 
Sidney Lee, 
Chairman of the Kxecutivo Committee, 
Shakespeare's Birthplaco Trustees. 



THE DOUGLAS CAUSE. 

Fox Oak, Hersham, Surrey. 
In the course of a very complimentary 
criticism of my book ' The Story of a Beauti- 
ful Duchess,' your reviewer (Athen., Dec. 28) 
puts the pertinent question, " Why should 
Lady Jane Douglas have burdened herself 
with twins .... when a single baby would 
have answered her purpose ? " and since 
the same idea may occur to others who read 
my account of this most extraordinary 
mystery, I trust I shall be allowed to add a 
few words of explanation. The reason why 
I do not " grapple with that point " is, I 
believe, a sound one. Usually, no conjecture 
is more likely to prove fallacious than that 
which seeks to impute a logical motive to 
the great criminal, and it seems to me 
preferable, when possible, to elucidate the 
crime rather than to indulge in psychological 
speculations. Once upon a time a young 
girl was accused of poisoning a discarded 
lover, the motive alleged by the prosecution 
being that she wished to prevent him from 
making public some compromising letters. 
Was she actuated by this irrational incentive? 
and did she not realize that if she killed the 
man the fatal correspondence must be read 
by the person who took charge of his effects ? 
On another occasion a guardian was indicted 
for the murder of his ward, who had assigned 
to him a life-assurance policy or had made 
a will in his favour. At first sight the motive 
appears obvious. Yet must not the accused 
have known — for he was a shrewd man of 
the world — that the youth was under age, 
and thus his signature on a legal document 
was worthless ? Since learned tribunals 
have been puzzled to decide whether or not 
there was a motive for the crime in these 
particular instances (and it is possible to 
cite a score of similar ones), I hesitated to 
form conjectures that seemed equally danger- 
ous, and were quite unnecessary. 

Of course Lady Jane Douglas had a 
motive in wishing for offspring. She ac- 
knowledged that this was the object of her 
marriage. Her brother had told her that 
they would be his heirs. It was the best 
way of obtaining his forgiveness. But 
though this motive was strong, it would 
be unfair to urge it, merely on suspicion, 
unless there was evidence that she had 
adopted supposititious children. The chain 
of evidence, however, is a tough one, as, 
I believe, readers of my book will admit ; and 
it appears superfluous to offer conjectures 
with regard to subsidiary motives that 
might possibly weaken, and could not 
strengthen, a strong case. Still, as your 
reviewer has suggested that my work in 
this respect is defective, I will make good 
the omission, and try to imagine why 
Jane Douglas " burdened herself with 
twins .... when a single baby would have 
answered her purpose." 

1. It was better to choose twins in caso 
one child should die. This foresight was 
justified by events. One of the children 
did die. 

2. The arrival of twins would seem more 
plausible, for people would say that, although 
it was conceivable that a woman might adopt 
one child, it was unlikely she would be able 
to beg, borrow, or steal two children. No 
great criminal lacks audacity. 

3. It is not certain (hat she contemplated 
the adoption of two children. From the 
first she had contrived a, loophole. If tho 
Duke of Douglas had forgiven her at once, 
she would have been able to say that the 
delicate Sholto had died. 

4. She may have thought that the presence 
of twins would mako her situation inoro 
pathetic. 

5. It would appear that she did not tell 
her friends of the birth until three or four 



II 



T II E A T II E \ M i' M 



No. U85, -Ian. 11.1 



diiys after the adoption "f the boy Archibald. 
During that time i1 may have been thought 
that be <li<l noi bear sufficient reeemblanee 
to herseli or bar husband. Eenoe 1 1 1 « - story 
of twins, bo as to give the opportunity of 

finding a inure Buitable child. 

<i. History shows that the oraftiest 
criminals make the greatest blunders. Thus, 
intent upon ber orune, she may not have 
realised what a great burden she was taking 

Up. Having once put her hand to the plough, 

she was obliged to go on. Still, she did not 

bunion berself with the second child till 

just before her return to England to play 
her grand coup. 

Any of these conjectures are as credible as 

tin- contention that she could not havo 
adopted two children because fiho would 
deem one sufficient. Moreover, it is unfair 
to contend that the case for the prosecution 
is weakened because the motives of the 
accused reveal a lack of perspicuity. 

Your reviewer pays an ill compliment to 
my lucidity when he speaks of the need of 
" hush-money." Lady Jane Douglas con- 
cealed her identity when she took the 
children. She may have bought the first 
from the poor Mignons, but in either case 
it would have been absurd to attempt a 
bribe. She placed her trust in secrecy. 

Finally, I should like to add that in my 
account of this strange mystery I do not 
claim to have proved beyond the possibility 
of doubt that thechildrenweresupposititious, 
but I do claim to have proved that the 
claimant Archibald Douglas did not establish 
his birthright, and that the verdict of the 
Court of Session was a just one. 

Horace Bleackley. 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS. 
ENGLISH. 

Theology. 
Authority in Religious Belief, and other Essays, 2/ net. 

These essays have already been published separately as 

' Unitarian Tracts,' and are by twelve authors. 
Bush (J.), A Memorial, 2/6 net. Edited by his Wife -with a 

brief Memoir by the Rev. Arthur Hoyle. 
Cheetham (S.), A History of the Christian Church since the 

Reformation, 10/6 
Churchman's Penny Library: About some Favourite 

Hymns, by P. P. K. Skipton ; Songs of Dawn, by 

A. R. G. ; Thoughts on some of the Collects, by E 

Romanes, Id. each. 
Congregational Year-Book, 1908, 2/6 
International Journal of Apocrypha, January, dd. net 
Maclaren (A.), The Second Book of Kings from Chap VIII 

and the Books of Chronicles, Ezra, and Neheniiah, 7/6 

In Expositions of Holy Scripture. 
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Peabody (F. G.), Mornings in the College Chapel, Second 

Series, 5/ net. 
Schofteld (A. T), Christian Sanity, 3/6 
Scott (Rev. A. Boyd), Pilgrim's Passage. Eight short 

addresses. 
Smith (EM.), The Mystery of Three, 3/6. A Bible study. 
Whitworth (Rev. W. A.), The Sanctuary of God, and other 
„.., s ermons, 4/G net. Edited by Willoughby Carter. 
WilUuns (Rev. C. R.), Arrows shot at a Venture, 2/6 net 

Essays on literary ami religious subjects. 
Fine Art and Archaeology. 
American Annual of Photography, 1908, 3/ 
Arundel Club Publications, 1907, 21/. Among the contents 

are two works by Velasquez, which were supposed for 

some rears to lie lost. 
Oroot (C. Hofstede de) and Valentiner (Dr. W. R.), A Cata- 
logue Rusonne of the Works of the Most Eminent 
Dutch Painters of the Seventeenth Century, Vol. I., 25/ 

net. Based on the work of John Smith.' Translated 

and edited by Edward G. Hawke. 
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Masterpieces of Holbein the Younger, <W. net. Sixtyrepro- 
duet ions of photographs from the originals, principally 
by I'. Ilanfstaengl. v ' 

New (E II.), Twenty Drawings of Sir Christopher Wren's 
( hureties, 5/ 

Palestine Exploration Fund, Quarterly Statement, Janu- 
ary, •.• 8 * ' 

Tinworth ((!.), Krom Sunset to Sunset : Our Saviour's Last 

pay of Suffering, 1/. Represented in 11 panels, with 

illustrative texts of prophecy and fulfilment. 
Poetry and Drama. 
Colum (PA Wild Earth, 1/ net. A book of verse. 
Cousins (. I. II.), The Awakening, a nd ot her Sonnets, 1/ 

Darley (<;.), The Complete Poetical Works, 1/ net Re- 
printed from the original editions in the possession of 
the Darley family, and edited with an Introduction by 
Ramsay Colles m the .Muses' Library. For notice of 
Darley's 'Nepenthe,' see Allien., Sept. 18, 1897, p. 377. 



1 1 .I. 1. s. ,|. 1 , . . i,\ riqasL Mis n Vm 

p >r Jean rUchepin. 

ithmhaoil (H >. The Qllly of Christ, 1/ net. With three 

symbols bi A M Wentworth Sboilds. 
Morris (Sir Lewis), Works, 6/. New Edition. 
Mullin (I.), The Lands of the Moon and other Poena, 

net. 

I'm i.- (.).), The Crooning! of ■ Cowboy, and dUmi \' 1 

1 net. 

Poets and the Poetry of the Nineteenth Century : Humour 
George Crabbe to Edmund R v. Christian, I/O net. 

New Edition. Edited bj Alfred 11. Miles. 
Robinson (A. c ), Launcelol and Guenever, 1/ net. 
Shakespeare: King John, Kins; Richard 11 , 7/B net each. 

Renaissance Edition, 

Ways of God, I"', net. One hundred poems on the great 

problems of existence, se le c t ed by Adam L Gtowi 

Music. 

Guild of Play Booh Of festival and Dance, Written by 
G.T. Kinunins, Dances arranged by M. H. Woolnoth, .'./ 

Oldmeailow (E), Great Musicians, 3/0 net. With 32 illus- 
tration-. 

Bibliography. 

Catalogue of the Pamphlets, Books, Newspapers, and 
Manuscripts relating to the Civil War, the Common- 
wealth, and Restoration, collected by George Thomason, 
1640-1661, 2 vols., 30/ 

Gray (G. J.), A Bibliography of the Works of Sir Isaac 
Newton, 5/net. Also contains a listof books illustrating 
liis works, with notes. Enlarged Edition. 

Wenckstern (I'r. von), Bibliography of the Japanese 
Empire, Vol. II., 1894-1906. A classified list of the 
literature in European languages relating to Japan, with 
a list of the Swedish literature on that country by Miss 
Yalfrid Palmgren. 

Political Economy. 

Gibson (A. H.), Bank Rate : The Banker's Vade Mecum, 
2/6 net. 

History and Biography. 

Baring-Gould (Rev. S.) and Fisher (Rev. J.), The Lives of 
the British Saints, Vol. I., 10/6. Treats of the saints of 
Wales and Cornwall, and such Irish saints as have 
dedications in Britain. 

Brown (R.), Notes on the Earlier History of Bart on -on- 
Humber, Vol. II., 15/ net. 

Clarke (William) : a Collection of his Writings, with a 
Biographical Sketch, 7/6. The volume, which is edited 
by Herbert Burrows and John A. Hobson, is divided 
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and Culture and Criticism. 

Gilson (Capt. C. J. L.), History of the 1st Battalion Sher- 
wood Foresters (Notts and Derby Regiment) in the Boer 
War, 5/ net. With Introduction by Lieut. -General 
Sir H. L. Smith-Dorrien, 10 plans, and 4 portraits. 

Gosse (Edmund), Ibsen, 3/6. In Literary Lives Series. 

Green (Mrs. J. R.), Town Life in the Fifteenth Century, 
2 vols., 20/ net. 

Hughes (T), History of the Society of Jesus in North 
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Documents, 1605-1838. 

Perry (B), John Greenleaf Whittier, 3/6 net. A sketch of 
his life, with selected poems. 

Sainsbury (E. B.), A Calendar of the Court Minutes, <tc, of 
the East India Company, 1635-9, 12/6 net. With Intro- 
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Schurz (C ), Abraham Lincoln, 42/ net. A biographical 
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Wister (O.), The Seven Ages of Washington, 8/6 net. An 
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Geography and Travel. 

Haggard (H. Rider), A Winter Pilgrimage, 3/6. New 

Edition. For former notice see Athen., Nov. 9, 1901, 

p. 623. 
International Geography (The), by Seventy Authors, 15/. 

Edited by Hugh Robert Mill, with 489 illustrations. 
Jesse (Louie), Historical Games for Children, 3/6 

Education. 

School World, 1907, 7/6 net. A monthly magazine of 
educational work and progress. 

Philology. 

Harry (J. E.), Problems in the Prometheus. In University 
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Thimin (Capt. C. A.), Egyptian Self-Taught (Arabic), 2/. 
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<Sc. Third Edition, revised by Major R. A. Marriott. 

School-Books. 
Black's Picture Lessons in English, Book III. 6d. With 

14 illustrations in colour. 
Carter (M. E.), The Groundwork of English History, 2/. 

In the University Tutorial Series. 
Endecott (F. C), A School Course in Physics : Light and 

Sound, 2/6 
Joppen (C), Historical Atlas of India, 3/ net. For the use 

of High Schools, Colleges, and private students. 
Macmillan's Supplementary Headers- Senior Adventures 

of Robinson Crusoe ; Tanglewood Tales ; Intermediate 

— Ali Baba; Fables from JSsop and Others; Story of 

Sinbad the Sailor: Junior— Fairy Tales, I. and II. j 

Tales from Andersen, id. each. 
Mitchell (<i- W.), An Introduction to Latin Prose, 3/6 
Nesfield (.1. C), Key to Aids to the Study and Composition 

of English, 4/6 net. 

Science. 
American Institute of Engineers: the Ontario Meeting, 

and their Tour through the Districts of Cobalt, Sud- 

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GOWans'S Nature Hooks : Pond anil Stream Life, by W. B. 

and S. C. Johnson ; Wild Birds at Home, Third Series, 

by C. Kirk, Gd. net each. 
Roscoe (II- E.) and Sehorlemnu'r (C), A Treatise on 

Chemistry, 80/ net. Vol. II. The Metals. New Edition. 

for review of Vol. I. see Athen., Sept. 9, IMS, p. ML 
Russell (W), Arterial Hyperlonus, Sclerosis and Blood 

Pressure, 7/0 net. 

Stansbie (J. If), Iron and Steel, 6/ net. In the West- 
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Stevens (W. C), Plant Anatomy, 10/0 net. 



./w. n, I. liniikt. 
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Fiction. 
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Penrbyn SUtnlaws 
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(Carlton), One fair Kiieiny, 6/ 
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■ 

Gould (N.), A Hundred to O NewRdiU 

Hume (Ferfjus), l be Sat re.i Herb, 6/ 

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notice see Allien., Sept. | 

Mal\erv(0. ('.), The Speculator, 8/. A story of modern life 

ana society. 
Meade (L. i). Little Josephine, c/. With coloured frontU- 
by 1 1 Sberie, 

Ritchie (Mrs I), c,.). Man and the Cassock, 6/ 
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General Literature. 
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family Recorder. A neatly planned book of forms for re- 

cordinj persona] history, arranged by sir William BulL 
Humane Review, January, 1/ 
Local Government Directory, Almanac, and Guide, 1908, 

8/6 
Magna, Queen of Slieba, 5/. Now first translated into a 
European tongue from the Ancient Royal Abyssinian 
manuscript, ' The Glory of the Kinds' by Hughes \m Roui, 
and into English by Mrs. John Van Vor>t. Illustrated 
by an Abyssinian artist. 
More (K. Mervin), Despatches from Ladies' Clubland, 8/ 
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12 numbers, 1 dol. 
Peat's Fanner's Diary and Account Book, 1908, 3/ 
St. Bride Foundation Institute, Bride Lane, E.C., Twelfth 

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7/6 net. Columbia University Lectures. 
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notes by George A. Aitken. In Routledge's New 

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G. F. Monkshood. 
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Pamphlets. 
Jeffery(G.), A Summary of the Architectural Monuments 

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Auckland, N.Z. 
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Revue litteraire, 7fr. 50. 
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*." All Books receiivd at the Office up to Wednesday 
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noted. l^iblishers are requested to state prices tchen 
sending Books. 



lEiterarg (Bnssip, 

Mr. Unwin will publish very soon a 
study of ' The Novels of George Meredith,' 
by Mr. E. E. J. Bailey. Its object is to 
show the analogies between Mr. Meredith's 
work and that of earlier novelists, and 
to illuminate its growth and aims. 

Miss Eleanor G. Hayden has just 
completed a new volume, entitled ' Islands 
of the Vale.' It deals with the history, 
past and present, of some half-a-dozen 
villages in a sequestered tract of one of 
the Home Counties, and is enlivened with 
local gossip and rustic comedy. The book, 
which Messrs. Smith & Elder hope to 
publish in April or May, will be illustrated 
by Mr. J. M. Macintosh. 



No. 4185, Jan. 11, 1908 



THE ATHENAEUM 



45 



Mr. J. L. Garvin, till lately editor of 
The Outlook, has become editor of The 
Observer, with a proprietary interest. 

' A Family Chronicle ' is the title of 
a volume which Mr. Murray publishes 
during the coming week. It is a history 
of three generations of Englishwomen, 
and is based on notes and letters collected 
by Barbarina, Lady Grey. It covers a 
period of about a hundred years, and 
contains reminiscences of Fanny Kemble, 
Bulwer Lytton, Lord Lynedoch," Bobus " 
Smith, and others who shone in society 
and the world of letters during the last 
century. 

Mr. Murray has also in the press a new 
novel by Miss Macnaughtan, entitled 
1 The Three Miss Grsemes,' which will be 
published shortly. It is a study of three 
girls and their aunt. Miss Macnaughtan's 
earlier novels, ' The Lame Dog's Diary ' 
and ' The Expensive Miss DuCane,' are 
now issued by Mr. Murray. 

A correspondent writes : — 

" It does not seem to have been observed 
that the view which is taken in your notice 
last week of ' Father and Son,' that the 
1 Father ' in the book is an illustration of 
the fact that ' Puritanism never has known, 
and never will know, how to deal with 
children except by making them prigs,' 
is not at all borne out by a very interesting 
paper, full of humour and knowledge of 
boy life, and not at all priggish or Puritanical, 
in Longman's Magazine, March, 1889, 
pp. 512-24, by the late Mr. Philip Henry 
Gosse, F.R.S., on ' A Country Day-School, 
Seventy Years Ago.' The stories of school 
life therein show that the writer thorougly 
understood it, and make the reader wonder 
if the ' Father ' did not understand the 
' Son ' better than the Son now thinks he 
did, and was quite so severe or mirthless 
as the book would make one fancy." 

Messrs. Kegan Paul & Co. have in 
the press, and will issue shortly, a new 
volume of poems by Mr. William Gerard, 
the author of ' Dolcino ' and other verse. 

A new monthly magazine for book- 
lovers, The Bibliophile, is announced for 
March next, with offices at Thanet House, 
Strand. A good list of supporters is 
published, and the names range from Lord 
Burghclere to Mr. George Wyndham, 
M.P., and from Mr. F. T. Bullen to Mr. 
Arthur Symons, the writers with special 
knowledge of books including Mr. Cyril 
Davenport, Mr. Sidney Lee, Mr. A. W. 
Pollard, and Mr. H. B. Wheatley. The 
price of the magazine is to be sixpence. 

Rumour has been busy for some time 
over the fate of the post of Historiographer 
Royal for Scotland, rendered vacant by 
the death of Prof. Masson. A final 
decision has now been made in favour 
of the continuance of this modest post 
with its 180Z. a year ; and the names 
most discussed in connexion with the 
appointment are those of Prof. Hume 
Brown, Mr. Andrew Lang, Dr. Hay Flem- 
ing, and Mr. It. S. Rait. 

Mr. James Watson writes from 
Peebles : — 

" In reviewing Dr. Patrick's 'Statutes of 
tho Scottish Church ' you question whether 
the word ' wane,' as found in 'The Three 
Priests of Peebles,' moans to curse ; and 



you suggest ' vary ' as its proper signification. 
Your suggestion is plausible, if the first 
occurrence of the word in the poem is only 
taken into consideration ; but the word is 
repeated with, apparently, a very different 
meaning. When the ' cunning dark,' ap- 
pointed by the clergy to answer the King's 
question, is about to discharge the duty 
laid on him, he repeats the question, and 
varies the lines you quoted, thus : — 

And quhair foir now al that cuir can warie, 
Methink ye mene quairfoir sa may not we? 

That is, the clergy or bishop cannot now 

heal the sick and comfort the sorrowful, as in 

olden times. The ' dark's ' answer further 

shows that this is the meaning attached to 

' warie ' in the poem. He says : — 

Tims, greit, excellent King ! the Halie Gaist, 

Out of your men of gude away is cheeist ; 

And, war not that doutles I yow declair, 

That now as than wald hail (heal) baith seik and sair? 

We regret to notice the death of Mr. 
William Carnie, of Aberdeen, whose name 
has been familiar in literary and musical 
circles all over Scotland for more than 
half a century. His ' Northern Psalter,' 
issued before the Churches had provided 
official collections of their own, proved 
the most successful book of psalm and 
hymn tunes ever published in Scotland. 
He was connected with the Aberdeen 
press for many years, and three volumes 
of his ' Reporting Reminiscences ' were 
published recently. His little volume en- 
titled ' Waifs of Rhyme ' depicted happily 
Scottish rural life and character. Mr. 
Carnie's portrait, painted by Sir George 
Reid, and now in the Aberdeen Art 
Gallery, was publicly subscribed for some 
years ago. 

Arrangements are in progress for 
new lectureships at Edinburgh University 
in Geography and Economic History, 
and Mercantile Law. Mr. W. Warde 
Fowler has been appointed Gifford Lec- 
turer, as from October, 1909. 

The privately printed book on 
' Brougham and his Early Friends,' 
consisting of numerous hitherto unknown 
letters, will occupy three volumes instead 
of two, as formerly announced, and will 
appear in the early spring. The addi- 
tions ate due to the later discovery of 
many letters of importance. The whole 
is collected and arranged by Mr. 
R. H. M. B. Atkinson and Mr. G. A. 
Jackson. Subscribers should send their 
names to Messrs. Darling & Pead, of 32, 
Harrington Road, South Kensington. 

In Chambers's Journal for February, 
Mr. Henry Leach has retold the ' Love- 
Story of Queen Victoria ' from the 
recently issued ' Letters.' Mr. George 
Pignatorre writes about ' Old and New 
Cairo'; and the Rev. A. J. Foster on 
1 Woburn Past and Present,' with a 
sketch of the earlier Russells and the 
Duke of Bedford's collection of birds and 
beasts. Lady Napier gives her views on 
the subject of ' Back to the Land.' An 
old postmaster, Mr. R. S. Smyth, of 
Londonderry, traces 'The Course of a 
Post- Letter ' ; and Mr. Frederick A. 
Talbot writes on the new processes in tho 
manufacture of ' Powdered Milk.' 

Mr. Douglas Crichton is engaged 
in writing a history of the family 
of Crichton, and his record will include 



researches into the career of the Admir- 
able Crichton. 

Messrs. Blackwood will publish 
shortly the series of papers contributed 
by Mr. Hector Macpherson to the Edin- 
burgh Evening News (of which he is 
editor), under the title cf ' A Century of 
Political Development.' 

A lecture will be delivered at King's 
College, Strand, by Dr. B. P. Grenfell, 
on the 28th inst., on ' Recent Discoveries 
of Papyri at Oxyrhynchus.' The lecture 
will be illustrated by lantern-slides, and 
will be free to the public. 

Messrs. Sealy, Bryers & Walker 
write from Dublin : — 

" We beg to thank you for the review 
of Canon O'Hanlon's ' History of Queen's 
County,' Vol. L, on the 28th ult. With 
reference to the complaint contained in 
last paragraph, we have to point out that 
the inclusion of a map of the modern 
Queen's County would not have been appro- 
priate to a volume which deals with the 
teriitory before the ' County ' was formally 
constituted. Consequently the map is re- 
served for Vol. IJ. The preface in which 
the maps are mentioned — Father O'Leary's 
— is a preface to the whole work, not to 
a portion of it. We think this is readily 
recognizable from the wording." 

Last Thursday Mrs. Stopes opened the 
year at the Toynbee Hall Shakespeare 
Society with a lecture on ' The Friends 
of Shakespeare's Sonnets.' She brought 
forth a mass of evidence that the youth 
referred to was no other than the Earl of 
Southampton. That first step granted as 
a fact, she went on to suggest associated 
explanations of some of the problems of 
the Sonnets. 

A work is in preparation by Mr. 
Edmund G. Gardner — the author of 
' Dante's Ten Heavens ' and ' Dukes and 
Poets of Ferrara ' — on ' Dante's Lyrical 
Poems,' which is to include both a 
study in mystical and erotic poetry and 
an attempt to construct a critical text of 
the fifteen canzoni, the famous series of 
odes. The volume, which is to be pub- 
lished by Messrs. Constable, will contain 
also the ballads, sonnets, and other rime, 
or minor poems. 

Mr. A. E. This elton writes : — 
" In his edition of ' Shakespeare's 
Sonnets,' Mr. W. H. Hadow writes : * It is 
known that during the closing years of the 
sixteenth century he [i.e. Shakospearo] was 
on terms of friendship with the young 
William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, a 
munificent patron of letters who, in Mr. 
Wyndham's phrase, was then " one of tho 
brightest particles in the shifting kaleido- 
scope of Court and Stage " ' (p. ix). 

" I have always understood that the 
only diroct evidence that Shakspeare was 
on torms of friendship with tho nobleman 
in question is contained in ' The Epistle 
Dedicatorio ' of the First Folio ; but this 
being written in 1G23, is surely a weak 
foundation for inferring such friendship 
during the closing years of the sixteenth 
century." 

On Monday last Mr. James Mason, an 
industrious author and editor, of Beacon 
Cottage, Braunton, Devonshire, died at 
Barnstaple. 



h; 



T II i: AT II KWK V M 



No. U85, Jan. 11, 1908 



Tin: death is annoonoed, in his seventy- 
eighth year, of Mr. William Wilson, of 
Sanquhar, Dumf riesBhire, who at one time 
published a local newspaper and edited 
» local magazine, but was better known 
by his work on the ' Folk-lore of Upper 
Nithsdale.' 

Tin: mi >t interesting name in the 
\,-« Yi.tr list of French honours is that 
Of .Madame Maivelle Tinayre, to whose 
powerful work we have frequently 
directed the attention of our readers. 
The other new " Chevalier i" of the 
Legion d'Honncur include M. Jules 
Huret of the Figaro ; M. Albert Guignon, 
author of 'Son Pere ' ; M. Maurice 
Leblanc ; M. Edouard Schure ; and M. 
Gabriel Trarieux, the dramatist. 

Prof. Baldassare Labanca, of the 
University of Rome, has entrusted the 
translation of his ' Difficolta antiche e 
nuove degli studi religiosi in Italia ' to an 
Oxford man, the Rev. Louis H. Jordan. 
Prof. Labanca will prepare a new Pre- 
face, and the translator is to add an 
Introduction, dealing somewhat fully 
with the outlook for the historical study 
of religion in Italian universities. 

Recent Government publications of 
some interest include Report of the 
Board of Education for 1906-7 (6d.) ; 
Vol. XXIV. of Hertslet's Commercial 
Treaties (15s.) ; and Correspondence 
respecting the Peace Conference at the 
Hague (Is. Qd.). 

Next week we shall pay special atten- 
tion to educational literature and school 
books and problems, including reports 
of the Head Masters' Association, the 
Assistant Masters' Association, the L.C.C. 
Conference of Teachers, and the Modern 
Language Association ; and an article on 
' Classical Teaching,' by a schoolmaster 
of experience. 

SCIENCE 

— * — 

CHEMICAL LITERATURE. 

Inorganic Chemistry. By E. I. Lewis. 
(Cambridge, University Press.) — This volume 
is the outcome of an attempt, by the Che- 
mistry Master at Oundle School, to provide 
a course in chemistry for a class of boys of 
whom some have been promoted from a lower 
science set, and the others come direct from 
the classical side. Also an endeavour is 
made to follow a strictly logical method : 
no compound of unknown composition is 
used for chemical purposes, unless to 
discover its composition ; after this it may 
be freely used. This postpones the most 
convenient methods of preparing many 
gases, but on the whole appears to work 
advantageously. The book is intended for 
the revision of lessons, chaptor by chaptor, 
and at the end of the chapters in the first 
half of it are problems and exercises, somo 
of them of a high standard, suitable for a 
second revision. 

After an introductory chaptor follow 
chapters on water, air, common salt and its 
components, chlorides and the liko, loading 
to the conception of equivalent mass 
and the laws of chemical combination. 
Tho next section loads up to the atomic 
theory with the aid of tho consideration of 
sulphur and carbon and somo of their 



oompounds, and Faradayala* tofelectrolj 
Chapters on the application of the atomic 
theory oomplete Pari I., and in these, 
matters like combined orator, acids and 
bases, hydrocarbons, and oomponndi of 
nitrogen are dealt with and u amples. 

Pari II. leads up to the periodic cla 
tion of die elements with the help of a larger 
amount of information concerning the 

elements already dealt with, and the 

introduction of a few others; but the metals 

and their compounds aro not treated in 
detail. 

Tho author has set himself a difficult 
task in trying to draw up a scheme suitable 
for such a mixed class of hoys as that he 
montions, but wo think he has accomplished 
it with success, and certainly with groat 
care and skill. The book will provo useful 
in other schools than that from which it 
originated. 

The figures of apparatus, which are 
numerous, are neat and clear. A chap- 
ter on respiration and nutrition is a 
useful addition to such a book, and the 
author throughout has endeavoured to 
make use of illustrations and examples from 
everyday life. The experiments relating to 
oxidation and hydration illustrated by the 
rusting of iron are excellent. The work is 
exact and slips are very rare, but Rochelle 
salt (p. 358) contains water of crystallization, 
four molecules. 

A Course of Practical Organic Chemistry. 
By T. Slater Price and Douglas F. Twiss. 
(Longmans & Co.) — The head of the 
Chemical Department of the Birmingham 
Municipal Technical School and the Lecturer 
on Chemistry at the same institution have 
done well in publishing this textbook, which 
covers the course of practical organic 
chemistry given at that school. It is true 
that the course is arranged mainly for the use 
of students working for particular examina- 
tions, those of the Board of Education and 
for a B.Sc. degree ; this is perhaps inevitable, 
but the Board of Education has recently 
revised and improved its syllabus, so that the 
evil is minimized. The book is divided into 
three parts, corresponding with the three 
stages of the Board's examination. The 
preparations seem to have been carefully 
and wisely selected, using as far as possible 
instances which do not take too long a time, 
and are therefore the more suitable for 
evening classes. The number of examples 
given in each stag© is far more than the 
average student will be able to get through 
in an ordinary course, but the teacher can 
make a selection and distribute the work 
among groups of two or three who have tho 
opportunity of seeing each other's work. 

The tests are well selected and carefully 
described, and we are sure that the book will 
provo useful in many schools and colleges 
where a course in practical organic chemistry 
is followed. On p. 107 it should have been 
made plain that in using the bromine-water 
tost for phenol the bromine must be in excess. 
A History of Chemistry. By Dr. Hugo 
Bauor. Translated by R. V. Stanford. 
(Arnold.)— This little book of about 230 
octavo pages "is intended to supply students 
of chemistry with an outlino of the general 
development of the scionce." It does not 
pretend to be a complete history, and in 
such a small book it is no doubt very diffi- 
cult to assign proper proportions of tho 
space to be allotted to different parts of 
tho subject. Every chemist may have a 
different idea as to the relative importance 
of various historical facts, but probably all 
will agree that tho Periodic Law is wort hi oore 
than ono pago in such a history of chemistry. 
Many chemists who have done lasting work 
in tho advancement of the science are either 



not mentioned or mentioned bul rfljrj 

i j/., Bon lit is not Included, and 

\\ . Crooki i referred to only as having 
determined the atomic weight of thallium; 
whilst several of the alchemist* and mtro- 
ehemiata have comparatively long noil 
With these perhaps inevitable drawbacks bo 
a short history, the hook is well and finally 
written. A lew pages are devoted to the 
ohemistry of the ancients and the period 
of alchemy ; then follow the periods of 

iatro-chemistry and of phlogistic chemistry: 
■ together occupy somewhat less than 
half the hook. 

Part II. begins with the period of Lavoi- 
followed by the period of the development of 
organic chemistry, which covers the time 
from the artificial production of urea by 
Wdhler in 1828 until towards the end of 
the last century : to this period is naturally 
devoted the most space, about 6G pages. 
A few pages on the chemistry of the present 
day, with indexes, conclude the volume. The 
addition of a page or two on the progress 
of physiological chemistry and agricultural 
chemistry would be an advantage. 

The translation is well done, but on 
pp. 138 and 139 it should have been made 
clear that the sugar which can be obtained 
by treatment of starch with acids is not the 
same sugar which is extracted from the 
sugar-beet. Tho last sentence in the book, 
whilst indicating correctly tho nature and 
use of the little volume, perhaps does not 
exactly convey the same idea to an English 
reader as the original. 



LORIMER FISON. 



The death on December 29th of the Rev. 
Lorimer Fison at his home near Mel bourne, 
Victoria, removes one of the foremost pioneers 
of Australian anthropology. An Englishman 
by birth, he was educated at Caius College, 
Cambridge, but did not proceed to a degree. 
After some years of varied experience in 
Australia, he connected himself with tho 
Wesleyan missions there, and was sent as 
a missionary to Fiji, where he afterwards 
became the head of a college for the natives. 
Here his courage, his tact, his linguistic 
gifts, and his earnestness placed him in 
the first rank among missionaries. Here, 
too, he began his career as an anthropologist 
by contributing to the truly epoch-making 
work of the American ethnologist L. H. 
Morgan on systems of consanguinity 
(" Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge," 
vol. xvii.). After acquiring an intimate 
knowledge of the Fijians, Mr. Fison removed 
to Australia, and entered on a wider series 
of investigations into the social organization 
and marriage relationships of the Australian 
tribes. He had the good fortune to secure 
the co-operation of Dr. A. W. Howitt. and 
the two published conjointly the volume 
' Kamilaroi and Kurnai ' (Melbourne, 1880), 
which laid tho foundation of the scientific 
study of the Australian aborigines. Pro- 
fessional occupations prevented Mr. Fison 
from devoting as much time as he wished 
to ethnology, but he contributed several 
valuable papers to the Journal of the Anthro- 
pological Institute on Fijian customs and 
the classifieatory system of relationship. 
In 1904 ho published a volume of native 
Fijian stories (' Tales from Old Fiji,' London, 
the De La More Press). About the same 
time his health, which had been infirm for 
some years, finally broke down, and thence- 
forth he was entirely laid aside from active 
work. But the clearness of his mind and 
his keen interest in his favourite subjects 
never failed. The grant of a pension on 
the Civil List was a proper and timely recog- 
nition of his eminent services to science. 



No. 4185, Jan. 11, 



1908 



THE ATHENAEUM 



47 



The imj ortance of these services cannot be 
fairly estimated by the amount of his pub- 
lished writings, though that was not in- 
considerable. He perceived the far-reach- 
ing significance of L. H. Morgan's work, 
and if the principal conclusions of that 
great investigator should ever be generally 
accepted, as it appears probable that they 
will be, no man will have contributed more 
effectively to their demonstration than 
Lorimer Fison, since it is mainly to his 
example and influence that we owe an 
accurate knowledge of the social organization 
of the Australian tribes in which Morgan's 
theories find their firmest support. This 
is a service to the science of man of which 
it would be difficult to over-estimate the 
importance. 

Personally Mr. Fison was a man of the 
most upright and amiable character. To 
know him was to esteem and love him. He 
was a charming letter- writer, for he possessed 
a happy gift of describing what he had seen 
in clear, correct, and graphic English. He 
leaves an invalid widow and a family of 
two sons and four unmarried daughters. 

J. G. F. 



SOCIETIES. 



Microscopical. — Dec. 18. — Mr. Conrad Beck, 
V.P., in the chair. — Mr. J. E. Barnard exhibited 
some specimens of luminous bacteria in culture 
tubes, and also large quantities in a solution in a 
flask. On the room being darkened the light given 
off by the bacteria was at once apparent, and the 
contents of the flask, when shaken, became very 
luminous. The light produced was nearly mono- 
chromatic, lying between the lines F and t* of the 
spectrum. The whole energy of these bacteria 
seemed to be utilized in producing light, no heat 
whatever being detected. — Mr. Eustace Large 
exhibited under microscopes a number of specimens 
of natural twin-crystals of selenite. The way in 
which the specimens had been prepared, and the 
effects produced by the varying angles at which 
the twin-plane cut the cleavage-plane, were further 
illustrated by diagrams and models. Specimens 
were exhibited under reflecting polariscopes made 
for Mr. Large by the firm of C. Baker; under some 
of these were most artistic subjects made from 
selenite, one representing a vase of flowers, and 
another flowers and fruits with animals, such as 
parrots, chameleons, &c. , which changed colour 
when a film of mica below the design wa3 rotated. 
Mr. Large also exhibited a small double-image 
prism made from a fragment of Iceland spar, and 
mounted on the nose of an objective, by means of 
which two images of a suitable object placed on 
the stage with a selenite plate were obtained in 
complementary colours. — A paper by Mr. E. M. 
Nelson on Gregory & Wright's microscope was 
read by the Secretary. This microscope was de- 
scribed and illustrated in a rare book published by 
Gregory &, Wright in 1786, and was called a "new 
universal microscope, which has all the uses of tho 
single, compound, opaque, and aquatic microscopes." 
The illustration shows it to be similar to one pre- 
sented to the Society in 1899 by Dr. Dallinger, which 
was then thought tohave been made by Benj. Martin; 
but it now seems likely that it was made by 
Gregory & Wright, who were probably Martin's 
successors. — Another paper by Mr. Nelson, on ' A 
Correction for a Spectroscope,' was also read by 
the Secretary. It described a device proposed by 
the author by which the object-glass of the tele- 
scope may be automatically rotated so as always 
to receive the rays from any part of the spectrum 
without obliquity. — A paper by Mr. Jas. Murray 
on 'Some African Rotifers' was read by Mr. (J. F. 
Rousselet. This described about twelve species of 
bdelloid rotifers from Old Calabar, Uganda, and 
Madagascar, among which were one new species 
and two new varieties. In the discussion that 
followed, Mi-. Weschd, referring to the new species 
from Uganda, Callidina pituuger, said that he 
thought the lateral appendages were remarkable, 
and that they might he of similar function to the 
blades on the shoulders of Polynrthru platyptera, 
giving a sudden movement to the animal to enable 
it to escape danger. 



Aristotelian. — Jan. 6. — Prof. G. Dawes Hicks, 
V. P. in the chair. — Mr. G. E. Moore read a paper 
criticizing ' The Pragmatist Theory of Truth,' as 
represented in Prof. W. James's recent book. 
Prof. James seems anxious to advocate three views 
about truth, viz. (1) a view about the connexion of 
truth with utility, (2) a view about the " muta- 
bility " of truth, (3) a view about the part played 
by man in " making truth." As regards (1), he 
does not seem merely to hold the commonplace 
that most true beliefs are useful, and most useful 
ones true, he seems to identify truth with utility. 
And to this identification there are three objections, 
(a) As a matter of empirical fact, it is not the 
case that all true beliefs are useful, and all 
useful ones true ; for, whatever sense we give to 
" utility," there are certainly many exceptions 
either to the one proposition or to the other, and 
probably to both, (b) He implies that any belief 
which was useful would be true, no matter what 
other conditions it might fail to satisfy ; that, 
therefore, beliefs in the existence of things might 
be true, even if the things did not exist, (c) He 
implies that just as a given belief may be useful at 
one time, and not useful at another, so it may be 
true at one time, and not true at another. And 
this leads to (2), as to which he seems to hold, not 
merely (what is true) that a fact may exist at one 
time and not exist at another, and that the same 
words may be true at one time and false at another, 
but also that a belief with regard to what happened, 
is happening, or will happen at a particular time, 
may be true at one time, and not true at another. 
It seems self-evident that no true beliefs are 
mutable in this sense. Finally, (3) ho seems to 
hold that wherever a man plays a part in making 
a particular true belief exist, he also plays a part 
in making it true. But it seems to be the ease 
that man only plays a part in making his beliefs 
true so far as he plays a part in making exist the 
things which he believes to exist ; and hence it is 
very doubtful whether he plays any part at all in 
making true an immense number of his true 
beliefs. 



Mo.w 



MEETINGS NEXT WEEK. 
Royal Academy, 4.— 'Criticism,' No. II., Sir Hubert von 
Herkomcr. 

— London Institution, 5.—' The Evidence for Life in Mars,' Mr. 

A. R. Hinks. 

— Surveyors' Institution, 8.—' Foreshore Erosion and Reclama- 

tion,' Prof. H. Robinson. 

— Geographical, 8,;!0.— ' Among the Volcanoes of Guatemala and 

St. Vincent,' l>r. Tempest Anderson. 
Ties. Royal Institution, .!.— 'The Internal Earof Different Animals,' 
Lecture L, Dr. A. A. Gray. 

— Asiatic, 4.— 'The Coinage of Nepal,' Mr. E. H. Walsh. 

— Colonial Institute, 8.— 'Ceylon of To-day,' Sir Henry Blake. 

— Institution of Civil Engineers, 8.— Discussion on ' Kcyham 

Dockyard Extension.' 

— Zoological, S.30. 

Wed. Meteorological, 7. .10. —Annual Meeting; Presidents Address 
on ' Map-Studies of Rainfall.' 

— Entomological, 8.— Annual Meeting. 

— Folk-lore. 8.— Annual Meeting ; President's Address. 

— Microscopical. 8.— 'On the Microscope as an Aid to the Study 

of the Biology of Insects, with Special Reference to the 
Food,' Mr. W. Wesche. 

— Society of Arts, 8.— 'Screen-Plate Processes of Colour Photo- 

graphy,' Dr. 0. E. Kenneth Mecs. 
Tiiius. Royal Institution, 3.— 'The Building of Britain,' Lecture I., 
Prof. W. W. Watts. 

— Royal Academy, 4.— 'Art loves Chance, and Chance loves Art,' 

Sir Hubert von Hcrkomer. 

— Royal Society, 4.30. 

— Society of Arts, 4.30.— 'Indian Agriculture,' Mr. II. Stavely 

Lawrence. 

— Historical, 5.— 'Some Unpublished Notices of the Family of 

Yorke under George III..' .Mr. Basil Williams. 

— London Institution, 6.—' Flames,' Mr. I. S Scarf. 

— Linncan. 8. — ' Brassica Crosses' and 'Notes on Wild Types of 

Tuber-bearing Solanums,' Mr. A. W. Sutton; 'Revision of 
the Genus llligera, Blutne,' Mr. S. T. Dunn; ' New Ooniferas 
of Formosa,' Mr. BunzO Hayata. 

— Chemical, 8.30. — * Colour and Constitution of Azo-Coinpound*,' 

Part 11., Messrs. ,J. .T. Pox and .). T. Hewitt; The Oxidation 
of Aromatic Hydrazines by Metallic Oxides, Permanganates, 
and Chromates,' Mr. V I>. Chattaway ; and oilier Papers. 

— Society of Antiquaries. 8.30. — ' Rcceut Excavations on 
Lansdown, Bath. Mr.T. S. Hush. 

Institution of Civil Engineers, s. — 'The Principles of 

Engineering Geology,' Lecture II., Dr. II. Lapworth. 

(Students' Meeting. I 
Institution of Uechanii a] Engineers, R —'Third Report to the 

Gas-F.ngine Research Committee,' Prof. F. W. Burstall. 
Royal Institution, 9.—' The Centenary of Daty's Discovery of 

the Metals of the Alkalis,' Prof. T. E. Thorpe. 
Royal Institution, ". — 'The Electrification of Railways,' 

Lecture I., Prof. Gisbeit Kapp. 



Fki. 



^rirnrc (Tu.sr.ip. 

Mr. Young J. Pentland of Edinburgh 
has relinquished his publishing business 
in favour of Mr. Henry Frowde, Oxford 
University Press, and Messrs. Hodder & 
Stoughton. The copyright volumes trans 
ferred include several important scientific 
manuals. These will for the future be pub- 
lished i',\ the two (inns just mentioned, 

Pbof. Albert Hoffa, the well known 
orthopaedist, whose death at the age of 



forty-seven is announced from Cologne, 
was born at Richmond in South Africa. 
He studied at Marburg and Freiburg i. B., 
was professor at the University of WiArzburg, 
and was subsequently appointed Director 
of the Poliklinik for Orthopaedic Surgery 
at Berlin. He was the author of a number 
of valuable works, among them ' Lehrbuch 
der orthopadischen Chirurgie,' ' Technik 
und Massage,' and ' Frakturen und Luxa- 
tionen.' 

The Geological Society will this year 
award its medals and fluids as follows : 
the Wollaston Medal to Prof. Paul Groth, 
of Munich ; the Murchison Medal to Prof. 
A. C. Seward ; and the Lyell Medal to Mr. 
R. D. Oldham. The Wollaston Fund goes 
to Mr. H. H. Thomas ; the Murchison Fund 
to Miss Ethel G. Skeat ; and the Lyell Fund 
to Mr. H. J. Osborne White and Mr. T. F. 
Sibly. 

The death is announced in the seventy- 
ninth year of his age, of Prof. Asaph Hall. 
Born in Connecticut on October 15th, 1829, 
he became an assistant in Harvard College 
Observatory in 1857, and was appointed 
one of the astronomers of the Naval Observa- 
tory in 1862, and Professor of Astronomy 
at Ann Arbor, Michigan, in 1901. He took 
part in several eclipse and other scientific 
expeditions, and enriched many depart- 
ments of astronomy by his labours ; but 
he will always be best remembered by his 
discovery of the two little satellites of Mars 
(a planet till then supposed to be moonless) 
at Washington in 1877, for which he was 
awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal 
Astronomical Society of London in 1879. 

In the course of Madame Ceraski's 
examination of photographic plates taken 
by M. Blajko at the Moscow Observatory, 
she detected variability in another star 
in the constellation Auriga, and the fact 
of change was afterwards confirmed by visual 
observations. When brightest, the star 
is of only the eleventh magnitude ; but at 
other times it is invisible, even on plates 
on which stars of 12£ magnitude are de- 
picted. In a general list it will be reckoned 
as var. 181, 1907, Aurigse. 

M. Gonnessiat has been appointed 
Director of the Algiers Observatory, to 
replace the late M. Trepied ; and M. Bourget 
of Toulouse succeeds M. Stephan, who has 
resigned the Directorship at Marseilles, 
as mentioned in our ' Science Gossip ' on tho 
14th ult. 



FINE ARTS 



OLD MASTERS AT THE ACADEMY. 

At Burlington House an exhibition of 
somewhat mixed quality, yet full of interest 
for picture-lovers, demonstrates once more 
the large number of tint- works which remain 
in private collections in this country. As 
on several occasions recently, one of the 
most attractive features in the show is the 
croup of early pictures in the first room. 
Of these the Mary Tudor (I) of Lucas de 
Heere, contributed by Sir Cuthbert Quilter, 
if not new to London exhibitions, is none 
the less welcome for its technical finish and 
refinement of vision. The same subtle 

spirituality marks the Gabrirllc de Bourbon 
(Hi) of Francois Clouet ; while the two 
portraits of men (S and 11) hanging to 
balance one another, and catalogued respect- 
ively as " Early Flemish " and Corneilfe de 
Lyons, are hardly less perfect. Chancellor 
ll< nart, by Corneille de Lyons, is a delicately 
rendered head in the manner of Clouei : 

the other approximates rather to the style 
of Malaise in its tones of deep green and 



L8 



T II i; AT II KN.K U M 



No. U85, .Ian. 11,1 



black and i(> Strong DIM for certain kind "I 

modelling. Very interesting is the com- 
parison of tin-t' two portraits, each appa- 
rently the result "i the most, deternuned 
literalism, but in effect so different. 

Here we have a quartet of portraits of the 
highest beauty and power, ami these arc. 
flanks! by others only a little less perfeot. 

The two main heads (17 and IS), rather 

blaok m colour, contributed by Mr. H. S. 
Benson, are, ) articularly the former, inferior 
to these in decorative beauty, though 

hardly in human expressiveness (thoy look 
German rather than, as they are described, 
sixteenth-century French) ; and two admir- 
able works of British origin also fall just 
lx low tho standard of the best of their 
neighbours. Lord William West (2), by William 
Stretes, is a vigorous, healthy presentment 
of a vigorous personality. It has not the 
calm completeness with which Holbein 
might have endowed such a picture, and 
the frame cuts it awkwardly ; but of a 
noble school it is a good example, if wanting 
the final envelope of grandeur and style. The 
two-sided panel of the ninth Baron Glamis 
and his secretary (21) shows two portraits 
of boys by an unknown painter of great 
refinement : only the treatment of a hand 
in each case suggests a limitation in his 
training outside the special requirements of 
portraiture. 

All these portraits breathe an atmosphere 
of seriousness and distinction, and the 
pictures other than portraits on the wall 
beside them are not less decorative, if they 
have hardly the same intense sincerity. The 
fifteenth-century triptj'di (13), contributed 
by Mr. Fairfax Murray, and No. 19 (The 
Adoration of the Kings, by Herri Met de 
Bles), lent by Messrs. Duveen, are picturesque 
rather than expressive ; the latter in par- 
ticular, like certain Italian work of the same 
time, with its grotesque and fantastic wealth 
of detail, its hard, calligraphic audacity of 
curls and twists, appeals, and must always 
have appealed, to our love rather of the 
astonishing than of the beautiful. Both 
these triptychs, however, as well as the little 
Temptation by Gerhardt David (12), add 
picturesqueness and glamour to this first 
wall of the exhibition, which holds a collec- 
tion of unusual interest. 

The rest of tho room is certainly not up 
to tho same standard. Vittore Crivelli is 
represented by a Virgin and Child (22) 
which shows him as but a weaker repro- 
duction of his greater brother. We prefer 
the sound, if somewhat uninspired Two 
Saints (23), lent by the Earl of Plymouth — 
Giottesque in their simplicity and avoidance 
of non-essentials. Most of the other pictures 
in the room are of slightly decadent character, 
even when, as with tho early Italian Exe- 
cutioner with the Head of John the Baptist 
(29) or the Virgin and Child said to be by 
Botticelli (32), the imputed date is earlier 
than that at which an historian would 
allow decadence to have set in. The latter 
of these pictures is superficially very attrac- 
tive. A rich piece of decoration, and 
evidently inspired by themaster, its draughts- 
manship has neither tho intense significance 
of his more realistic mood nor the perfect 
rhythm of his more mystic imaginings. We 
should regard it as the work of a clever 
follower belonging — and still more obviously 
the Adoration (30), ascribed to Bonifazio, 
and tho Venetian Virgin and Child (34) — 
to tho class of work which aims only at 
the easy reproduction of some pictorial 
recipe of established popularity. Both these 
are rather cloying in their determination to 
be rich and mellow at any cost, but in the 
latter lingers the charm of a Bellinesque 
design not without distinction. A little 
dull, but of excellent quality, arc two 



portraits bj Moroni (88) and Domenlohino 
(.'!) respectively ; while the presentments of 

Mich ml Angela (l) and Polm //••< (24) ; 
their interval more from their sitters than 
from the intrinsic merits of the painting. 

In ill" second room a tiny full-length by 
< lonzalee I toques (40) is, in slightly common- 
place fashion, a miracle of execution, and 
much to he preferred to the alleged Terburg 
(39) hung above it. This, in our opinion, 
is a OOpy. A "still life" by Snyders (44) and 
Flowers and Fruit by Van Os (76) have an 
obvious splendour which brightens this 
gathering of the dingier little Dutch masters. 
The Interior of a Church (48), by Emanuel 
do Witte, is one of tho better of these, cool 
and refined among a not very distinguished 
company of Teniers and Ostade and Wouver- 
mans and the like, of which certain land- 
scapes — a beautiful little Cuyp (77), a some- 
what too thin Van Goyen (71), and an 
example of that rarely seen painter Hercules 
Segers (72) — are not the least interesting. 
A Cavalier Drinking (64), by Jan le Ducq, 
stands apart from its surroundings by its 
reserve, a technical fastidiousness as of some 
enameller carrying out with calm perfection 
a prearranged scheme of coat after coat of 
creamy, lacquer-like pigment. Only a slight 
turbulence in the contours of the silhouette 
seems a little out of sympathy with the 
mood of a picture which is in some respects 
worthy of Vermeer. It fills to a certain 
extent the place which expectation had 
prepared for the Soldiers Quarrelling ascribed 
to Antonio and Louis Lenain. But that has 
none of the purity of taste and noble serious- 
ness of aim which make the appearance of 
these painters late in the history of French 
art something of an anachronism. 

The first half of the contents of the large 
third room is not a particularly inspiriting 
collection, though passing under such names 
as Turner and Claude, Rembrandt and 
Titian, Rubens, Tintoretto, and Van Dyck. 
This is not meant, of course, to imply that the 
attributions are in every case erroneous. 
That tho much-damaged head in Capt. 
Hey wood Lonsdale's portrait of a lady (126) 
was worked on by Rubens is as certain as 
that little else in the picture was ; and were 
it possible satisfactorily to clean it, there 
might still emerge a fine piece of painting. 
The four Claudes are probably genuine, 
though second-rate, and the " Rembrandt " 
(125) is very like a Rembrandt in everything 
but the state of mind it betrays in the painter; 
while the "Turner" (116) has presumably 
excellent documentary evidence behind it, 
or it would never have been accepted as 
such at all. On the other hand, we cannot 
accept as Titian's the coarsely painted 
portrait of Cliarlcs Quint (127). Such a 
detail as the lips is incredible when we think 
of the nicety and precision with which that 
hand would have moulded them. The 
armour, indeed, in this picture, as the sleeve 
in a picture recently added to the National 
Gallery, supports an attribution whichin both 
instances the painting of the head denies. 
Neither do we see much of the hand of 
Rubens in tho dowdy Queen Esther (132) — 
whose train makes tho most comical failure 
at imparting dignity of any train ever 
painted — or of the power of Van Dyck in 
the cold and heavy King Cliarlcs I. and his 
Family (130). 

Among such indifferent surroundings, 
the standard of which is not notably raised 
by a couple of Murillos of typical mawkish- 
ness, Sustermans, with a pair of virile 
works, 1ms the bearing of a great master. 
His lady's portrait (121) is like a Van Dyck 
of the ( Genoese period, exoept that in the face 
the paint is not so " short," and has, for all 
its clear-cut contour, something of the 
perfect fluidity which with Van Dyck came 



later, it is full of . and, 

We fancy, i- an earlier \\ork than the Portrait 
of a Man (12S), which bus u more challi 

ing pi' < dj e, with more obvious virtual and 

faul - only painter in the room 

wiio can stand beside Su-termans w 
Holds, whose group of Th< Misses 
Payne (147) is altogi ther delightful u 
and the painting of the figures. Perhai 
r parallelism is desirable beta 
the impaste of the paint and the pla 
structure of the group, for as it Ls the side 
of the harpsichord lias an annoying want of 
solidity. Yet the error, if it is one, i- 
allied to the unwonted daintiness of t 
unique work, which makes it so refreshing 
a contrast to the cloying sentiment of 
Sir Joshua's more popular manner, as 
exemplified in Lady Elizabeth Herbert and 
her Son (145). The portrait group lent by 
Lieut. -Col. Home Drummond (150) Ls another 
Reynolds of unusual dignity, worthy of the 
best tradition of Van Dyck ; while a Master 
Bunbury (155) shows him for once treating 
childhood with complete literalness and 
naturalism. Romney alongside of such 
works appears here only as a wonderful 
practitioner. 

In Room IV. are a subtly charming Gains- 
borough, Sir John Sebright (163) ; Cotman's 
powerfully designed Windmills (181); an 
unobtrusive grey river-piece by Solomon 
van Ruysdael (185), most justly expressed, 
with boats that really move ; and an 
impressive portrait of Aubrey de Vcre of 
doubtful authorship (161). The principal 
feature of the room, however, is Crome's 
splendid Poringland Oak (170), an example 
of the careful and loving delineation com- 
bined with broad vision which modern 
landscape painters seem no longer even to 
desire. The sky is the least satisfactory 
part of it, as it is the finest part of the smaller 
view of Norwich alongside (177). 

It is a commonplace to say that the room 
devoted to the work of the late James Clarke 
Hook would gain if the figures could be 
eliminated from most of them. This is 
not due to any want of a figure-painter's 
training, but is owing to a curious colour- 
blindness that allowed him to paint figures 
in the most monotonously hot tones, even 
in a setting flooded with cool blue light. 
The Day for the Lighthouse (187) would be a 
delightful work but for this blemish, the 
complex range of tone in sea and sand and 
sky being rendered with admirable truth, 
and married to a draughtsmanship at the 
same time broad and closely searching. 
He rarely did a sky so fine as in this, which 
is on the whole the best and most typical 
of his works here, though Brimming Holland 
(189) keeps a more satisfactory level, because 
for once the figures are cool in colour and 
just in tone. 

Here is a lengthy catalogue of the contents 
of the galleries, yet perhaps the most 
important feature has still to be considered, 
for the collection of the works of Hogarth 
and Zoffany in the Water-Colour Room 
offers a uniquo opportunity of studying a 
certain side of British art. A word may 
first be said about the large group The Pitt 
Family (93), attributed to Gainsborough. 
principally, we imagine, on the strength of 
the landscape part of it, which undoubtedly 
has many of his characteristics. Tho 
figures as definitely lack them, for even 
in the earliest and most careful of Cains- 
borough's work we find that manner of 
approaching form always by following the 
surface which in later life led him to the 
broken stroke feeling its way over every 
feature, which is his strongly personal 
characteristic among English eighteenth- 
century painters. Here we have an artist 
. -entially less sensitive to tactile impres- 



No. 4185, Jan. 11, 1908 



THE ATHENAEUM 



49 



sions, but with a stronger grasp of absolute 
dimensions. He knows his form more con- 
fidently than Gainsborough, and feels his 
way less. Toms, Reynolds's assistant, has 
been suggested as the man ; but if it be 
indeed his, it is an extraordinarily fine 
example. One or two of the women's heads 
are not specially successful, but the ordon- 
nance of the whole composition is admirable, 
and the child with the dog a delightful 
episode. 

The Hogarths are supremely interesting, 
and full of fine passages ; but it cannot be 
denied that seen together they give an 
impression of carelessness — of cheerfully 
accepted imperfection. The Green-Room, 
Drury Lane (79), and the small Judges (84) 
are technically perfect things, showing a 
high power of realization (the latter, inimit- 
able in its rendering of the heavy, somnolent 
atmosphere, anticipates Daumier). Such 
works as The Beggar's Opera (85), too, or the 
Woman swearing a Child to a Respectable 
Citizen (81), or, more evidently slight, the 
Staymaker (100) and the scenes from ' Hudi- 
bras ' (97, 99, 101), are as beautifully con- 
structed technically, though they remain 
sketchy in their rendering of nature. With 
almost all the others, however, we are driven 
to select for admiration certain fragments 
of a composition unsatisfactory as a whole, 
even if it bears everywhere the evidence that 
its painter possessed both the technique and 
intellectual power necessary for complete 
execution. Of these fragmentary passages 
we may cite the falling comedians in 
Southwark Fair (87) ; the two side groups 
of the Music Piece (89) ; and the passage 
containing the gentleman and the negro 
servant exquisitely set in the background 
of the Wollaston Family (106). Such paint- 
ing speaks of an artist of princely gifts 
touchingly absorbed in his work, and it is 
difficult to understand how, with his 
feeling for the finest harmony and means 
of achieving it, he could again and again 
paint interiors from which the different 
groups and figures flash out in an arbitrary 
and petty fashion. Nature seldom offered 
to art the raw material for a better workman. 

Zoffany was a man of less varied gifts, but 
in a smaller way his Dr. Hanson of Canter- 
bury (95) is perhaps a more perfect picture 
than any here by Hogarth. Its colour is 
deep-toned and tranquil ; its character- 
drawing keen, but unobtrusive ; its land- 
scape, from whatever hand, perfectly in 
accord with the figure. It is a picture we 
should like to see in the National Gallery. 
The Children of the Fourth Duke of Devon- 
shire (108) has more the look of a Zoffany 
than of a Hogarth, as it is described ; nor are 
its qualities those we should expect a 
painter to drop into in the last few years of 
his life. The manner in which the figures 
are set in the background is excellent ; but 
we submit that internal evidence would 
never point to Hogarth as the painter. 

A small collection of water-colours includes 
attractive drawings by Turner and De Wint ; 
but the outstanding feature of the show is 
a serious and dignified work, The Byre (219), 
by William Hunt, an artist rarely, if ever, 
seen to such advantage. 



NOTES FROM PARIS. 

There is great mystery about the pre- 
parations now being made by our artists 
for the " Salon " of an Industrial Ex- 
hibition to take place in London. Whatever 
the members of our Committee say, the 
British people must not expect to see a 
collection of works which will afford a com 
plete view of modern French art. The 
Committee, being mostly composed of 
painters and sculptors who work for the 



Ministere des Beaux-Arts, show already 
in their invitations a marked preference 
for official artists. To these they generously 
distribute the four hundred places at their 
disposal. The discontented pretend that 
such generosity is to the detriment of that 
talent which obtains the public preference 
in France. Dissensions are already occur- 
ring among the organizers. Rodin, in par- 
ticular, refuses to form part of the Com- 
mittee, in which he has not been offered 
the first place. He will not act, but doubt- 
less he will be represented by an example 
belonging to the Luxembourg or some 
other State museum. The well-informed 
believe that he will alter his decision. 

While the Government offers no grant, 
the Exhibition still remains, in France, 
official. It appears also that an ex-Member 
of our Parliament has supplied this want 
by giving 100,000 francs to the Committee 
for the erection of a pavilion worthy of 
sheltering the contributions of French 
artists, some of which he hopes to buy to 
adorn his country house. 

To console themselves for not taking 
the best part in this Exhibition, the mem- 
bers of the International Society (founded 
by Whistler) give to their own shows 
a more than ordinary importance. It is 
probable that they will decide to 
have in London a ' Retrospective Exhibi- 
tion of Fair Women ' from 1848. As a 
result of a similar exhibition held at Bagatelle 
last summer, M. Jacques Blanche makes 
appeal to all our collectors of portraits, 
and has been promised the famous Cabanels 
and other popular pictures. C. G. 



THE AURELIAN WALL AT ROME. 

Not only archaeologists, but also the 
educated public generally, have heard 
with poignant regret of the lecent 
partial demolition of the Aurelian wall 
between the Porta Pinciana and the Porta 
Salara, by order of the Municipality of 
Rome. Indeed, to point to an equally 
flagrant destruction of one of the most 
famous historic relics of the past, one has 
to go back to the days when the mediaeval 
Popes and barons used the monuments of 
Imperial Rome as quarries whence they ex- 
tracted the stone with which they built their 
palaces and towers. Students of art and 
history — Italians as well as foreigners — have 
too often in our own time had to protest 
against the damage done to ancient build- 
ings in Italy by injudicious restoration. In 
those cases, at least, the restorers put forth 
(it may charitably be supposed, in good 
faith) the stock arguments we know so well. 
Nothing of this can be, or has been, ad- 
vanced in the present instance. The level- 
ling of the wall serves no end of convenience 
or necessity. It is simply the mischievous 
prank of irresponsible individuals, who, find- 
ing themselves masters of Rome, take this 
opportunity of asserting their despotic 
authority. 

Foreigners will naturally ask why the 
Municipality of Home, was given over to the 
party whose aims and ends are known to 
all intelligent Italians. They, at any rate, 
cannot have been unaware of the doctrines 
which for the last dozen years have been 
proclaimed by Socialist and Anarchist 
journals, and which have been diffused 
broadcast over the country, penetrating oven 
to the smallest villages. It is a literature 
which is almost unknown to foreigners, but 
which, in the face of recent events, should 
no longer be ignored, for it exercises 
a deplorable influence on the Italian work- 
ing mon and the peasantry. As to the 
doctrines of the, two wings of the revolu- 



tionary party respecting the monuments, 
they virtually point to their abolition. 
They have come to the conclusion that Italy 
is to enter on a new career, and it follows 
that she must be cut adrift from the past, 
and as a preliminary step her records and 
monuments must be wiped out. In short, it 
is an effective illustration of the first article 
in Major Pawkins's creed, " Run a moist pen 
slick through everything, and start afresh." 

But that the Socialist doctrines on these 
matters were not mere theoretical opinions 
was shown when, three years ago, the party 
succeeded in capturing the municipal govern- 
ment of Bologna. One of their first acts on 
that occasion was to place the City Library 
under the management of a distributore — an 
attendant who gives the books to the readers 
— and to abolish the office of the Keeper of 
the City Museum. They dared not shut up 
the Museum and Library offhand, but they 
took the first step towards it. This must 
have been known to the Government, and it 
might naturally have been expected that it 
would at least keep the conservation of the 
national monuments in its own hands. Only 
a short time back the Minister of Public 
Instruction made a pompous announcement 
of his intentions with reference to the monu- 
ments and the national art treasures. One 
item of the performance was the " archaeo- 
logical promenade " (!), which was to be con- 
structed in Rome. It would be interesting 
to learn if the demolition of the Aurelian wall 
forms part of the scheme. Public opinion 
has surely a right to know this. Further, 
who in future will be responsible for the pre- 
servation of the ancient monuments at 
Rome ? To whom, since all are in danger, 
can the appeal for their preservation 
be made ? It is related that one of 
the most picturesque and historically 
important stretches of the old Byzantine 
walls of Constantinople owes its preserva- 
tion to the prompt action of an English 
ambassador to the Porte in the last century. 
The story is that his excellency, who was 
a man of fine taste and culture, was 
accustomed to take his daily ride along 
the road outside the walls of Stamboul, 
which, indeed, offers a series of pictures 
remarkable for their grave beauty and 
touching associations. One fine afternoon 
the ambassador, observing an unusual stir 
at an especially interesting part of the 
Byzantine fortifications, rode up to the 
spot, and there learnt that preparations 
were being made to demolish the wall for 
building materials (the permission to do so 
had been given by the Sultan to his 
mother). Straightway the ambassador rode 
to the Imperial Palace and demanded an 
audienco with the Sultan. The details of 
the reception or the arguments employed 
by his excellency were unknown ; the result, 
however, was that the nefarious project was 
forthwith abandoned. In the present case 
the appeal must be made to intelligent 
Italians throughout the country. Already 
we hoar that the more important journals, 
both of Northern and Southern Italy, are 
unanimous in their condemnation of the 
outrage. In Rome itself one authoritative 
voice has given expression to the national 
"sorrow, shame, and disgust," but Prof. 
Boni is a North Italian, and not a Roman. 
Readers of Gregorovius's ' History of the 
City of Rome in the Middle Ages ' will 
remember that in the course of his narra- 
tive the historian cites letters from 
foreigners describing the manners and 
customs of the Romans at various times 
of the mediaeval period, and that the 
writers are pretty unanimous and outspoken 
in their verdicts. Apparently, in certain 
re peots, the Romans are not much given to 
change. 



.-)() 



T ii E AT ii i:\m-: r m 



No. 418.,, .Ian. 11, 1908 



3ft nr- Art (CJoiiGip. 



Tin Burlington Magatint printi this 
month its tlurd editorial article oonoerning 
the d e eo re>tion of the Palace of Westminster, 
bing a competition by selected 
members of societies rather than individuals. 
A beginning might bo made 

"bjT the selection of twenty t"\ir artists; twelve 

of these would be nominated by the Royal Aca- 
demy, and twelve by the outside societies, each 
society naturally picking the two or three memU-rs 



of its body who, by the consent of their fellows, 

" iea 
work. 



were best qualified to produce fine decorative 



The scheme seems to us so reasonable as 
to deserve the earnest attention of Parlia- 
ment and the public. 

Mr. William Strang has been elected 
Vice-President of the International Society 
in succession to Mr. Lavery. Mr. Strang 
is well fitted for the post, for he belongs 
to the select class of English artists who 
have a continental reputation. 

The death at Cagnes is announced of 
M. Eugene Vidal, a member of the French 
Societe Nationale des Beaux-Arts, to the 
Salon of which he was a regular contributor, 
usually of portraits, but sometimes of fancy 
subjects and landscapes. He is represented 
at the Luxembourg by a pastel ' Jeune 
Fille au Corset rose ' ; at the Cercle Volney 
by ' La Fleur de Montmartre ' ; and in the 
Museum at Algiers by one of his most 
successful portraits, Cardinal Lavigerie. 

The Dublin Municipal Gallery op 
Modern Art will be opened to the public 
on the 20th inst. The collection, both of 
pictures and sculpture, is exceptionally good, 
and includes five examples of the art of 
Rodin, a Renoir, two important Manets, a 
beautiful early portrait by Watts, a 
fine collection of Barbizon pictures, and 
excellent things by Mancini and other con- 
temporary painters. 

Amongst recent additions to the National 
Gallery of Ireland are a small portrait of 
Carlo Pellegrini by Bastien Lepage ; two 
examples of the Horemans (father and son), 
the gift of Mr. Hugh Lane ; a fine land- 
scape by the Irish painter Mr. Nathaniel 
Hone ; and some interesting early views 
of Dublin. 

The Georgian Society, which has just 
been founded in Dublin, has for its object 
the securing of a permanent record of the 
fast-disappearing details of the older houses 
of Dublin, which are in many cases excellent 
examples of eighteenth-century work. A 
provisional committee, composed of members 
of the Architectural Association of Ireland 
and others interested in the project, has 
been formed, and has recommended the 
reproduction of sketches, photographs, and 
measured drawings. The annual subscrip- 
tion is a guinea, and the Hon. Secretary is 
Mr. Page L. Dickinson, 1 3, South Frederick 
Street, Dublin. 

We have received the first number of 
Vita a" Arte, a new monthly review of art 
ancient and modern, published at the 
Piazza Abbadia, 4, Siena. There is a strong 
list of supporters, and the review is well 
illustrated. Corrado Ricci writes on the 
Medusa head attributed to Leonardo in the 
Uffizi, and Angelo Conti on ' La Statua 
d' Anzio ' ; while Giovanni Papini begins a 
series of ' Disegnatori Italiani ' with a notice 
of Alberto Martini, whose imaginative work 
shows promise, but is not much to our taste. 

Prof. Ronald M. Burrows's work on 
' The Discoveries in Crete,' which we noticed 
at length last year, has reached a second 
edition, and contains the latest information 
on these discoveries, bringing the story 



down to the last months of 1!MI7. 

volume is published by .Mr. Mum 



The 



KXIIIIIITIONH. 



Hai. (Jiui. 111.— Alloa In WoadarWnd, Dmwtaga bg Mr Atlhur IU. k 
li.im. Private View, I.. Oalli i ick. 

— Kl.lilnan l>> II 1' 9 0*111 and olli.r.. l.ltli<.|rrm|iiia l'\ 

Btetnlen and others, Boulpturi • l>» T Stirling i, . 

and 01 ed by C K. A Voyaey, Kowlei Gallery. 

— LfimUcai* l'uintinu. l,y Dm lata lloir-. I'rirate 

\ lav, I., i. .-t. i (. Oil 

— Oxford, Uambrldga, London, and aomt French T<.wim, v. 

Colours by Mi. lluii^lii. Fletcher, Privnta view, (joupll 
Gallery. 

— Paintings and Drawings by Gainsborough, Bomney, and 

11. mulcts; al»o Miniatures and Uiiiuahoruugli Kngrai iiii/s. 
Bydar GaileiT. 

— Pictures bj BeOOI Pineda after Velasquez. South Kensington 

Art Gallarlaa. 

— \ anloe and Holland, Water-Ooloari by Mr. Wynne Apparley, 

Prlrate View. Leicester Galleriea. 
Fm. Society of Women AltUTta, Prlrata W»W, '■■■. BuSblk Street. 



MUSIC 



iKttsual dosatp, 

Nicolai's ' The Merry Wives of Windsor ' 
was revived by the Carl Rosa Opera Company 
at Co vent Garden on Thursday of last week. 
Apart from the scene of the drinking bout 
in the second act, the opera has many 
pleasant features, and the singers selected 
for the occasion acquitted themselves ably. 
Miss Doris Woodall and Miss Elizabeth 
Burgess sang the duet for the merry wives 
with much vivacity ; and Miss Ina Hill, 
the representative of Sweet Anne Page, 
was also efficient, her share in the duet 
with Fenton being rendered with fluency and 
charm. Here Mr. Edward Davies lent valu- 
able aid. Mr. Arthur Winckworth was 
amusing as the fat knight, using Ins sonorous 
voice effectively ; and Mr. Charles Victor 
gave a clever sketch of the jealous Ford. 

Goring Thomas's ' Esmeralda ' was 
revived on the following evening. Origin- 
ally produced at Drury Lane by Carl Rosa 
in 1883, it was given seven years later, in a 
French version, at Covent Garden, with 
Madame Melba, M. Jean de Reszke, and M. 
Lassalle in the cast. The writing for the 
voices is fanciful and charming, but the 
continual employment of the same orchestral 
devices tends to diminish interest as the 
work proceeds. In the first act, with its wild 
scenes in the Beggars' Quarter of Paris, the 
work made a decided impression ; in 
the last, inspiration was almost entirely 
lacking. Miss Elizabeth Burgess as the 
gipsy heroine sang her music — which, like 
that for Phoebus, is essentially French in 
character — with notable intelligence and 
warmth. The impassioned and melodious 
love duet for Esmeralda and Phoebus was 
ably interpreted by Miss Burgess and Mr. 
Walter Wheatley. Miss Ina Hill sang the 
dainty phrases of Fleur-de-Lys in vivacious 
style ; and the roles of Frollo and Quasimodo 
were safely entrusted to Mr. Winckworth 
and Mr. Victor. Mr. Goossens conducted, 
and the choruses were splendidly sung. 
Altogether, the season, which concludes 
to-night, has been carried through in a 
manner that reflects credit on the Carl Rosa 
artists and the management. 

On Tuesday, December 31st, M. Gailhard 
ceased, after many years, to be director of 
the Paris Opera. The house will remain 
closed until about the 25th of this month. 
The first opera which the new directors, 
Messrs. Messager and Broussan, intend to 
produce will be Gounod's ' Faust,' with new 
scenery and new costumes. 

Fraulein Else Gipser at her pianoforte 
recital at Bechstein Hall on Wednesday 
evening placed at the head of the programme 
Max Reger's Variations and Fugue on a 
Theme by J. S. Bach. There is much that 
is vague, and at times one might almost say 
flashy, in the music, while what is good in it 
comes not from the heart, but from the head. 



The nrork is long, ai • mely difficult ; 

but Fraulein Gipser interpreted it with 
unflagging energy, though here end th< 

the toic- ua- hard. Her intetpr eta lion 

Sonata in i.. Op. lD'j, was more 

satisfactory. She was best in the Varia- 
tions, with the exception <>f the last one, 
the rendering of vrhieh was rough. 

AMONG the Beethoven documents recently 
discovered by Major-Auditor Hajdecki is a 
memorial, in the composers handwritc 
concerning the guardianship of his nep). 
addressed to toe Vienna magistrate. It 
was known that such a document had 1 
written, but not what had become of it. 
In it Beethoven, among other things, states 
that in 1818 he took his nephew Karl to 
the pastor at Modling, who had been recom- 
mended to him as a good preceptor for 
young boys. " Unfortunately, I soon found 
out," he says, 

" that I was mistaken in the Herr Pfarrer. On 
Monday this clergyman had not slept off the 
effects of his Sunday's drinking bout, and was like 
a wild animal. I was ashamed for our religion 
that such a man should be a preacher of the 
GrospeL" 

A copy of a letter by Beethoven to this 
Vienna magistrate was found in the Berlin 
Library by Dr. Alf. C. Kalischer, and pub- 
lished by him in Die Musik (Heft 6, 1902), 
which is evidently connected with, and 
possibly forms part of, the document from 
which the above and other extracts have 
been published in Die Zeit. In the Berlin 
letter there is also a reference to the " Pfarrer 
von Modling, in ill repute with his parish- 
ioners." 

The death of M. Maurice Maquet at the 
early age of forty -four will be deeply felt, not 
only at Lille, where in 1889 he founded a 
Societe de Musique, but generally in the 
north of France. The society, composed of a 
large choir and orchestra, gave concerts every 
year under the direction of M. Maquet, at 
which important works by Bach, Berlioz, 
Cesar Franck, Brahms, Saint-Saens, and 
others were performed. 

The Cologne Male Choral Society will 
visit England next May, giving performances 
in London, and also in Sheffield and other 
Yorkshire towns. Their last visit to England 
was in June, 1853, when they sang before 
Queen Victoria and the Prince Consort. 

Dvorak's ' The Spectie's Bride,' produced 
at the Birmingham Festival of 1885 under 
his own direction, has recently been 
performed at Vienna, and, it is said, for the 
first time in German. 

The Allgemeinc Musik-Zeitung of the 
3rd inst. states that, according to the latest 
news, all tickets are sold for the Bayreuth 
festival performances between July 22nd 
and August 1st, also for the two cycles of 
the ' Ring.' 



PERFORMANCES NEXT WEEK. 

8rcs. Concert, 3.30, Altwrt Hall. 

— Sunday Society Concert. :>.:to. Queen's Hall. 

— Sundur Leagua Concert. T, Queen's Hall. 

Wt:n. Mile. Jeanne Illanehard's Pianoforte Recital, 3, Stcinway Hall. 

— Prof. Krui-es Violin Recital, 8.30. Bcchstein Hall. 
S*t. Mozart Society, 3, Portman Rooms. 

— Symphony Concert. Queen's Hall Orchestra, 3, Queen's Hall. 



DRAMA 



THE WEEK. 

His Majesty's. — The Mystery of Edwin 
Drood. By J. Comyns Carr. Founded 
on Charles Dickens's Unfinished Novel. 
Mr. Carr need hardly be told that his 
' Edwin Drood ' is no more than melo- 
drama of the eerie, blood-curdling sort. 
There was never a Dickens adaptation 



No. 4185, Jan. 11, 1908 



THE ATHENAEUM 



51 



that was much else than melodrama. 
His genius was essentially fantastic. 
His creations have often some fad or 
eccentricity which differentiates them 
from ordinary humanity. In their own 
imaginary world and in their mutual 
relations they are normal, real enough; 
but they owe their reality to their author's 
incomparable power of improvisation. 
But robbed of their setting of descrip- 
tive detail, cramped in the narrow 
frame of the stage, they become, for 
the most part, unsubstantial figures ; 
and their adventures — so picturesque, so 
full of colour and vivacity, in the written 
text — take on, under the glare of the 
footlights, an aspect of exaggeration and 
sensationalism. Mr. Carr is not to be 
blamed for turning a Dickens story to 
the uses of the theatre ; the novelist 
himself sanctioned the practice. Nor can 
the adapter fairly be reproached with 
irreverence for proposing a solution of 
the problem which death prevented 
Dickens from giving. Mr. Carr's play is 
faulty rather because such melodrama as 
he provides is bald and monotonous, and 
because his explanation of the mystery 
results in a tame ending. 

Here in a sentence or two is Mr. Carr's 
solution : John Jasper did not murder 
his nephew, Edwin Drood ; he only, while 
affected by drugs, thought he did so ; 
the lad sees his uncle late at night per- 
forming in pantomime an imaginary act 
of murder, overhears words showing that 
he himself is the supposed victim, and so, 
in horror and fear, makes his escape 
abroad to safe hiding. It is Mr. Carr's 
opinion that the scene of Jasper in the 
opium den, which opens the novel, strikes 
its key-note. He therefore begins his 
piece with this passage, and allows his 
whole play to be dominated by the effects 
of opium, the signs of delirium. We 
are introduced, of course, to Edwin 
Drood and Rosa Bud, the young lovers 
who resent having been betrothed arbi- 
trarily by dead hands ; but they derive 
only a reflected individuality from Jasper's 
passion for the girl and murderous inten- 
tions towards her sweetheart. Mr. Carr, 
too, uses Neville Landless, the lad on 
whom suspicion unjustly falls ; retains 
Helena Landless and breezy Canon 
Crisparkle as lay figures ; and employs 
Rosa's guardian, the dry old lawyer, Mr. 
Grewgious, to take up the trail of the 
true criminal. Durdles, again, the drink- 
sodden stonemason who has learnt a 
queer philosophy from sojourning among 
the cathedral tombs, is also brought on, 
but merely as comic relief, not as an 
essential part of the plot. Indeed, all 
Mr. Carr's constructive ingenuity leaves 
him half-way through his third act. 
Instead of knitting the various threads of 
the story together, he has been content 
with making a piece of patchwork, and 
producing a one-part play. Moreover, as 
Jasper is always being called on to behave 
and speak under the influence of opium, 
the piece gradually becomes wearisome 
from its sameness. 

It may seem merely an academic 
point that the dramatist's solution does 



not cover the novelist's data, and that 
Mr. Carr's cast excludes important-seem- 
ing characters — Tartar, Sapsea, Datchery. 
Lieut. Tartar might well disconcert Mr. 
Carr when once he plumped for his facile 
happy ending, for the fact that this 
gallant sailor so soon replaces " Eddy " 
in Rosa's affection distinctly suggests 
that Dickens never intended to bring 
about his " hero's " resurrection. Mr. 
Sapsea, the pompous mayor, may have 
fulfilled his task as comic fool of the 
story. But Datchery, especially if he 
be Helena Landless in disguise, must 
have been intended to play a large part 
in the elucidation of the mystery. It 
matters little, for stage purposes, that 
Mr. Carr's theory is almost certainly 
wrong ; it matters much that by cutting 
himself off from available material, he 
has failed to get any interesting develop- 
ments into the latter part of his drama. 

Despite Mr. Carr's efforts to render 
the part of Jasper prominent, Mr. Tree 
has largely to make bricks without 
straw. His Jasper is a lurid, flamboyant 
piece of portraiture, worthy of compari- 
son with his Svengali and Macari ; but 
just because the playwright rarely 
elaborates sufficiently any one scene, Mr. 
Tree is inclined to over-elaborate his 
effects. Watch the interview between 
Grewgious and Jasper, in which the 
latter should preserve an air of studied 
unconcern. The actor's fingers are never 
still ; they touch his mouth or cheek, 
they mop his brow with a handkerchief, 
they tap the table, they handle articles 
lying there. But there are other points 
at which Mr. Tree's pantomime is admir- 
able, and he is always able to suggest 
magnetic power or bizarre personality. 
His supporters have but few chances in 
Mr. Carr's piece. Mr. Basil Gill is 
buoyant as Edwin Drood ; Miss Adrienne 
Augarde is a sincere, but rather modern 
Rosa ; Miss Constance Collier t'does her 
best with the part of Helena Landless ; 
Mr. Anson proves a droll Durdles ; and 
Mr. Haviland makes something out of 
Mr. Grewgious. But theirs are rather 
thankless tasks. 



Court. — The House : a Play in Two Acts. 
By George Gloriel. 

If the rest were only as good as the first 
half, what a wonderful artistic success 
Mr. George Gloriel's miniature drama 
' The House ' might have been ! As it is, 
one can congratulate Mr. Otto Stuart on 
having discovered a dramatist of rare 
promise, and Mr. Gloriel on having pre- 
sented the truest study of English low 
life we have as yet seen on our stage. It 
is just a picture — this first act — of a family 
of four living in a single room, and finding 
themselves on the verge of starvation. 
The quartet includes a man out of 
work and his wife, their precocious young 
daughter, and the wife's aged father ; and 
the act in question merely shows how the 
woman, having come to her decision by 
stern necessity, persuades her daughter 
and husband that hor father must go into 



the workhouse, and finally wrings from 
the old man his consent to the humiliation. 
There is not the smallest exaggeration in 
the scene : it is harrowing just because of 
the bald simplicity of the dramatist's 
treatment. He does not sentimentalize : 
the painful inarticulateness, the ugly 
poses and movements, the sudden spasms 
of uncontrolled anger, even the profanity 
of the class to which they belong, are all 
faithfully realized. Mr. Gloriel's photo- 
graphic accuracy goes so far as the re- 
production of the broken, jerky sentences 
characteristic of working men and women. 
But in his second act, as if he were weary 
of the mournfulness of his own present- 
ment of the misery of the unemployed, 
Mr. Gloriel plunges into comic extrava- 
gance. Back comes the grandfather to 
visit his relatives, now blessed with better 
fortune, and anxious to recover him from 
pauperdom, and tells the most pre- 
posterous yarns about his life of luxury 
in the workhouse. His tales, at first 
received with derision, so work at length 
on his son-in-law that the latter con- 
templates throwing up his " job " and 
following his relative into the pauper's 
palace. This is an obvious and rather 
cheap exaggeration of current criticisms 
of workhouses. Mr. Albert Chevalier, 
who impersonates the grandfather, de- 
scribes the comfort of the " house " 
with delightful zest and humour ; and Mr. 
Holmes -Gore, Miss Alice Beet, and Miss 
Mabel Garden all give performances 
beyond reproach as the other members of 
the small family. One thinks all the more 
regretfully, in view of the acting, how with 
a little more restraint the playwright 
might have made the second part "of his 
sketch a worthy companion of the first. 



Vaudeville. — Dear Old Charlie. Adapted 
from the French by C. H. Brookfield. 

To the Palais Royal type of farce belongs 
this piece of Labiche's, which Mr. Brook- 
field, with a careful regard for its Gallic 
spice, has adapted for Mr. Charles Haw- 
trey. It is a play, that is to say, full of 
phrases of double meaning, and postu- 
lating in its hero a past of very dubious 
virtue. Just married, this Lothario is 
pestered by the affectionate solicitations 
of two married friends, who have mistaken 
his former devotion to their wives for a 
liking for themselves, and the humour of 
the farce turns on the revelations which 
they innocently make before the hero's 
young bride of the havoc he wrought in 
their homes. Morally the play is inde- 
fensible, but it has the excuse of being 
very amusing in an old-fashioned way, 
and of providing the leading actor with 
a typical part. How blandly Mr. Hawtrev 
fibs his way through the piece, how im- 
perturbably he faces every difficulty, how 
resourceful, yet natural is his art, will 
readily be conceived. The cast also in- 
cludes Miss Muriel Beaumont, charming 
as the bride, and Mr. Holman Clark and 
Mr. Charles Groves, capital foils for one 
another in the parts of the two friends. 






T II E AT II KX.K I'M 



No. H85, Jan. 11. l 



Dramatic ftassip, 

The authoritative life <>f Henrj [rving 
will be published bj K< re. Longman next 
autumn. The biography is being written 
by .Mr. Austin Brereton, to whom, as an old 
iih-nil. [rving gave much valuable material. 
Sir Henry's sons, Mr. II. 15. [rving and Mr. 
Laurence [rving, who arc the executors under 
their father's will, have given their cordial 
oonsenl to Mr. Brereton's undertaking, and 
have supplied all the records and other 
documents relating to their father which 
they possess. As this will be the authorized 
biography, it is desirable that it should be 
as comprehensive as possible, and all owners 
of letters of public interest in regard to the 
subject, whether written by the deceased 
actor or others, are requested to send the 
same for perusal — and, if considered desir- 
able, publication — to Mr. Austin Brereton, 
26, Suffolk Street, Pall Mall, S.W., who will 
be responsible for their safety and immediate 
return. 

The Committee of the Irving Memorial 
announce that a site has been granted for 
his statue in the centre of the broad pavement 
to the north of the National Portrait Gallery 
in the Charing Cross Road. 

Mr. Percy Fitzgerald has in the press 
a new work entitled ' The Principles and 
Limits of Shakesperian Representation.' 
Its aim is to deal scientifically and critically 
with the theoretical representation of Shak- 
speare's plays in olden times and the present 
day. It will be published shortly by Mr. 
Elliot Stock. 

Mlle. Bartet is not a " Feministe." 
After a fierce controversy it was decided 
to open the governing committee of the 
Theatre Francais to women. The " socie- 
taires," who had been sharply divided on 
the principle, then gracefully became unani- 
mous in electing their greatest actress. 
On December 29th Mlle. Bartet replied 
in an admirable expression of the opinion 
of "an old-fashioned woman " : " pas 
preparee a cette charge." Its duties "sor- 
tent des aptitudes que j'ai consacres de 
toute mon ame a la Comedie Francaise." 
The Ministry then begged " M. Claretie de 
demander a Madame Bartet de revenir sur 
sa resolution." At an interview held on the 
3rd inst. the great actress, styled " Madame" 
by French politeness, appears from Le 
Temps to have declared her firm wish "rester 
ce qu'elle est." 

It is stated in Paris that M. Saidou has 
promised Mr. Tree to write for him to play 
in London a drama in which Mirabeau will 
be the leading person. 



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The work contains a ' Catalogue Raisonne ' 
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No. 4185, Jan. 11, 1908 



THE ATHENAEUM 



53 



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THE VICTORIA HISTORY OF THE 
COUNTIES OF ENGLAND. 

NOTICE. 

Owing to the great amount of additional material which 
has been collected and which it has been decided to 
include in the volumes dealing with Topography —the 
Histories of Boroughs, Towns, Parishes, and Villages 
— it has already been necessary to add some additional 
volumes to certain of the Counties of England dealt with 
in the Victoria History. Hitherto these additional 
volumes have been included without extra cost to the 
subscriber. It has now been decided to add certain further 
volumes, and a new schedule of volumes and prices 
will be issued and take effect on and after April 1, 
1908, on which all volumes published will be 
charged for. Those who wish to avail themselves of the 
present schedule should therefore apply for prospectus 
and order forms without delay, either to any Book- 
seller in town and country, or to Messrs. Archibald 
Constable & Co. Ltd. 10 Orange Street, Leicester 
Square, London, W.C. 

All particulars of volumes 
already issued, and those next 
forthcoming from the Press, 
Prospectuses, and descriptive 
Pamphlets, sent post free on 
application to the Publishers. 



THE HOUBLON FAMILY: 

Its History and Times. 
By Lady ALICE ARCHER HOUBLON. 

Containing numerous Illustrations. 
2 vols, demy 8vo, 31s. 6cZ. net. 

" The value of this book lies in the pictures of society at 
various times since the Fifteenth Century. The author has 
been very painstaking in her researches, and has embodied 
the results of wide reading."— Daily News. 

"She has spared no trouble and research in making her 
narrative attractive, as well as complete, and the outcome 
is a work which is worthy of claiming a place beside the 
most valuable and most entertaining books of the kind that 
have appeared in recent years." — Scotsman. 



DYOTT'S DIARY, 1781-1845. 

A Selection from the Journal of William 

Dyott, sometime General in the British Army 

and Aide-de-Camp to His Majesty King 

George III. 

Edited by REGINALD W.JEFFERY,M. A. 

Brasenose College. 

With Portraits. 

In 2 vols, demy 8vo, 31s. 6d. net. 

"From youth to old age he jotted down in pithy, 
uncompromising terms his impressions and verdicts on the 
men he met, and the movements he witnessed, in the course 
of a long and active life. This sort of book — it is a veritable 
human document — throws often deliberately, but quite as 
often unconsciously, vivid little bits of colour on the page 
of history. The Dyott family has been settled in Stafford- 
shire since the year in which Mary Tudor came to the 
throne, and when Cavaliers and Roundheads drew swords 
more than one member of it played a gallant part in the 

Royalist cause. General Dyott began his distinguished 

military career as an ensign in the Fourth Regiment. He 
rose in due course to the rank of aide-de-camp of George 
III., and when William IV. became king he was gazetted 
general. He saw a good deal of active service first and list . 
but that was common in those days ; what is uncommon in 
t hwe days is the fact that he kept a diary excellently well, 
that it has now leaped to light, and is full of good stuff." 

Standard. 



FACTORS IN MODERN 
HISTORY. 

By A. F. POLLARD, 

Professor of Constitutional History at University 
College, London. 

7s. 6d. net. 

" Mr. Pollard is possessed in quite a rare degree of the 
balance of temperament that we associate with the ideal 
historian. .. .There are pages in this volume which those 
who really care for history will read over and over again 
to enjoy their mingled strength and iridescence. .. Mr. 
Pollard has given us a book which may not improbably 
come to be regarded as indispensable to the most modest 
pretensions of historical culture." — Pall Mall Gazette. 

" There are few books to which one could more confidently 
send intelligent students.. ..It is a book one could wish to 

see widely circulated A most stimulating ami useful 

book." — Morning Post. 

"History in his hands is full of colour and human 
interest." — Nation. 

"A volume which any student of English history might 
read with profit."— Scotsman. 



MORE PAGES FROM THE 

DAY-BOOK OF BETHIA 

HARDACRE. 

By Mrs. FULLER MAITLAND, 

Author of • The Day-Book of Bethia Hardacre. 
Post 8vo, 6s. 

"Those who have read the first batch of pages from 'The 
Day-Book of Kethia Hardacre' will give a hearty welcome 
to another book by Klla Fuller Maitland. The second 
partakes to a large extent of the character of its pre- 
decessor. Her notebook is a charming miscellany of 
extracts and observations." — Country Life. 

"Among the most pleasant writers of thoughful and 
enlightening gossip about emotions, ideas, and literature 
may be reckoned Mrs. Klla Kuller Maitland. She writes 
for the observer, the lover of nature, and for the dreamer 
r&thex than for the philosopher or the inent.il analyst : the 
everyday man may keep this book by his side, and gather 
a pleasant thought to carry in his mind each time that he 
reads a page or so. It is :\ delightful book in itself, and it 
should send us to the study of many an early writer upon 
the beauty of the earth and its lesser inhabitants, and upon 
the ways of man." — Daily Telegraph. 



A. VIAN, Secretary. 



London : ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE & CO. Ltd. 10 Orange Street, W.C. 



No. 4185, Jan. 



11, 1908 



THE ATHENiEUM 



55 



THE TUDOR FACSIMILE TEXTS. 

Old Plays and Other Printed and MS. Rarities. 

EXACT COLLOTYPE REPRODUCTIONS IN FOLIO AND QUARTO. 

Under the General Editorship and Supervision of 

JOHN S. FARMER. 

ASSISTED BY CRAFTSMEN OF REPUTE AND STANDING. 

This is the first systematic and serious attempt to reprint pre-Shakespearean literature in facsimile ; and, in view of 

the fact that the choicest examples of early English presses are almost without exception of extreme rarity, practically 

unobtainable, and of prohibitive value, it is difficult to over-estimate the importance of the present undertaking. 

Scholars, in common with professors, teachers, students, and lovers of English— the language or its literature- 
including the custodians of University and Reference Libraries the world over, have had hitherto to deplore the fact that, 
notwithstanding the notable improvement of late years in the processes of mechanical reproduction, so many of the 
rarities of early printing and the priceless treasures of early English literature are, comparatively speaking, sealed to 
general scholarship and research. To remove that reproach is the object now in view. 

The Tudor Facsimile Texts will follow the originals as nearly as the resources of modern art and craft will allow. 
It is assnmed as a working basis that the next best thing to possessing an original copy— and it is now next to impossible 
to be so fortunately placed — is to have before one a facsimile showing that original as it actually exists to-day ; in which 
is preserved all the detail of size, imperfect type, and the imperfections in the paper, even to stains and 'mendings,' and, 
when possible, the natural discoloration due to a^e. 

Some fifty plays in all have already been put in hand. These it is intended to issue at the rate of not less than two 
volumes monthly, and if the kindly reception accorded to the preliminary issues is sustained these will be followed by 
others, announcement of which will be duly made. The lists are subject to slight variation if circumstances demand it. 
Mr, J. ,A. Herbert, of the Manuscript Department of the British Museum, has undertaken to compare each facsimile 
rink wi^i-its, original, and to note any "fault" or "flaw" which may have occurred in the course of reproduction. 

TUDOR PLAYS, RECENTLY RECOVERED. (3 vols.) 
WEALTH AND HEALTH. B.L.,32pp. 
JOHAN" THE EVANGELIST. B.L., 24 pp. 
IMPATIENT POVEKTF. B.L., 36 pp. 



reprint wi^i 



UNKNOWN (OR UNRECORDED) EDITIONS OF SCARCE OLD PLAYS. (4 vols.) 



1. DARIUS. B.L., 64 pp. 

2. LUSTY JUVENTUS. B.L., 44 pp. 

3. NICE "WANTON. B.L., 20 pp . 

4. THE PLAY OP THE "WEATHER. 



B.L., 48 pp. 



AN AUTOGRAPH PLAY OF PHILIP MASSINGER. 

BELIEVE AS YOU LIST. By Philip Massinger.IFoHo, 54 pp. (Egerton MS. 2828.) 



THE MACRO PLAYS. (3 vols.) 

1. MANKIND (c. 1475). 26 pp. 

2. "WISDOM (c. 1460). 48 pp. 

3. THE CASTLE OP PERSEVERANCE (c. 1425). 
RESPUBLICA (1553). Folio, 56 pp. 



76 pp. 



"YOUTH" AND "PRODIGAL" PLAYS. (7 vols.) 



NATURE. Part I. By H. Medwall \„ m ,|, fn ,,_ R T 79 n _ 

NATURE. Part II. By H. Medwall. j' Sraa11 foll °' RL " 72 pp " 

HICKSCORNER. 4to, B.L., 36 pp. 

YOUTH. 4to, B.L., 24 pp. 

POUR ELEMENTS. 8vo, B.L, 45 pp. 

NICE "WANTON. 4to, B.L, 20 pp. 

DISOBEDIENT CHILD. 4to, B.L, 60 pp. 



4to, B.L., 36 pp. 



EARLY ENTERLUDES. (7 vols.) 

1. THE ENTERLUDE OP YOUTH. 4to, B.L, 24 pp. 

2. EVERYMAN. 4to, B.L, 32 pp. 

3. THE "WORLD AND THE CHILD, otherwise MUNDUS AND INPANS. 

4. JACK JUGGLER. 4to, B.L. 40 pp. 

5. NEW CUSTOM. 4to, B.L, 32 pp. 

6. THE TRIAL OP TREASURE. 4to, B.L, 42 pp. 

7. LIKE WILL TO LIKE. By Ulpian Fulwell. 4to, B.L, 44 pp. 

SOME BEGINNINGS OF ENGLISH COMEDY AND TRAGEDY. (5 vols.) 

1. CALISTO AND MELIB.&JA, otherwise THE BEAUTY AND GOOD PROPERTIES OP 

"WOMEN. Folio, B.L, 28 pp. 

2. THERSITES. 4to, B.L, 34 pp. 

3. DAMON AND PYTHIAS. By R. Edwards. 4to, B.L., 60 pp. 

4. GORBODUC ; or, Ferrex and Porrex. Bv Thomas Sackville and Thomas Norton. 8vo, B.L, 64 pp. 
6. APPIUS AND VIRGINIA. 4to, B.L, 32 pp. 



SCRIPTURAL ENTERLUDES. (5 vols.) 

1. JACOB AND ESAU. 4to, B.L, 56 pp. 

2. KING DARIUS. 4to, B.L, 64 pp. 

3. GODLY QUEEN HESTER. 4to, B.L 46 pp. 

4 and 5. MARY MAGDALENE. By L WAGER. 4to, B.L, 72 pp. 



THE ENTERLUDES, &c. 



THE PARDONER AND THE PRERE. 

THE POUR P.P. 4to, B.L., 40 pp. 

JOHN JOHN THE HUSBAND, TIB 

Fol., B.L, 16 pp. 
PLAY OP THE "WEATHER. 4to, B.L 

EDITIONS, ante. 
PT.AY OP LOVE. 4to. B.L, 56 pp. 
GENTLENESS AND NOBILITY. Fol., 
WITTY AND WITLESS. 



OF JOHN HEYWOOD. (7 vols.) 

Sm. fol., B.L, 40 pp. 

HIS WIPE, AND SIR JOHN THE PRIEST. 
., 43 pp. ; see also UNKNOWN (OR UNRECORDED) 



B.L, 32 pp. 



THE ENTERLUDES OF JOHN BALE. (4 vols.) 
(Excluding the K. John MS. for the present). 
1. THE CHIEF PROMISES OP GOD TO MAN. 4to, B.L, 40 pp. 
2 and 3. THE THREE LAWS. 8vo, B.L., 112 pp. 
4. THE TEMPTATIONS OF OUR LORD. 8vo, B.L. 

WIT PLAYS. (3 vols.) 

1. WIT AND SCIENCE. Bv John Bedford, 1541-7. 

2. THE MARRTAGE OF WIT AND SCIENCE. 4t0, B.I,.. 11 pp. 

3. THE CONTRACT OF A MARRIAGE BETWEEN WIT AND "WISDOM. 



I'ii mi the original MS. 



The Plays are Interleaved and aervioaably bound. The prices are 17*. erf. net for the Quartos, and 86*. net for the 
Folios, except where specially priced on the Prospectus. Subscribers" Niimtw now received for the full Series. The 
Autograph Play by M&wdnger ' Believe aa you List,' and the 3 vols, of Macro Plays may be subscribed for separately. 
Detailed Prospectus with Specimen Page on application. 

ISSUED FOR SUBSCRIBERS BY 

T. C. k E. 0. JACK, 16, Henrietta Street, London, W.C. ; and Edinburgh. 



iKaga^itus, &c. 



NOW READY. 

JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL 

O SOCIETY. 

Vol. LXX. Part IV. DECEMBER 31, 19»7. Price 5s. 

Principal Contents. 
ON OFFICIAL STATISTICS. The Presidential Address of the Rt. 
Hon. Sir Charles W. Dilke. Bart.. MP., for the Session 1907-8. 
Delivered to The Royal Statistical Society. November 19, 1907. 
AN INQUIRY INTO THE RENT OF AGRICULTURAL LAND 
IN ENGLAND AND WALES DURING THE NINETEENTH 
CENTURY. By Robert J. Thompson. 
MISCELLANEA :-MEMORANDUM AS TO BIRTH-RATES AND 
MARUI AGE-RATES IN ENGLAND AND WALES. Bv Thomas 
A. Welton. F.C.A. ; THE ASSIZE OF BREAD AT OXFORD, 
1794-1820. By Adolphns Ballard. B.A. LL.B. (Lond), Hon. M.A. 
(Oxon.l; THE DIFFERENTIAL LAW OF WAGES. By Henry 
L. Moore. Columbia University, New York. 
BOOK REVIEWS. 

And Other Articles. 

London: THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY, 

9, Adelphi Terrace, Strand, W.C. 



JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTE OF 

tf ACTUARIES. 

No. 231. JANUARY, 190S. Price 2s. 6d. 
Contents. 

On the Valuation of Staff Pension Funds. Part 2.— Widows' and 
Children's Pensions (continued). By Henrv William Manly. Past- 
President of the Institute of Actuaries. With Tables by William 
ArthurrWorkman, F.I. A., of the Equitable Life Assurance Society. 

A Pension Fund Problem ; with some remarks on the deduction of 
Salary-Scales. By .lames Bacon. F.I. A., Actuary and Secretary of 
the Liverpool Victoria Insurance Corporation, Limited ; with' 
Abstract of the Discussion on the above Papers. 

Legal Notes. By Arthur Rhys Barrand. F.I. A.. Barrister-at-Law. 

Employers' Liability Insurance Companies' Act. 1907 [7 Edward VIT. 
ch. 461. and Order in Council. 

On the Rationale of Formulae for Graduation by Summation. Part II. 
By George .T. Lidstone, F.I.A., Actuary and Secretary of the 
Equitable Life Assurance Society. 

Correspondence. 

London : C. & E. LAYTON, Farringdon Street. 



THE LIBRARY. 

A Quarterly Review of Bibliography and Library Lore. 
Price 3$. net, or 10s. 6d. per annum. 
Contents for JANUARY. 
THE ASSERTIO SEPTEM SACRAMENTORUM. By E. Gordon 

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Ormerod. 
A PARIS BOOKSELLER OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY- 
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A MUNICIPAL LIBRARY AND ITS PUBLIC. I.-THE NEWS 

ROOM. By John Ballinger. 
RECENT FOREIGN LITERATURE. By Elizabeth Lee. 
SIENESE TAVOLETTE. By Alfred W. Pollard. 
REVIEW. By A. W, P. 

Bound Volumes for 1907 are now ready, price 12s. 6rf. net. 

ALEXANDER MORINO. Limitkd (The De La More Press), 

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THE BUILDER (founded 1842), 4, Catherine- 
street. London, W.C, JANUARY 11, contains :— 

THE DANGERS OF BUILDING. 

THE AQUEDUCTS OF ANCIENT ROME.— I. 

SAFETY EXITS FROM THEATRES (Institute of Archi- 
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THE BURLINGTON HOUSE LOAN EXHIBITION. 

THE GATE HOUSE, LINCOLN'S INN (Sketch). 

'MILTON'S RETREAT,' CHALFONT ST. GILES. 

REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM FORMUL.E (Student's 
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RENAISSANCE AND MODERN CHURCHES OF PARIS : 
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NATIONAL PRIZE DESIGNS : 10. Designs for Fabrics. 

From Offices as above (4rZ., by post 4Jr/.), at 
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agents. 



JOHN HAMILTON THOM CENTENARY 
JANUARY 10, 1908. 

TO BE PUBLISHED IMMEDIATELY. 

SECOND (ABRIDGED) EDITION OF 

SPIRITUAL FAITH. 

Sermons by JOHN HAMILTON THOM. 

Crown 8vo, pp. 216, price 2s. net ; by post, 2s. 3rf. 

Bl' THE SAME AUTHOR. 



A 



LAWS OV LIFE AFTER THE MIND of CHRIST. 
First and Second Series, it. •«'. net each, 

CHRIST THE REYEALKR 2*. net. 

A MTN1STFR OF COD. Selections from Occasional 
Sermons and Addresses. With a Memoir, 2«. net. 

London : 1'HILIP OREEN, r>, Basel street, Strand, W.C. 

SURNAMES OF THE UNITED KINGDOM: 
A Oonotis F.tvmoioeical Dictionary. 

Itv 1IPNKY HA'MMSoN. 

Author of 'The Plai-e-Nami-s nf tha Uvsrpool District,' 4c. 

Now inuiing In l*:irts :it l« in I 

l'MITS I. and II HEADY. 

Prospectui rod Oopfw of tha 1'uMiidicrs, 
THE BATON PRESS, LW, Kburj Street, London, S.w. 






T II K AT II E \ ZB U M 



No. II>V .Ian. 11. L908 












»*«.'• 



MR. JOHN _LON(J'S NEW ¥E AB LIST 

THE FIRST NEW NOVELS OF 1908 

MR. JOHN LONG has now commenced the publication of his New Novels for 1908, and the following are the first Eleven 
by the most popular Authors of the Day. As usual with Mr. John Long's Novels, enormous supplies are now ready at all 
Libraries and Booksellers'. 

SIX SHILLINGS EACH 

RUBINA. By James Blyth, Author of 'Amazement.' With Coloured Frontispiece. 

LITTLE JOSEPHINE. By L. T. Meade, Author of < The Curse of the FeveruLs.' With Coloured 

Frontispiece. 

A WOMAN'S AYE AND NAY. By Lucas Clekve, Author of < Elizabeth of Loudon.' 

THE SACRED HERB. By Fergus Hume, Author of < The Black Patch.' 

SECOND SELVES. By Algernon Gissing, Author of ' A Secret of the North Sea.' 

A DEVIL'S BARGAIN. By Florence Warden, Author of < The White Countess.' 

ONE FAIR ENEMY. By Carlton Dawe, Author of ' The Life Perilous.' 

A JACOBITE ADMIRAL. By R. H. Forster, Author of ' The Mistress of Aydon.' 

STUBBLE BEFORE THE WIND. By Mrs. Campbell Praed, Author of < The Luck of the Leura.' 

A NEW CINDERELLA. By Fred Whishaw, Author of ' The Secret Syndicate.' 

THE PAXTON PLOT. By C. Guise Mitford, Author of f Izelle of the Dunes.' 

TWO POPULAR NOVELS SIX SHILLINGS EACH 

MRS. BARRINGTONS ATONEMENT 

By VIOLET TWEEDDALE, Author of 'Lady Sarah's Son.' 
Outlook— " A cleverly told story, full of character study and the strong social interest with which the author invariably invests her books." 

CYNTHIA IN THE WILDERNESS 

By HUBERT WALES, Author of 'The Yoke,' 'Mr. and Mrs. Villiers.' 

Tatler. — " Mr. Hubert Wales, in his latest novel, ' Cynthia in the Wilderness,' deals with further aspects of social problems, and the unfolding of Cynthia's married life is one 
which will be followed by the reader to the very nd of the book. Mr. Wales has made a distinct step forward, and his latest novel is likely to be as widely discussed as was ' The Yoke.' ' 

"A VOLUME OF REMARKABLE FASCINATION."-World. 

SOCIETY RECOLLECTIONS IN PARIS AND VIENNA, 1879-1904 

By an ENGLISH OFFICER. With numerous Portraits of Celebrities. Demy 8\o, 12s. net. 

Globe.— " The anonymous author is a gossip who would have delighted Mr. Pepys himself. The book is full of gossip of all sorts of people, and well illustrated by photographs of 
celebrities, Royal and theatrical. The author has produced a very amusing volume." 

Croum. — "There will be a great run upon the book, and I shall be surprised if several editions are not speedily called for." 

THE RECORD OF AN AERONAUT 

BEING THE LIFE OF JOHN M. BACON. 

By his Daughter, GERTRUDE BACON. With Photogravure Portrait and G2 Illustrations. Demy Svo, 16s. net. 

Globe.— "The book can be cordially recommended." Scotsman.— "The work gives a highly readable account of the author's many voyages, adventures, and narrow escapes.' 
Evening Standard.— " Full of interesting matter." Dally Express.— " A fascinating story." 



THE HOME LIFE OF THE EX-CROWN PRINCESS OF SAXONY. 

THE STRUGGLE FOR A ROYAL CHILD 

(Anna Monica Pia, Duchess of Saxony). My Experiences as Governess in the Household of the Countess Montignoso. 

l'<y IDA KREMER. With Photogravure Portraits of the ex-Crown Princess and the little Princess Monica. Crown 8vo, 6s. [Second Edition at press. 

Daily Telegraph. — "The volume gives a picture of Royalties in exile which is as amusing as it is instructive. Quite excellent is the portrait the author gives of the lady 
doings have occupied European attention for so long a time. One of the chief charms of this quite Interesting volume is that it is so human, and we closed the book with thanks to the 
author for a piece of discreet, valuable, and lively psychology." 

THE "MR. D00LEY OF ST. JAMES'S STREET." 

BRUMMELL 

By COSMO HAMILTON, Author of 'Adam's Clay,' 'Duke's Son,' &c. 6s. 

World, — "My. Hamilton's ' Brummell' is an altogether stimulating and delightful companion, quaintly original and diverting, clever and amusing, always pointed, witty, and 
exhilarating, and never misses its mark." 

Bystander.— "J&r, Hamilton is one of the ' smartest ' writers living on the 'smart set' and the smartness of ' Brummell ' is undeniable." 



JOHN LONG, 12, 13, 14, Norris Street, Baymarket, London. 



Editorial Cimimunicatione should be addressed to "THE EDITOR"— Advertisements and Busin. ss batten U> "THE 1TBL1SIIEHS "- at the Office, Bream's timidities, CU MOST J [ant, I 
Published Weekly by JOHN 0. FRANCIS and J. EDWARD FRANCIS at Breams Buildings. Chancery Lane, E.c .. and Printed by J. KinvAKH FRANCI8, Athemrum Press Bream's Build-, t ry Lane. E.C 

Agents for Scotland, Usfesrs, BELL 4 EltADFUTE and Sir. JOHS MENZIES. Edinburgh.— Saturday. January 11, 11)08. 



I\ 



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f flartral af (English an& $avti§n f iterators, §&twm, t\)t jfte ^rts, Jitasit anft 




f *0F TORO 



No. 4186. 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 18, 1908. 



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offer a PRIZE of BOOKS to the value of TWENTY GUINEAS, to be 
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The term "Undergraduates" shall, for the purposes of this Com- 
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} EXHIBITION OF FURNITURE, METAL 
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MEMBERSHIP.— Every Man or Woman throughout the United 
Kingdom, whether Publisher, Wholesaler, Retailer, Employer, or 
Employed, is entitled to become a Member of this Institution, and 
enjoy its benefits upon payment of Five Shillings annually, or Three 
Guineas for life, provided that he or she is engaged in the sale of 
Newspapers, and such Members who thus contribute secure priority 
of consideration in the event of their needing aid from the Institution. 

PENSIONS.— The Annuitants now number Thirty-six, the Men 
receiving 25t. and the Women 201. per annum each. 

The "Royal Victoria Pension Fund," commemorating the great 
advantages the News Trade enjoyed under the rul** of Her late 
Majesty Oueen Victoria, provides 20f. a year each for Six Widows of 
News vendors. 

The "Francis Fund" provides Pensions for One Man, 25Z., and One 
Woman 201., and was specially subscribed in memory of the late John 
Francis, who died on April (i, 188'2. and was for more than fifty years 
Publisher of the Athenwum. He took an active and leading part 
throughout the whole period of the agitation for the repeal of the 
various then existing " Taxes on Knowledge," and was for very many 
years a staunch supjtorter of this Institution. 

The * Horace Marshall Pension Fund" is the gift of the late Mr. 
Horace Brooks Man hall. The employes of that firm have primary 
right of election to its benefits. 

The "Herbert Lloyd Pension Fund" provides 35t, per annum for 
one man, in perpetual and grateful memory of Mr. Herbert Lloyd, who 
died May 12, J89S). 

The principal features of the Rules governing election to all Pensions 
are, that each Candidate shall have been (1) a Member of the Institu- 
tion for not less than ten years preceding application ; (21 not less than 
fifty-five years of age ; (3) engaged in the sale of Newspapers for at lva*t 
ten years. 

RELIEF.— Temporary relief is given in cases of distress, not only 
to Members of the Institution, but to Newsvendors or their servants 
who may be recommended for assistance by Members of the Institu- 
tion. Inquiry is made in such cases by Visiting Committees, and 
relief is awarded in accordance with the merits and requirements of 
each case. W. WILK1E JONES, Secretary. 



(B&nrational. 

T3IRMINGHAM AND MIDLAND INSTITUTE. 



SCHOOL OF MUSIC. 

Visitor-Sir EDWARD ELGAR, Mns.Doc. LL.D. 

Principal-GRANVILLE BANTOCK. 

Visiting Examiner— H. WALFORD DAVIES, Mus.Doc. 

SESSION 1907-1908. 

The SESSION consists of AUTUMN TERM I8EPTEMBER 1G to 

DECEMBER 21). WINTER TERM (JANUARY '20 to APRIL 11), 

SUMMER TERM (APRIL '27 to JUNE 271. 

Instruction in till Branches of Music. Students' Choir and 
Orchestra, Chamber Music, Students' Rehearsals, Concerts, and Opera. 
Prospectus and further information mav he obtained from 

ALFRED HAYES, Secretary. 

THE DOWNS SCHOOL, SEAFORD, SUSSEX. 
Head Mistress-Miss LUCY ROBINSON, M.A. (late Second Mis- 
tress St. Felix School, Southwold). References : The Principal of 
Bedford College, London ; The Master of Peterhouse, Cambridge. 

CHURCH EDUCATION CORPORATION, 
CHERWELL HALL, OXFORD. 

Training College for Women Secondary Teachers. 

Principal— Miss CATHERINE I. DODD, M.A. date Lecturer in 

Education in the Manchester University). 

Students are prepared for the Oxford, the Cambridge, and the 

London Teachers Diploma. Special arrangements made for Students 

to attend the School of Geography. 

EXHIBITIONS and SCHOLARSHIPS awarded in December and 
July.— Apply to the Principal. 



MISS DREWRY'S CLASSES for the STUDY 
of ENGLISH LITERATURE will BEGIN again in the 
THIRD WEEK OF JANUARY, 190S. Wednesday. January 22, 
7.45 p.m., and Friday, January '2-1. 1 1.16 a.m.. Readings from the Poets, 
with Discussion. Thursday, January 2:1, 11.15a.m., aCourseof Lectures 
for (lirls who have left School. Subjects : — Chaucer, Spenser, or 8hak- 
spere. Fee for the Course of Ten Meetings, One Guinea; to Pro- 
fessional Timbers, Haifa-Guinea. Miss Dewry receives Private 
Pupils.— 141, King Henry's Road. London, N.W. 

EDUCATION. 
Parents or Guardians desiring accurate information relative to 
the CHOlt'E of SCHOOLS for BUYS or GIRLS or 
TUTORS in England or Abroad 
are invited to call ujton or send fullv detailed particulars to 
MESSRS. GABBITAS, TURING & CO.. 
who for more than thirty years have been closely in touch with the 
leading Educational Establishments. 

Advice, free of charge, is given by Mr. TURING, Nephew of the 
late Head Master of Uppingham, 86, Sackville Street, London, W. 



Situations Uarant. 

COUTH AFRICAN COLLEGE SCHOOL, 

IO CAPE TOWN. 

A SCIENCE MASTER WANTED for the above SCHOOL, to teach 
Chemistry and Physics. 

Duties to begin on AI'HII, 8. Candidate! molt )>ossess the Privy 
Council Oertluoate. and a Bcienoe Degrea. Ralary SOOL per annum, 
with prospect* of Increau. Applications, stating aire, with six copies 
of Testimonials and Health Certificate to reach the Registrar, 8. A. 
College, Cape Town, on or before FEBRUARY 1* NEXT. 



Yearly Subscription, free by post, Inland, 
15s. 3d. ; Foreign, 18s. Entered at the New 
York Post Office as Second Class matter. 

THE ATHEN.EUM is published on 
FRIDAY AFTERNOON at 2 o'clock. 



T 



HE UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD. 



APPOINTMENT OF DEMONSTRATOR IN BOTANY. 



The COUNCIL are about to appoint a DEMONSTRATOR in 
BOTANY. Salary 1507. per annum. 

Applications should be made to the undersigned, from whom 
further particulars may be obtained, not later than JANUARY 25, 
1908. W. M. GIBBONS, Registrar. 



T 



HE UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS. 



Applications will be received up to FEBRUARY' 15th for the 
appointment of ASSISTANT PROFESSOR of EDUCATION. 



400i.— Particulars may be obtained from THE REGISTRAR. 



Salai y 



BEDFORD COLLEGE FOR WOMEN 
(UNIVERSITY OF LONDON), 
YORK PLACE, BAKER STREET, W. 
The COUNCIL are about to appoint a LECTURER in BOTANY', 
who will be Head of the Department. The appointment is open to 
Men and Women equally, and will take effect at the beginning of the 
Easter Term. 

Applications, with twenty-five copies of Testimonials, should be 
sent not later than JANUARY 81, to the Secretary, from whom 
further particulars may be obtained. 

ETHEL T. McKNIGHT, Secretary. 

HACKNEY METROPOLITAN BOROUGH 
CO0NCIL 
PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 
LIBRARY ASSISTANTS. 
The BOROUGH COUNCIL are prepared to receive applications for 
the ap|iointment of the following Officers : — 

(II MALE LIBRARY ASSISTANT, with previous experience in 
Public Library Work. Salary 1501. per annum, rising by 10J. annually 
to a maximum of 2(io?. per annum. 

(2) SENIOR FEMALE LIBRARY ASSISTANT. Salary 50/. per 
annum, rising by 6Z. annuallv to a maximum of 757.. per annum. 

CI) FEMALE LIBRARY ASSISTANTS (Two Appointments). 
Salary 407. per annum, rising by 57. annually to a maximum of 60!. per 
annum. 

Forms of Application may be obtained from the undersigned at the 
Town Hall, Hackney, on any weekday within office hours. 

Applications, which must be accompanied by three recent Testi- 
monials, must be delivered to the undersigned not later than 12 o clock 
noon on MONDAY, January 27, 1908. 

W. A. WILLIAMS, Town Clerk. 
Town Hall, Mare Street. Hackney, N.E. 
January 15, 1908. 



G 



Situations Mantcb. 

RADUATE, M.A. B.Sc, abstainer, age 2S, 

VT 6eeks position as SECRETARY', Assistant. Loudon Agent. &<•. 
Highest credentials.— Please address Box 1382, Athenaeum Pre^-s, 13, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Line, E.C. 

SECRETARY (LADY) REQUIRES POST. 

O Skilled Correspondent, Research, Precis Writing. Reports. Com- 
mittee Work. Book-keeping. Several years' experience. Educated 
Public Schools and Abroad.— Box 1384, Athenaeum Press, 13, Bn 
Buildings, Chancery Line, E.C. 

GENTLEMAN, 24* years, M.A. (Scotland), 
refined, of unquestionable character and integrity, fine appear- 
ance and manner, seeks post as SECRETARY. Home or Abroad. To 
suit married preferred. References.— Address K, care of Post 
Office. Lugar, Ayrshire, N.B. 



jfttisttllancoua. 



PRIVATE TOURS FOR GENTLEWOMEN.— 
SUNNY ITALY. FEBRUARY 86, One Month. Rome. Naples. 
Capri. Sorrento. Pompeii, Florence. Venice. Milan. Genoa. References 
exchanged.— MISS BISHOP, '27, St. George's Road, Kill. urn. 

pOUNTRY TRAVELLER can CARRY a FEW 

\J ADDITIONAL LINES. Spring Journey commences END ol 
JANUARY.— Box 1833, Athena-uni Praam 13, Bream's Buildings. E C 

LADY desires TRANSLATION WORK— 
French, German, into English. First -cla«« Honours in both, 
L.L.A. Exam. Lived Abroad. -Miss F. D. WRIGHT, Willingdon. 

Eastbourne. 



pULTUREI) RUSSIAN GENTLEMAN is 

\J anxious to give LESSONS in RUSSIAN or POLISH, to obtain 
Business Correspondence Work. Hook Keeping. Ac Highest 
references.- Address Miss FRANK. :.. RIvacton Place. s.W. 



NORTHERN NEWSPAPER SYNDICATE, 
Kendal. SUPPLIES EDITORS with LITERARY MATTER, 
and invites Authors to submit MSS of Serials. Short Stories, nix! 
Article*. Proposals for Berial Use of nil high class Literary Mstier 
careful nn.l prompt (ouiidcralioi. Telegraphic Address, 
t.. Kendal." 



58 



T II E AT II K n -i: (' M 



No. H86, Jaw. 18. 1908 



To AUTHOR8 am. pi i.i ism its in i'i:\ [N(J, 

TV. I llv undertaken by 

i . »rs of 

Klrlmi. • n A i - .•! - I I U I ■ » \\ 



LITER \i;y RESEAR( H undertaken »t the 
b Museum iiml elsewhere mi moderate terms. Excellent 
Testimonials A II. Hoi I'"-'. Atlieiinum Press. 1.1. Hrcaius 
Buil.li . | I^niir. K.C. 



MR8. J. 0. PRAZina, 4, Parkeide, Cambridge, 
highly KKi OMMENDS HOI SBKEEPER Bpeclally suitable 

\| hi In. iiml. ll<' February. 



F 



OP SALE. RUSK INS MODERN 

PAINTERS iKn.i Edition), BTONBfl <>!' VENICE 118881, 
Mil\ LAMPS (1888), original green rover*, rikhI condition.— 
AM't RTON, *\ Stirling Road. Edgluiston, Ilirminghaui. 



HUntied to $urrijasf. 

POPULAR MAGAZINE WANTED TO PUR- 
t'HASE Reply, statin* fullest particulars, to INVESTOR, 
care of .lames White 4 Leonard, Solicitors, Hank Buildings, Ludgate 
E.C. 



(Tnpc-oOIrittrs, &c. 

AUTHORS' MSS. 9d. per 1,000 words.— Sermons, 
Plays, and all kinds of TYPE- WRITING oarefullvdone at homa 
('Remington'. Good Paper. Orders promptly executed. Duplicating 
from 3«. <kl. per 100.— M. L. L., 18, Edgeley Road. Clapham, S.W. 

TYPE-WRITING undertaken by highly educated 
Woman [Olasaioal Tri)>os; Cambridge Higher Local; Modern 
Languages 1 . Research. Revision. Translation. Shorthand. Dictation 
Room.-THE CAMBRIDGE TYPEWRITING AGENCY. 10, Duke 
Street. Adelphi, W.C. 



AUTHORS' MSS. , NOVELS, STORIES, PLAYS, 
ESSAYS TYPE- WRITTEN with complete accuracy, M. per 
1,000 words. Clear Carbon Copies guaranteed. References to well- 
known Writers.— M. STUART. Allendale. Kymberley Road, Harrow. 

TYPE-WRITING, 9d. per 1,000 words. All 
kinds of MSS., Stories, Plays. Novels, Ac, accurately TY'PED. 
Clear Carbon Copies. 3d. per 1.000. References to well-known Authors. 
Oxford Higher Local.— XI. KING, 24, Forest Road, Kew Gardens, S.W. 

TYPE- WRITING, Id. per 1,000. Carbons, 2d. 
per 1,000. Duplicating from 2«. 6d. per 100. Special quotations 
for " First Novel Competition." Orders executed promptly. Accuracy 
guaranteed.— A. M. P., 15. Clovelly Road, Hornsey, N. 



T 



YPE-WRITING.— The WEST KENSINGTON 

< iFKICES. Authors' MSS.. Translations. Ac. Legal and General 
Copying. Circulars, Ac, Duplicated. Usual terms. References. 
Established fifteen S'ears— SIKES & SIKES. 290, Hammersmith 
Road, W. .Private Address : IS, Wolverton Gardens. Hammersmith.) 

TYPE-WRITING.— NOVELS, PLAYS, 
SERMONS, and other MSS. Accurate work. Short Articles 
by return of post. Carbon Copies. Duplicating Circulars, Ac. Legal 
and General Copying.— For terms apply H. T. HOW, 43, Page Street, 
Westminster, S.W. 



(ftaiaknrites. 



WOODCUTS. EARLY BOOKS, MSS., Ac. 

T EIGHTON'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, 

J-J Containing 1,350 Facsimiles. 

Thick 8vo, art cloth. 25». ; half -morocco. 30s. 
Part XIII.. Cal— Chrys. with 1tS4 Facsimiles, including Berners's 
Froissart. Cambridge Bindings. Capgrave, 1016, Cepio, 1477, and a 
large collection of Early Chronicles. [Abie ready. Price Us. 

J. A J. LEIGHTON, 
40, Brewer Street. Golden Square, London, W. 

CATALOGUE No. 48.— Drawings of the Early 
English School— Turner's Liljcr Studiorum and other Engravings 
after .Turner— Etchings by Turner. S. Palmer. Whistler— Japanese 
Colour-Prints— Fine-A't Books— Works by Ruskin. Post free. Six- 
pence.— WM. WARD, 2, Church Terrace, Richmond, Surrey. 

BOOKS.— ALL OUT-OF-PRINT and RARE 
BOOKS on any subject SUPPLIED. The most expert Book- 
finder extant. Please state wants and ask for CATALOGUE. I make 
a special feature of exchanging any Saleable Books for others selected 
from my various List- Bpecia] List of 2.000 Books I particularly want 

g)st free.— EDW. BAKERS Great Bookshop, 14-16 John Bright Street, 
irminuham. Oscar Wilde's Poems. 21«., for 10«. Oil. ; Ballad of 
Reading Gaol. 5a. Who 's Who, 2 vols. I'toi, 1 Is. net, for 5s. 

CATALOGUE of FRENCH BOOKS, at greatly 
reduced prices. I. PHILOSOPHY. II. RELIGION. III. HIS- 
TORY. IV POJSTRY, DRAMA. MUSIC. V. BEAUX ARTS. VI. 
GEOGRAPHY. VII. MILITARY VIII. FICTION. IX. GENERAL 
LITERATURE. 

DULAU A CO. 37, Soho Square. London, W. 

BO K S. — WILLIAM BROUGH & SONS, 
Hers and Exporters, are prepared to give highest cash 
prices for Libraries of any description and of any magnitude. Gentle- 
men, Executors and others, should communicate with WILLIAM 
BKDl'GH ,'; SONS, who are at all times prepared to give full .ash 

mine for Booki In all Branches of Literature. Vendor! will And this 
method of disposing of their Properties to be much more advantageous 
than Auction, while the worry, delay, and expense inseparable to 
Auction Bale will be entirely obviated. CATALOGUES gratis.— 
818, Broad Btreot, Birmingham. Established 1846. Telegrams— 
"Bibliopole, Birmingham." 

A NCIENT and MODERN COINS.— Collectors 

XV and Antiquarians are invited to apply to SPINK A BON, 
Limited, for Specimen Copy Igratisi of their NUMISMATIC ciltcu- 
LAK The finest Greek, Roman, and English Coins on View and for 
Bale at Moderate Prices.— 8P1NK A 80N, Limited, Experts. Valuers, 
and Cataloguers, IS, 17, and 18, Piccadilly, Lou. Ion. w. Established 
lipwauls of a Century. 



CiIRST I hi l IONS ol MODERN AUTHORS, 

in. 1. 1. Iln* Dickens, Thackeray, Ley*, Alntworth ; Books illus 

I • ■ k. Phil Huwuuidaoi i 'I be 

' Colic, lion offered f..r Hale in the World i ATA 

• ■ llouiht — 

WAL'I l 

ALL tin' Im-sl booki at km r. Sum 

Books, S.-coli.l band 1-s.k.s. nod IUI-.imi.I Books equal l 

CATAL li Issued Monthly and sent free to any A 

Ml DIE'S SELECT LIBRARY. Ltd., a) 34. New Oxford Str«i 
London, \V C 

T> M. B A R N A R D, M. A. 

(Formerly Classical end TheoJaglaal Bt h.dar of 
Christ » College, Cambi I 

10, DUDLE1 i:n\i) (opposite the Open limine), 
TUNilKIlxiK WELLS. 

CATALOGUE 19, JUST ISSUED, contains:— 

MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS, including OCCULT AND OLD 

CATALOGUE 18 can still be had.— Books on 

KENT HISTORICAL TRACTS. AMERICANA. 



^utljars' jXgrnts. 



THE AUTHOR'S AGENCY.— Established 1879. 
The interests of Authors capably represented. Agreements for 
Publishing arranged. MSS. placed with Publishers.- Terms and Ti m 
mouials on application to Mr. A. M. BURGUES. 34, Paternoster Row 

MR. GEORGE LARNER, Accountant and 
Liconsed Valuer to the Boofcsell.ng, Publishing, Newspaper 
Printing, nn.l Stationery Trades. Partnerships Arranged. Balance 
Sheets and Trading Accounts Prepared and Audit-d. All Business 
earned out under Mr. Lanier's personal supervision. —28 -JO and SO 
Paternoster Row. K.C., Secretary to the Booksellers' Provideui 
Institution. 



|3rint*r5. 



ATHEN^UM PRESS. -JOHN EDWARD 

A FRANCIS. Printer of the Atlu-nieum, Notet and Queries. Ac, is 
prepared to SUBMIT ESTIMATES for all kinds of BOOK. NEWS, 
and PERIODICAL PRINTING.— 13. Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.C. 



^aLes by Ruction. 



Valuable Miscellaneous and Scientific Books, including the 
Library of the late Capt. J. ST. JOHN FREDERICK 
(sold by order of the Executors). 

MESSRS. HODGSON & CO. will SELL by 
AUCTION, at their Rooms, 115. Chancery Lane. W.C, on 
WEDNESDAY'. January 22, and Two Following Days, at 1 o'clock. 
VALUABLE MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS, including the ABOVE 
LIBRARY and other Properties, comprising Cbamberlaine's Imita- 
tions of Holbein, Original Edition,— Pvne's Royal Residences, Large 
Paper. 3 vols. — Hutchins's History of Dorset. Best Edition. 4 vols.— 
Gould's Humming Birds, 5 vols.— Meyer's Illustrations of British Birds, 
Original Edition, 4 vols.— Curtis's Botanical Magazine, 72vols. 1787-1846 
—Edwards's Botanical Register, 33 vols.— Annals of Natural History, 
the Five Series complete. 100 vols.— Microscopical Society's Trans- 
actions, Ac, 1844-1905, and other Natural History Books— British 
Museum Catalogues, 50 vols— a fine Set of Dibdin's Bibliotheea Spen- 
ceriana. 7 vols., Large Paper— Smith's Catalogue Raisonne, 9 vols.— 
Propert's Miniature Art— Issues from the Kelmscott Press— Nurem- 
burg Chronicle, 1493 — The Tudor Translations, Japanese Vellum 
Edition, 21 vols. — Froissart's Chronicles, with Noel Humphreys' 
Illuminations, handsomely bound in 4 vols —Best Edition of Lytton, 
47 vols, cloth.— Library Sets of Dickens, Thackeray, and Marryat — 
03uvres de Victor Hugo, Large Paper. 48 vols, half-morocco— Books 
on Cricket and other Sports— Original Drawings by Kate Greenaway. 
Aubrey Beardsley, and others— a fine Collection of Chinese Coloured 
Drawings, in a vols, folio— Collections relating to the Military History 
of Great Britain, in 29 vols.— a large Selection of Arundel Society's 
Chromo-Lithographs, Ac. 

To be viewed, and Catalogues had. 



M 



ESSRS. CHRISTIE, MANSON & WOODS 

respect fully give notice that they will hold the following 
SALES by AUCTION, at their Great Rooms. King Street, St. James's 
Square, the Sales commencing at 1 o'clock precisely : — 

On TUESDAY and WEDNESDAY, January 21 

and 22. ENGRAVINGS, the Property of Mr. THOMAS McLEAN. 

On THURSDAY, January 23, OLD ENGLISH 

SILVER PLATE, formerly at the Albion Tavern, and from various 
sources. 

On FRIDAY, January 24, the COLLECTION 

of STAFFORDSHIRE WARE of PERCY FIT/GERALD. Esq.. 
F.S.A. 

On SATURDAY, January 26, PICTURES and 

DRAWINGS, the Property of the late H. C. BRUNNING, Esq.. and 
others. 



M 



General Natural History Specimens. 
TUESDAY NEXT, at half past 12 o'clock. 
R. J. C. STEVENS will OFFER at his Rooms, 

.18. King Street, Covent Garden. London, W.O., BRITISH 
and EXOTIC LEP1DOPTERA. In Botes and Papers, from various 
sources— Collection of Minerals. Agates. Ivory Tusks. Ac — Birds sit 
up in Glass Cases— British and Foreign Land and Freshwater Shells— 
well-seasoned Canincts. 

On view day prior, 10 to 8, and morning of Sale. Catalogues on 
application. 



Curiosities. 

MR. J. C. STEVENS'S NEXT SALE of 
CURIOSITIES will take place on TUESDAY. January 93, at 

half-put IS O'clock, and will include Weapons. Can id Clubs, Paddles. 

Ac. from New Guinea, Samoa. New Zealand, and other parte— Antique 

Onus and PIstOlS, Metal Lamps. Candle Holders. Till. lor Roves. .tic — 
Baxter and other Prints— Wooden soled Shoe supposed to ha\e been 
worn by Thomas a Beeket— and the usual Miscellaneous Assort mint. 

On view day prior 10 to D and Morning of Sale. Catalogues on 
application to the AUCTIONEERS, 38, King Street, Covent Garden, 
London W.C. 



Salti of M ' UrrWiufiiui Pti j 

Ml'. •' '' si i:\'i:\s ben u< nrmounoe that 
MALES aio li. 1,1 EVERY Kltll.AV. ut bis 1 
• ii. Londu 

OB.IKITIVI ;--.-TI.k»Miw- 

trlcal an. I Meietitloi liittruniei ■ 
all kinds of Photographic Appsratu* 

and all Ai<-«-«kti-» In great \nrlrty l.\ Ile»l Maker* 
Furniture— Jeweller} —»nd other Mi»cell»tir. i 

On view Thursday a to 5 and morning of Hale. 



3. PARK PLACK. LEEIjS 
Re V. DTKX8, drceated. 

MKSSKS. BOLLI8 k WEBB, instructed bv 
the Executors. »ill SELL bj AUCTION, M their Ro 
above, on JANUARY22, S. end J*, tlo- r.-markably fine LIBRARY 
of BOOKS Inclo nl i of the Kelmscott Press, including 

Cbaucer. First English Translations ol Essays. 

and Cervantes' Don O' Editions of the Dramatists- 

Tudor Translations — Villon H>«-iely — Fine-Art Books — Limited 
Editions of illiistiati-d Preocn Works. 

Catalogues Iprice (W. each) can be had from the AUCTIoM 
g, Park Place, Leeds. 

On view Two Days prior to the Sale. 
Sale at 11 o'clock each day. 



iHaga^iius, &c. 



THE ENGLISH HISTORICAL REVIEW. 
Edited by REGINALD L. PooLE. MA. Ph.D. 
No. 89. JANUARY. 1908. Royal Bro, price 6s. 

1. Art: 

THE KING'S COUNCIL FROM EDWARD I. TO EDWARD III. 

By James F. Baldwin. 
THE AMALGAMATION 01 THE ENGLISH MERCANTILE 

CRAFTS. By Miss Stella Kramer. 
THE NORTHERN PACIFICATION OF 1719-20. By J. F. 

Chance. Part III. 
QUEEN VICTORIA'S LETTERS. 1ST7-1861. By the Master of 

Peterhouse, Cambridge. 

2. Notts itnil DocumtmtM. 

THE DATES OF HENRY II. s CHARTERS. By the Editor. 
CISTERCIAN 8CHOLARS AT OXFORD. By R. C. Fowler. 
A VOLUNTARY SUBSIDY LEVIED BY EDWARD IV., 1482. 

By Miss Cora L. Scofield. 
THE CORONATION OF QUEEN ELIZABETH. By the Rev. 

H. A. Wilson. 

THE SALE OF EPISCOPAL LANDS DURING THE CIVIL 
WARS AND THE COMMONWEALTH. By G. B. Talbam. 

3. iJertetrs of JJook*. 4. Short -Volices. 

LONGMANS. GREEN A CO. 39, Paternoster Row. London. E.C. 



T 



HE EDINBURGH RE VIE \V. 

No. 423. JANUARY. 1906. 8vo. rrice 6s. 

1. THE GOVERNMENT OF SUBJECT RACES. 

2. LADY MARY WORTLEY MONTAGU. 

3. THE ORIGIN AND PROSPECTS OF GOTHIC ARCHI- 

TECTURE. 

4. BISHOP GORE AND THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. 

5. THE FALLACIES OF SOCIALISM. 

6. VERSAILLES. 

7. HEINRICH HEINE : EMOTION AND LRONY. 

8. RELIGION IN LITERATURE. 

9. THE AGRICULTURAL POSITION OF THE UNITED 

KINGDOM. 

10. THE SECOND HAGUE CONFERENCE. 

11. QUEEN VICTORIA'S LETTERS. 

LONGMANS. GREEN A CO. 39. Paternoster Row, London, E.C 



"TnE WRITERS WHITAKER. 

THE LITERARY YEAR BOOK, 190S. 
With a Classified List of Popular Reprints as Supplement. 
Crown Svo, cloth, ga. net. 
Contents .—Review of the Literary Y'ear 19)17— Authors' Directory — 
Index of Authors— Law and Letters— Publishers' Directory — Periodical 
Publications and Contributor's Guide— Libraries— Lists of So. ; 
Booksellers. Literary Agents. Typists. Indexors, Ac 

"Indispensable towriters.it is a volume of remarkable interest to 
the reading and publishing world."— Mancheatt r Courier. 

GEORGE ROUTLEDGE A SONS. Ltd., London, EC. 



K 



JUST PUBLISHED. 
Crown Svo, cloth. 397 pp. and Portrait of the Author, price 6*. 

S M S; 

or. Philosophic Studies for Lectures and Private Use on Order. 

and Correlations In Nature, Mind. Art. and Theism. 

By GEORGE WooLNoUGU. MA. 

London : 

SIMPKIN, MARSHALL. HAMILTON. KENT A CO., Ltd. 



A 



JOHN HAMILTON THOM CENTENARY, 
JANUARY 10, 1908. 

TO BE ri'BJ.IsnED IMMEDIATELY. 

SECOND (ABRIDGED) EDITION OF 

OPIRITUAL P A I T H. 

Sermons by JOHN HAMILTON THOM. 

Crown Svo, pp. 210, price 2*. net ; by post, 2s. 3d, 

BY THE SAME AUTHOR. 
LAWS OF L1FK A ITER THE MIND OF CHRIST. 

First and Second Series, it. Gd. net each. 
CHRIST THE REVEALER 2s. net. 
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No. 4186, Jan. 18, 1908 



THE ATHEN^UM 



65 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 18, 190S. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Two Books on the Old Chevalier 65 

Virgil's Messianic Eclogue 66 

The Writing ok English 67 

Lord Acton on Freedom ^ 

Continuation Schools 69 

Educational Books 70 

For Schools and students 71 

Our Library Table (The Social Fetich; The Seven 
Ages of Washington ; Studies in Primitive Greek 
Religion ; Russian and Bulgarian Folk-lore Stories ; 
How to Collect Postage Stamps ; Hustled History ; 
Whitaker's Almanack and Peerage; Erasmus 

against War) 72 73 

Robert Atkinson ; Notes from Paris ; The In- 
corporated Association of Head Masters; 
Assistant Masters in Secondary Schools ; 
The Modern Language Association ; The 
L.C.C. Conference of Teachers; 'Shake- 
speare's Warwickshire Contemporaries'; 
The Aim in Classical Teaching .. .. 74—78 

List of New Books 79 

Literary Gossip 79 

Science— Health in the School ; Lessons in 
Practical Hygiene ; Societies ; Meetings ; 

Gossip 81—82 

Fine Arts— The Inteknational Society ; Gossip ; 

Exhibitions 82—83 

Music— Gossip; Performances Next Week.. .. 83 
Drama— A White Man ; The Plays of Moliere ; 

Holger Drachmann 83—84 

Index to Advertisers 84 



LITERATURE 



The King over the Water. By Alice Shield 
and Andrew Lang. (Longmans & Co.) 

James Francis Edward, the Old Chevalier. 
By Martin Haile. (Dent & Co.) 

That " the Old Chevalier " should have 
had to wait a hundred and forty years 
for his biography is, we think, less sur- 
prising than that the task, so long unat- 
tempted, should have obtained a double 
fulfilment in the publication within a 
month of two independent works. The 
unhappy prince, who has engrossed so 
little of the passionate interest excited 
by his house, had certainly a history, 
but can hardly be said to have had a 
career. His father had reigned at White- 
hall, and his son for a brief season was to 
keep court in his name at Holyrood ; 
but James Francis Edward, never grasping 
for a moment the reality of power, was 
driven hither and thither over the restless 
sea of politics, a strenuous but ineffective 
navigator, the sport of winds and currents 
which greater ability than his might 
have failed to utilize. As the attitude 
of European sovereigns towards him and 
towards each other was usually of more 
consequence to James than anything he 
could himself devise or execute, no account 
of his life can be accepted as adequate 
which does not enter with considerable 
fullness into the history of his times ; 
but " Measures, not men," has never been 
the motto of Jacobitism, and the im- 
portance of general movements, assumed 
to be familiar, is apt to be overlooked 
by a writer who can claim, as in this case, 
to be a pioneer of research. We are, 
therefore, not unprepared to find that 
one of the Chevalier's present biographers 
has confined herself mainly to the personal 
aspects of her theme. 



In Mr. Lang's Preface to the work 
which has been written under his super- 
vision by Miss Alice Shield we are told 
that "the purpose has been.... as far 
as may be, to avoid incursions into general 
history, confining the work to biography." 
This limitation seems to us to detract 
from the value of the book without adding 
anything to its interest. Indeed, a narra- 
tive so minute and exhaustive of the 
titular king's daily life — his plots, his 
peregrinations, his domestic troubles, his 
" eternal correspondence " — would have 
been less fatiguing and less difficult to 
follow if the reader's attention had occa- 
sionally been diverted to a survey of 
political conditions outside the exiled 
Court. Biography, for example, might 
well have expanded into history at the 
point where James loses his best friend 
in Louis XIV., and France, under the 
Orleans regency, advances towards that 
alliance with Great Britain which forms 
so remarkable an interlude in what has 
been called " a second Hundred Years' 
War." The author holds that the death 
of Louis XIV. was no great misfortune 
to the Jacobites, since " he was as much 
bound by the Treaty of Utrecht as the 
Regent could be " ; but whilst Louis 
had no motive except prudence for not 
violating the treaty, the Duke of Orleans 
and George I. had a common interest in 
upholding it — the one because it excluded 
the Spanish Bourbons from France, and 
thus placed him next in succession to 
the sickly child Louis XV. ; the other 
because it excluded the Stewarts from 
England. It was the belief of Boling- 
broke that, if Louis had lived six months 
longer, the preparations he was secretly 
making to assist the Chevalier would 
have led to a renewal of the war. The 
Regent, unwilling to desert James before 
he had made sure of King George, did 
not wholly stop these preparations ; but 
he had been in communication with the 
British Ministry even before the King's 
death, and, within a month after, he was 
discussing proposals for a mutual guaran- 
tee of succession as the basis of an alliance. 
Making use of the facts furnished by Mr. 
Lang in his ' History of Scotland,' Miss 
Shield puts it beyond doubt that James 
had no thought of deceiving either Boling- 
broke or Berwick in the instructions 
which he sent to Mar, without their know- 
ledge, to begin the rising in Scotland ; 
but his action is admitted to have been 
" rash." 

The crisis of 1715 is not the only one 
in which the dependence of Jacobitism 
on international relations is inadequately 
explained ; but those who are interested 
in " James III.," not as a mere pawn on 
the European chessboard, but as a crown- 
less sovereign, the centre of a shadowy 
Court, need ask for nothing better than 
this book. It is manifestly the fruit 
of judicious and exhaustive research ; 
it has the flavour of literature, shows 
insight, and is remarkably free from bias. 
Not the least interesting of the chapters 
are the three which describe the part 
played by James in the War of the 
Spanish Succession, including his gallantry 



amidst the awful carnage of Malplaquet, 
where he headed the French assault 
in no fewer than a dozen charges. Boling- 
broke receives less than justice ; but the 
author has no romantic illusions, and 
appraises Jacobitism — at all events, offi- 
cial Jacobitism — at much less than 
its popular value. We have noticed 
very few blunders. The historian of 
George II. (p. 452) was of course Horace, 
not Edward, Walpole ; the Jacobites 
and their Spanish allies in 1719 were far 
from being "annihilated" (p. 320) at 
Glenshiel ; and when one recalls the out- 
burst of popular indignation to which 
Admiral Byng was sacrificed, it is dis- 
concerting to read (p. 460) with regard 
to the loss of Minorca that " the English 
cared no more than if George II. had 
lost his pocket-handkerchief." Lord Tulli- 
bardine at Malplaquet can hardly be 
said to have fallen " at the head of the 
Atholl Highlanders." Not a few of these 
had no doubt enlisted under the son of 
their chief ; but the corps he commanded 
was the Scots Brigade in the Dutch 
service, which was recruited mainly from 
the Lowlands. The Preface informs us 
that " most of the research and almost 
all the writing are Miss Shield's " ; but 
the reader who takes pleasure in Mr. 
Lang's sprightly style will find something 
not unlike it in these pages. The youthful 
Chevalier may possibly have been guilty, 
like Sam We'ller, of " one amiable indis- 
cretion " ; and on this we have the com- 
ment : — 

" James was but a man and a prince, and 
the ways of princes in those days — though 
no doubt we have changed all that— were 
often strait and secret, yet leading to 
destruction." 

In point of industry and research there 
is little scope for choice between Martin 
Haile's monograph and that of Miss 
Shield, and, happily for the total con- 
tribution to our knowledge made by the 
two books, the subject is viewed rather 
from the political than from the personal 
standpoint. Martin Haile is laudably 
indifferent to the advantages offered by a 
popular theme ; but the work, though it 
quotes largely from documents, cites theni 
in the margin, and discusses them in 
foot-notes, is by no means a mere 
compilation, and ought to appeal to a 
wider public than that of professed 
students. It is a painstaking study of 
Jacobitism in relation to wider issues. 
The author is thoroughly alive to the 
significance of the Orleans-Hanover com- 
pact ; does justice to the Quadruple 
Alliance in its bearing on the Jacobite 
expedition of 1719 ; explains the attempt 
of James to mediate between France 
and Austria in 1735, and shows how 
serious a blow to his hopes was the 
renewal of hostilities between thoso 
Powers in 1740. Martin Haile has bor- 
rowed two facts, new to English history, 
from the researches of a French scholar, 
M. Weisener. It is shown that it was 
George I., and not the Duke of Orleans, 
who took the initiative in proposing 
an alliance ; and the arrest at Innsbruck 
of James's intended bride, Clementina 



<;<; 



TH E A T II E N -K I' M 



Nm. Hm;. J an . \* % [QQ% 



Sobietki, is accounted fox by showing 
tliat the Emperor, in the trordi of his 
ambassador at Rome, " m not in a 
position to refuse anything to the Elector 
of Hanover," from whom be had received 
a considerable subsidy in return for a 

promise to close his dominions to the 

Pretender and bis adherents. Martin 
Haile is not beyond reproach in style, 
and, though incapable oi suppressing or 

distorting tacts, sometimes sees them 
with a jaundiced eye. We find nothing 
but evil concerning George I. ; and it is 
surely a vapid remark to say concerning 
James II. that his " most unconstitutional 
acts pale beside the proceedings of " the 
Convention Parliament. Without a viola- 
tion of the Constitution kings may reign, 
but can hardly be deposed. The author 
imagines that England and France were 
involved in successive wars through the 
deposition of James II., and would have 
become allies if France in 1740 had com- 
bined with Spain and succeeded in restor- 
ing his son. The war which terminated 
at Ryswick in 1697 was no doubt due 
to the Revolution ; but the Anglo-French 
quarrel throughout the eighteenth century 
had its roots in maritime and imperial 
antagonism, and we may be sure that a 
Dupleix in India and a Duquesne in 
America would have arisen to vex the 
subjects even of a Stewart king. The 
statement on p. 63 that the Scottish 
Act of Security was " for the succession 
of Hanover " is rectified on p. 69, where 
we are told that the Act provisionally 
excluded that succession ; but so well- 
informed a writer might have been ex- 
pected to express things with more 
accuracy than this : — 

" The young Archduchess Maria Theresa's 
title as Queen of Hungary was uncontested ; 
but her assumption of that of Empress of 
Austria was at once opposed by the Elector 
of Bavaria, who claimed the empire for him- 
self. " 

In those days there was, of course, no 
" Empress of Austria." Maria Theresa's 
claim to succeed her father in the duchy 
of Austria was indeed contested by the 
Elector of Bavaria ; but her sex disquali- 
fied her for the dignity of Holy Roman 
Emperor, and it was her husband, Francis 
of Lorraine, whom the Elector defeated 
as candidate for that office. Both works, 
it should be mentioned, are illustrated 
and indexed ; but the entry " James III.," 
which engrosses 1\ columns of Miss 
Shield's index, is omitted in the other 
volume. 

We shall now, it is" to be hoped, see no 
more in history of the tipsy, amorous 
Chevalier whom Thackeray, despite his 
researches at the British Museum, depicted 
in ' Esmond.' James was, indeed, a 
sober, upright, and chivalrous prince, 
conscientious in the use of his very 
ordinary gifts ; and pathetic are the 
glimpses we get of him in Miss Shield's 
book, plying the shuttle of an ever-baffled 
diplomacy, writing and dictating in- 
numerable letters, " a man," as Mr. Lang 
has elsewhere said, " eternally absorbed 
in his sad futile business." We are told 
that he was " a Quietest or Christian 



Stoio " ; but his profession "f tolerance, 
inevitable in one in in- position, did 

not, we think, dl STVe SO mm h empha- 
sis. The son of a king who had been 

deposed for attempting to dispense with 

the penal laws against Catholics uould 
have been in a hopeless predicament if he- 
had refused to tolerate Protestants. 



Virgil's Messianic Eclogue. By J. B. 
Mayor, W. Warde Fowler, and R. S. 
Conway. (John Murray.) 

It is matter of common knowledge that 
in Germany the poems of Virgil are not a 
popular instrument of education, and that, 
as only the equivalent of an English school 
term is devoted to the ' /Eneid ' and a 
" Durchblick durch das ganze Werk," and 
as the ' Georgics ' and ' Eclogues ' are vir- 
tually unknown to the schools, the real 
gospel of Virgil does not reach young 
Germany. Recent work, such asMr. Glover's 
studies, Mr. Warren's ' Death of Virgil,' 
and the three essays contained in this 
volume, proves conclusively that the 
humane teaching of the Mantuan still has 
a strong hold over thinking men in this 
country. Undoubtedly there are in Ger- 
many keen students of Virgil's works, but 
it is obvious that his influence cannot be 
so pervasive as it would be if a large 
proportion of the young thought of the 
nation, as in England, were steeped 
in the lofty sentiments and haunting 
rhythms of the poet. With both of these 
merits the fourth Eclogue is specially 
endowed, and, even without a clear under- 
standing of its difficulties, many a young 
student may have carried away from a 
reading of the " Sicelides Musae " the 
edifying thought of the infinite possibilities 
of human amelioration which spring from 
its teaching of lovingkindness and mercy. 
Still, it is a gain if these difficulties can 
be swept away, and a definite meaning 
attached to lines which have hitherto been 
regarded as cruces in the poem. We of 
the present generation have mostly taken 
our guidance from Conington or Mr. Arthur 
Sidgwick. The former was content not to 
press the doubtful passages, but to allow 
particular problems to remain un- 
solved while he expounded the general 
drift of the Eclogue. Mr. Sidgwick, with 
his commendable desire to make things 
clear to young minds, in discussing the 
difficulty, Who was the child ? was led to 
decide for the progeny of Pollio. This 
decision, we take it, is overthrown, as far 
as is possible in a case where final certainty 
cannot be reached, by the consensus of the 
three essayists who contribute to this 
volume. We think that what on this 
matter is common ground to Mr. Conway, 
Mr. Warde Fowler, Mr. Joseph Mayor, and 
many another scholar might well be 
definitely taught in schools, and that Mr. 
Sidgwick's conjecture should now be set 
aside. 

Even at the risk of taking up some 
space, it is worth while to state what 
seems to-day the best view of this much- 
debated Eclogue. If more truth has been 
attained, it is by use of the only reason- 



able method of approaching such n nfwtfom. 

that is, by a close study of Virgil's works 
.x whole, of his life and the circum- 

stances of bis times. .Mi. Warde Fowiec 

expresses the general position in a few 

words when he writes : — 

" I look on it as the celcl, ration, in mys- 
tical, and as the writers of tl • I . -ays 
believe, Messianic language, of the actual 
birth of a real child, who is destined to 
initiate a new era of happincsi for Italy and 
the world." 

.Mr. (Jon way in his essay make, good 
his point that in the whole work of Virgil 
there is often found a conception which 
in many ways is parallel to the Jewish 
expectation of a Messiah, 

"the conception of a national hero and 
ruler, divinely inspired, and sent to delivr 
not his own nation only, but mankind, rais- 
ing them to a new and ethically higher 
existence." 

Working this out more in detail, he 
proceeds to prove satisfactorily that 
Virgil consciously entertained the ideas 
that the world was in need of regenera- 
tion ; that the establishment of the 
Empire was favourable to such an ethical 
movement ; that Rome's duty was to 
attempt the task ; and that one special 
deliverer must begin the work — a work 
which would involve disappointment, and 
the essence of which lay in a more 
humane ideal, an ideal of mercy. " Italy 
regenerate," says Mr. Warde Fowler, 
" after a period of darkness and wicked- 
ness — this is the one great idea that 
animates the poet's mind throughout." 
He also sees that the question who the 
child was is not a vital matter, so far as 
the poem itself is concerned. Still, there 
seems to have grown up a remarkable 
agreement among eminent scholars as to 
the child. Except in so far as Prof. 
Skutsch gives forcible expression to this 
view, much need not be made of his 
having reached it himself. W T e believe we 
are right in saying that many English 
scholars previously thought the same as 
the Breslau professor. The " father " 
who has given the world peace is 
Octavian ; the child is the heir to the 
Empire whose birth was expected in 
40 B.C., but who in fact was never born. 
The child Scribonia bore early in 39 was 
a girl, the unhappy Julia. Scribonia was 
divorced on the same day. Virgil's 
Eclogue, already published, was "allowed 
to stand, enigma though it had become," 
because " its real object was to hail the 
coming Better Age rather than to salute 
the expected infant." 

In considering the sources of the fourth 
Eclogue Mr. Mayor sets himself to answer 
a question asked by Conington : Are not 
the images used by Virgil sufficiently 
paralleled in pagan literature ? His 
answer is that such parallels are not to 
be found, except in the Jewish Scriptures, 
to which he traces them back. The 
" Cumaeum carmen " he traces to the 
Sibylline books doctored by Jews for 
Jewish purposes. A consideration of the 
fact that the Jewish Scriptures lend 
themselves with extraordinary readiness 
to parallel quotation in many branches 



No. 4186, Jan. 18, 1908 



THE ATHENiEUM 



67 



of poetry, history, and philosophy puts 
us on our guard against a too easy 
acceptance of such parallels as those 
made out between this Eclogue and 
passages of Isaiah ; yet in spite of this 
we think Mr. Mayor's conclusions are too 
strong to resist. The " Cumaeum carmen " 
" was either one of the many oracles 
which were apparently still in circula- 
tion in Rome " ; or it may have been 
imported to Rome between 76 and 40 B.C. 
" In either case it is probable that this 
carmen was of Jewish origin." There are 
two features of Virgil's vision which, 
though alien to Graeco-Roman thought, 
pervade and dominate Hebrew literature : 
the ideas that man's true perfection lies 
in the future/ not the past ; and that the 
perfect state is to be brought about by 
the birth of a child. Mr. Mayor accepts 
Munro's rendering of " Jo vis incre- 
mentum," " promise of a Jove to be," a 
phrase which, though unexampled in 
classical literature, is amply paralleled in 
the Hebrew prophets. The upshot of the 
whole matter is that the thoughts and 
expressions of Isaiah somehow filtered 
through to Virgil, and that the Sibyl was 
the medium of communication reaching 
through 500 years. 

Such being the main drift of the 
poem, there are one or two points of 
interpretation which we may accept or 
reject without prejudicing the position 
held by the three essayists. Mr. Fowler 
cleverly, though not quite convincingly, 
suggests that the " bulk of the poem is a 
prophetic Carmen conceived as sung by a 
votes fatidica, with whom Virgil half 
identifies himself, during the actual birth of 
a child.''' He also adopts the reading 
(1. 62) " qui non risere parentes " ; but we 
feel with Mr. Conway that this Latin, in 
such a place, is virtually impossible, and 
are prepared to stand by " cui non risere 
parentes." Again, a highly probable sug- 
gestion is made by Mr. Fowler, who aptly 
applies to the present passage a quotation 
from the additions to Servius : " Proinde 
nobilibus pueris editis in atrio domus 
Iunoni lectus, Herculi mensa ponebatur." 
The deus is Hercules, the dea is Juno, and 
the two together were regarded as the di 
coniugales. Anyway, the general sense of 
these fines seems to us to be : " The child 
whom its parents do not joyfully acknow- 
ledge cannot be expected to find favour in 
the sight of the gods who joined those 
parents in wedlock." 

We find ourselves at one with Mr. 
Fowler in our inability to accept certain 
views of Sir W. M. Ramsay and Prof. 
Reinach. The former holds that Virgil did 
not refer to an actual human child : the 
child was an abstraction, an idealized 
generation then beginning. The answer 
to this view is the concrete character of 
the last four lines. The latter tries to 
establish that there are no historical or 
political allusions in the poem, but that 
the character of the whole is exclusively 
religious or mystic. To him the child is 
Dionysus, the son of Jupiter. 

We lay down this little book, with its 
scholarly and feeling attempt at poetical 
interpretation, with a sense that its 



perusal will, in the best and broadest way, 
stimulate the imagination. 



The Writing of English. By P. J. Hartog, 
assisted by Mrs. A. H. Langdon. (Oxford, 
Clarendon Press.) 

The first sentence in Mr. Hartog's Pre- 
face is " The English boy cannot write 
English," and a fairly extensive experi- 
ence of boys' attempts to do so compels 
us to admit — and deplore — the general 
truth of the statement. Further on in 
thejbook we are told 

" that though he may be totally ignorant of 
the rules of grammar, he has the power of 
saying accurately what he needs and wants to 
say in the language in which he thinks." 

We hardly think so highly of the boy's 
power of oral composition ; he will, we 
admit, make his wants known, but in 
doing so will often depend as much on 
facial expression, voice, intonation, and 
signs as on the correct construction of 
his sentences. In writing, he has all 
to learn ; in speaking, much ; it is, 
however, difficult to keep the training 
of the one faculty separate from that 
of the other. 

Mr. Hartog concentrates his attention 
on the writing of English, and first points 
out the almost total absence of effective 
rational teaching of the language in our 
schools, and then shows, by careful in- 
vestigation of school methods in France, 
how the mother-tongue is successfully 
taught there, and how, mutatis mutandis, 
similar efficient instruction in English 
might be given in this country. In a 
useful appendix he supplies, with Mrs. Amy 
H. Langdon's assistance, practical details 
of the literary training which he desires 
to see introduced into English schools. 
The arguments in favour of comprehensive 
judicious training in modern English, 
both in our primary and secondary 
schools, are unanswerable, and the sug- 
gestions for the carrying out of such a 
course of instruction are of practical 
value. 

It can hardly be denied that English, 
both written and spoken, is deteriorating. 
Those who can recall the not very high 
literary standard attained in English 
by boys and girls leaving school thirty 
or forty years ago, will probably agree 
that it was higher than that attained 
by young people of like standing now. 
It is not easy to offer a satisfactory 
explanation of the change for the worse ; 
and it would be interesting to know how 
an expert like Mr. Hartog accounts for 
it. It is a curious experience nowadays, 
when we hear young people describe a 
long day on the links, a successful dance, 
or any other topic in which they feel 
real personal interest, to note the meagre 
vocabulary at the speakers' disposal, 
and the grotesquely inaccurate use of 
the few words left to them. Their 
descriptions in the form of written narra- 
tive would be still balder. Correspond- 
ingly unfavourable criticism of a French 
boy 8 composition would not be justifiable, 
for he writes his own languago clearly 



and correctly ; and his literary skill 
cannot be attributed to national aptitude 
rather than school training, for, as Mr. 
Hartog tells us, " national aptitudes, 
in this as in other things, are singularly 
difficult to dissociate from training and 
tradition. In France " training and 
tradition " have long obtained in the 
mother-tongue ; but in this country 
they existed only, and still exist mainly, 
in classical studies, and men who passed 
through the old-fashioned course acquired 
directly but a scanty knowledge of their 
own language, although they acquired 
such a literary training, and such a know- 
ledge of language itself, that they could, 
if it became expedient, gain efficient 
mastery of English readily and easily. 
" On the other hand "—we quote F.R.C.S. 
from the recent correspondence in The 
Times on ' Science and the Public ' : — 

" men whose education has been conducted 
on the ' modern ' side of a school, and sub- 
sequently in * science ' classes, have seldom 
learnt any language at all, and are often 
incapable of expressing themselves with 
clearness or accuracy. They often possess 
only a very limited vocabulary ; the con- 
struction of their sentences is often extremely 
faulty ; and they frequently misapply even 
quite common words, because they have 
never been taught to understand and con- 
sider meaning." 

There must be something seriously wrong 
in our national system of education if 
a youth who has been through the modern 
side of a school, and has subsequently 
attended science classes, is virtually 
ignorant of his own language. 

By the end of the seventeenth century 
the French had elaborated a rational 
system of literary instruction in their 
native tongue ; but in this country at 
the same date Locke, in his ' Essay ' 
and ' Thoughts concerning Education,' 
was writing with utter scorn of our 
teaching of rhetoric. Little was effected 
in this country at that time ; but in France, 
in spite of the struggles of the Jesuits 
(who looked askance at the cultivation 
of the mother-tongue), first with Port 
Royal, and later with the universities, 
a course of literary training in the national 
language became, and has since remained, 
an important part of the curriculum in 
primary and secondary schools. Many 
Frenchmen consider the teaching to be 
" too literary, too remote from life, too 
declamatory " ; but the fact remains that 
French boys on leaving school can write 
an intelligible, well-ordered, grammatically 
correct essay, narrative, or letter. Mr. 
Hartog explains the methods of teaching 
composition and literature adopted in 
primary and secondary schools in France, 
and describes the various lessons at which 
he was present in a considerable number 
of elementary schools and Lycees in Paris. 
The methods are so judicious, and so 
carefully arranged and followed, that 
none but a boy far below the average 
of intelligence can fail to acquire the art 
of expressing his ideas, and the informa- 
tion he possesses, with reasonable gram- 
matical accuracy and a certain amount 
of literary skill. Mr. Hartog makes a 
strong appeal— not only to the school- 



li,S 



T ii ]•: at ii EN .!■: r M 



No. 41 *i;. .Ian. 18, 1908 



master, but slso to the parent, " whose 
control oyer secondary education is greater 
than be thinks/' and to the community 

— that they should require equiva- 
lent teaching in English composition 
and literature to be given to all Eng- 
lish boys; and he points out that the 
pupils' at lent ion in the study not only 
of the poets, but also of the great prose- 
writers of modern times, should be directed 

" to general sense and content rather than 
to exceptional linguistic detail or to inci- 
dental allufions, other than those essential 
for the comprehension of the author." 

Teachers are not left indoubt as to how Mr. 
Hartog's suggestions are to be carried 
out in schools, or his requirements satis- 
fied ; for he provides numerous carefully 
chosen exercises in composition, accom- 
panied with hints on the general method 
of using them in class. The last few 
pages are devoted to criticism of a school 
essay written at Haileybury, and to the 
critical analysis of a passage from King- 
lake's ' History of the Crimean War.' 
Both criticism and analysis are excellent. 

If parents and schoolmasters will pay 
heed to the good counsel and practical 
suggestions in this handy and valuable 
little work, no future writer on literary 
studies in our schools will, we think, be 
able to begin his first chapter — as Mr. 
Hartog begins his — with the discouraging 
statement, " The average English boy 
cannot write English." 



The History of Freedom, and other Essays. 
By John Emerich Edward Dalberg- 
Acton, First Baron Acton. Edited by 
the Rev. J. N. Figgis and Reginald V. 
Laurence. (Macmillan & Co.) 

There is a pathetic interest in this 
volume, which is suggested in its title. 
Here, so far as we are told, is all that was 
ever achieved of the great history of 
liberty, which was to have been the work 
of Acton's life. It consists of an 
address delivered to the members of the 
Bridgnorth Institution in 1877 on ' The 
History of Freedom in Antiquity,' and 
another address, delivered to the same 
body three months later, on 4 The History 
of Freedom in Christianity.' Perhaps we 
may add to these an article printed in 
The Quarterly in 1 878 on Erskine May's 
' Democracy in Europe.' The three take 
up exactly one hundred pages out of a 
volume of six hundred. That is all 
that Acton ever accomplished of his great 
design. 

Of course it was impossible. No man 
who knew enough to write on such a sub- 
ject could ever have written the book. 
One wonders if such a volume, on the 
only scale which would have been of value 
to a student, would ever have been read. 
Indeed, we may be content with the 
brilliant yet solid essays in which the prin- 
ciples of the whole history laid down are: — 

" We must be at war with evil, but at 
peace with men, and it is better to suffer 
than to commit injustice. True freedom, 
says the most eloquent of the Stoics, 
consists in obeying God." 



There irere the fundamental ideas of 
\> ton lammed up. He looked at all life 
pre-eminently and persistently from the 

moral point of view. He hud no belief 
in the modern theory of the State — that 
it is omnipotent, and may recognize no 
limits but its own will. The tyranny of 
the majority seemed to him a hideous 
thing. The editors tell us that he was 
the incarnation of the " spirit of Whig- 
gism "; but this was not at all in a 
democratic sense, and perhaps he was 
nearer to the Whiggism that Disraeli 
derided than they admit. Constitutional 
government was his ideal, but he was not 
able, it would seem, to reconcile it very 
closely with pure democracy. Democracy 
and absolutism were too near akin. 

" Provided that freedom was left to men 
to do their duty, Acton was not greatly 
careful of mere rights. He had no belief in 
the natural equality of men, and no dislike 
of the subordination of classes on the score 
of birth." 

He was in truth an aristocrat through 
and through, by birth and training, by 
association with the nobility of Germany 
and England, by a certain want of sym- 
pathy with imperfection in others, and a 
very decided contempt for ignorance. 
Deep-rooted though his desire was to 
secure to every man his rights, and to every 
institution no more than its rights, yet it 
cannot be denied that there was always 
in him a strain of that intolerance and 
" superiority" which belongs to the pure 
Whig, which came out in such curious 
ways in his letters to Mrs. Drew, and 
which is evident in the description of 
Lord Liverpool quoted in the Introduction 
to this book. 

Something of this Acton saw himself. 
His 

" desire to maintain the view that ' morality 
is not ambulatory ' led him at times to ignore 
the complementary doctrine that it certainly 
developes, and that the difficulties of states- 
men or ecclesiastics, if they do not excuse, 
at least explain their less admirable courses. 

In a pathetic conversation with his son, 

he lamented the harshness of some of his 
judgments, and hoped the example would 
not be followed." 

Still, the example was noble, because the 
judgment was so entirely honest, the 
standard so undeviatingly high. 

"To all those who reflect on history or 
politics, it was a gain of the highest order 
that at the very summit of historical scholar- 
ship and profound political knowledge there 
should be placed a leader who erred on the 
unfashionable side, who denied the states- 
man's claim to subject justice to expediency, 
and opposed the partisan's attempt to palter 
with facts in the interest of his creed." 

All this, and much more, is most 
admirably said in the excellent Introduc- 
tion of Mr. Figgis and Mr. Laurence. We 
do not know that Acton can quite 
fairly be described as a leader, at least 
during the greater part of his life, whether 
in historical scholarship or in political 
knowledge ; but we have no doubt that 
the indirect influence of his intellect and 
his knowledge was greater than was gener- 
ally known when he was alive. It may 



even have been greater, as the editors 
suggest, at the time of the Vatican 
Council, than was supposed: at lea-t 
neither the terms of the dogma of Infal- 
libility nor its effects were what he feared. 
But it is not only as a politic ian or a 
moralist that Acton is shown in the 
present collection of his work. He appears 
almost as conspicuously as a pure his- 
torian. His essays on the Massacre of 
St. Bartholomew and on the Protestant 
theory of persecution are examples of 
this. They are minute and careful work, 
full of knowledge, research, critical appre- 
ciation. They distribute even-handed 
justice with an unsparing severity. If 
the Protestant action is regarded as the 
less defensible, because it depends on 
a crude and immoral theory, yet the 
defence of the massacre of the Huguenots 
is condemned in uncompromising style : — 

" The same motive which had prompted 
the murder now prompted the lie. Men shrank 
from the conviction that the rulers and 
restorers of their Church had been murderers 
and abettors of murder, and that 6o much 
infamy had been coupled with so much zeal. 
They feared to say that the most monstrous 
of crimes had been solemnly approved at 
Rome, lest they should devote the Papacy to 
the execration of mankind." 

The interest of the historical essays in 
this volume is not, however, purely con- 
structive. It is critical too, and per- 
sonal. As examples of the critical method 
of the author we may note the reviews of 
Mr. Goldwin Smith's ' History of Ireland ' 
and Dr. Henry Lea's ' History of the 
Inquisition.' Here we find both wit and 
detailed knowledge, as well as a fine 
critical sense under the control of a 
determined and consistent fairness. 

The personal side of Acton's energies 
comes out in the extremely interesting 
papers on ' Dollinger's Historical Work ' 
and on the Vatican Council. In the latter 
there is a marked and impressive restraint 
which makes the record of the facts the 
more significant, and the omission of any 
concluding judgment also tells its own 
tale. What it all meant in Acton's eyes 
is partially — but only very partially — told 
in the letters which have recently been 
edited with such evident skill by Abbot 
Gasquet : there is more to come, we are 
told by Mr. Figgis and Mr. Laurence, 
when the letters to Dollinger are given to 
the world. Dollinger was Acton's chief 
teacher from the time he was seventeen ; 
and special interest attaches to a long 
paper on the great Bonn scholar's book 
on the Temporal Power, and to the 
shorter summary of his historical work 
published in The English Historical Review 
seventeen years ago. 

We have said enough to indicate the 
varied attractions of this volume. It shows 
us, indeed, the great scholar at his best, in 
his wide knowledge, sound judgment, and 
intense but restrained moral fervour. It 
is a book which does more than add to our 
information : it strengthens and inspires. 
It makes us desire more than ever these 
Lectures on the French Revolution which 
were promised us a long while since, but 
are still, with no explanation, delayed. \. 



No. 4186, Jan. 18, 1908 



THE ATHENAEUM 



69 



Continuation Schools in England and 
Elsewhere. Edited by M. E. Sadler. 
(Manchester, University Press.) 

Prof. Sadler edits this volume of 
publications of the University of Man- 
chester, and also contributes to it the 
Introduction and several chapters ; the 
remaining chapters are written by per- 
sons who speak with the authority of 
knowledge. A work of this kind on 
Continuation Schools and kindred topics, 
containing much tabulated information, 
and in many places bristling with statistics, 
will hardly exert great initial attraction 
on the general reader ; but Prof. Sadler 
and his collaborators exhibit so much 
literary skill, and have so cleverly mar- 
shalled their facts and figures, that 
thoughtful men and women will read 
the volume with interest and advan- 
tage. It is a treasure of facts 
and judicious opinions in the domain 
of the history and administration of 
education ; and although the editor's 
views and desires — he being a progressive 
and enthusiastic advocate of education — 
may be in advance of those of his readers, 
yet the consideration for others as well 
as moderation with which they arc set 
forth will go far to make converts. 

The introductory historical account of 
what has been done in this island for the 
promotion of Continuation Schools, and 
the furthering, during the period of 
adolescence, of education and instruction 
consequent on primary teaching, and 
more advanced than it, takes into con- 
sideration the interval between 1780 and 
to-day. This interval, beginning with 
the rise of the modern Sunday-school 
movement, is divided into four great 
periods : (I.) from 1780 to 1833, when 
the first Parliamentary grant was given 
"for the purpose of education " ; (II.) from 
1833 to the French Revolution in 1848 ; 
(III.) from 1848 to the passing of the 
Elementary Education Act in 1870 ; 
and (IV.) from that date to the present 
day. We read with satisfaction that, 
during the last hundred years, evening 
schools and classes, and other means 
(the majority of them due to voluntary 
agency) for the further education of the 
people, have taken no unimportant part 
in our social history ; and that "in no 
other country have they been more 
numerous or more varied in form and 
purpose." The work of the chief educa- 
tional agencies (ranging from the Sunday 
school to the University Extension Lecture 
and the National Home Reading Union) 
that have placed the advantages of in- 
struction within reach of the young 
(of both sexes), is sympathetically re- 
viewed, and described in considerable 
detail ; and we are glad to find that 
agencies in which recreation and physical 
training are important, if not predominant 
factors, are included. These agencies 
have been worked with greater or less 
efficiency, and for varying lengths 
of time, and all seem to have 
been really successful at some point in 
their history, if not during the whole of it. 
After these voluntary agencies follow our 



State-aided evening schools ; and Mr. 
Sadler places before us an account of the 
work they are doing in certain Northern 
manufacturing towns as well as in rural 
districts. The history of the voluntary 
institutions for giving " further education" 
shows clearly how great is the debt owed 
by the nation to enthusiastic religious 
belief in all classes of the popula- 
tion. Night schools for adults were 
recommended so early as 1711 by the 
Society for the Promotion of Christian 
Knowledge, and the work done by the 
Established Church is highly appreciated 
in this historical review ; at the same 
time the efficient and successful agencies 
established by Roman Catholics and 
Protestant bodies receive unstinted praise. 
Prof. Sadler finds, in the answers to 
inquiries addressed to 17 railway com- 
panies and 195 large trade and industrial 
firms, concerning facilities granted to 
their employees for attending continua- 
tion and technical classes, that a large 
number of those who replied to his ques- 
tions make attendance at these classes 
easy, and encourage their workpeople 
to attend them, and no doubt this number 
will increase ; but the half-time system 
forms at the present day a serious obstacle 
to the efficiency and spread of the classes. 
The half-timer learns very little in the 
primary school, and more often than not 
leaves it with a decided distaste for 
mental effort ; nor is this surprising. The 
half-timer, a child under fourteen, is 
called before 5.30 a.m., has just time to 
swallow some bread-and-butter and tea 
that " has often been left to stew over- 
night in the oven," and must be at the 
factory at 6. He works there till 8, and 
then has half an hour for breakfast, which 
is generally eaten in the " stuffy room " 
where he has been working. The next 
four hours, till 12.30, are spent in work, 
and about 2 p.m. the child goes to school 
for 2-J hours. The evenings are spent 
generally in some form of recreation, " or 
wandering aimlessly about the streets " ; 
in only a small percentage of cases " in 
domestic work, at the evening Continua- 
tion School, or in reading at home." 
The lives of these half-timers are pathetic- 
ally unchildlike, and their lessons must 
fall on drowsy eyes and tired ears. It does 
not surprise us to read that " a distinct 
physical deterioration sets in immediately 
a child goes to work half-time." These 
children have also lost interest in school 
work, and seldom regain it during adoles- 
cence ; and it has been found in Burnley 
that the number of half-timers who begin 
attendance at evening schools is con- 
siderably less than half that of day scholars 
who continue their education in this way. 
Many successful mills, however, employ 
no half-timers at all, and a few run at 
night, when the employment of " half- 
timers " is illegal, and there is reasonable 
hope of a gradual change of public opinion 
in factory districts in respect Oi half-time ; 
so that when the State insists — as it will 
soon be its duty to do — on the compulsory 
continuation of education during adoles- 
cence, the change will be accepted, if not 
welcomed. 



The descriptions of Continuation Schools 
in Germany, Switzerland, France, Den- 
mark, and the United States — their 
beginnings, scope, maintenance, and the 
attendance at them — are most suggestive. 
We in England have much to learn from 
these foreign schools, and in some respects 
may take them as examples ; but in many 
ways they differ one from another, and 
every country seems to establish and 
keep in working order the school system 
best adapted to its needs. The com- 
parison made between the German and 
English systems — the one authoritative 
and compulsory, the other simply volun- 
tary — is interesting. Prof. Sadler appears 
to approve the former, but he recognizes 
the good points of both. The German 
plan makes the most of the average 
adolescent, and even of the dullard, not 
perhaps giving the best chance to the 
brilliant, strenuous scholar ; ours, 
on the other hand, makes the most of 
the really clever youth, but is likely to 
do less for Ms weaker competitors than 
they deserve ; ours, therefore, is the less 
economical of the nation's brain-power. 

France has attacked the problem of 
" further education " with great enthusi- 
asm, and with the logical vigour character- 
istic of the Latin "mind. Continuation 
classes and other means of acquiring 
" further education " are distributed 
throughout the country ; they work 
efficiently, and are producing good results 
both in town and country. It will surprise 
some readers to learn to howgreatan exteno 
the initiation and maintenance of these 
institutions are due to the ardour, liberality 
of mind, and generosity of various religious 
bodies, the Catholic Church and the 
Protestant and Jewish organizations. 

The People's High Schools (" Folke- 
hojskoler") in Denmark are among the most 
interesting and most successful experi- 
ments in " further education," and have 
to a large extent solved the social problem 
that oppresses our own country — how to 
keep the people on the land. These 
Folkekojskoler are private, State - aided 
institutions, and their methods of educa- 
tion and discipline have great elasticity ; 
but the basis of all their curricula is 
humanistic ; and owing to their influence 
and " a state of the land laws producing 
peasant proprietorship, the rural exodus 
in Denmark has been much less serious 
than in other countries." They also 
furnish a striking instance of " education 
spelling prosperity " : the value of Danish 
exports of bacon and dairv produce 
rose from 2,402,000J.in 1881 to 13,614,000/. 
in 1904. These High Schools all exhibit 
a common feature — they have a decidedly 
educational aim as well as a distinctly 
technological object ; and this differen- 
tiates them from the majority of Con- 
tinuation Schools described in Prof. 
Sadler's volume. 

Education has two sides, the material 
and the immaterial, and of these the 
immaterial is the nobler ; but so severe, 
apparently, is the contest among indi- 
viduals for wages, and so keen among 
nations the struggle for supremacy in 
commercial and industrial pursuits and 



II 



'I 1 II E A T B E N M U M 



No. 4186, Jan. Ik, 1908 



operal ions, i hat t be adi ml E educa- 

tion in the intellectual and spiritual 
development of mankind are often kepi 
nut of sight. The Danes in then- People's 
High Schools have, better than other 
nations, suooeeded in combining the two 

.sides of Continuation School work. 

Againsl the danger involved in excessive 

utilitarianism Prof. Sadler uttore a timely 
warning : — 

"' Let OB not identity the world for which 
we seek to train every child solely with the 
world of material interests and of visiblo 
things. Let us not forget, in our educa- 
tional plans, the weight that should be 
attached to the claims of the spiritual realm, 
whose frontiers transcend political frontiers, 
and whose commonwealth is in heaven." 



EDUCATIONAL BOOKS. 

John Bull and his Schools. By W. R. 
Lawson. (Blackwood & Sons.) — John Bull 
lias often been seriously blamed for his sins 
of omission and commission in the island 
that belongs to him ; but his doings have 
seldom been more severely criticized than 
they are in the volume before us by Mr. 
Lawson, who, with rather grim humour, 
has set himself to balance the advantages 
and disadvantages of the education provided 
for boys and young men of all classes in 
John Bull's country ; and although the 
strictures are not free from exaggeration, 
and in some cases have an air of caricature, 
we must admit that they place in strong 
relief many startling imperfections in our 
schools and colleges. The two main charges 
that he brings with considerable effect 
against our educational system are excess 
of cost and defect of efficiency ; and 
" parents, ratepayers, and men of business," 
for whose enlightenment the book is written, 
will read the facts, statistics, and opinions 
it contains with some little surprise, not 
altogether of a pleasurable kind. Infor- 
mation concerning the annual cost is 
summarized in a table showing " the public 
and private expenditure on education (all 
grades)," including interest on the capital 
value of non-provided premises, and the 
cost amounted in 1906-7 to fifty-six millions 
sterling, that is, it was only about three 
millions short of the entire sum spent on 
the army and the navy ; and if the whole 
cost of education were registered and known, 
" it might raise the national school bill 
considerably above the combined army 
and navy budgets." Some of Mr. Lawson's 
figures appear to be conjectural, but those 
which are certainly known are large enough 
to be matter of serious concern to the patient, 
tax-paying middle class of the population. 
The greater part of this enormous expenditure 
is seemingly absorbed by elementary educa- 
tion, and a large share of it is borne by the 
middle-class taxpayer, who gains therefrom 
no benefit — or an infinitesimal one — for 
his own sons and daughters. He requires 
for them higher (secondary and techno- 
logical) and University training; but with 
a budget for elementary schools which is 
steadily increasing (the cost of an elementary- 
school boy in London is about three times 
as great as that of his brother in Paris), 
there seems small chance that, if the ex- 
penditure on higher education be on a 
similarly lavish scale, the State will do much 
for him : there is on the other hand a fear 
that a reaction of niggardliness will set in, 
or, to quote Matthew Arnold in 1878, " I 
am afraid of the cold fit following the hot 
one in a season of less prosperity." 

Mr. Lawson, having shown the magnitude 
of John Bull's school bill, pertinently asks 



" \\ hal I. | .r it | " : ( h< -i\ en to 

this question is discouraging in tha extreme. 

Mi- I. .iv. ■•I. ia bhoroug] bisfied with 

the results lit our educational instituti 
and lie 1 1 clearly m< led with the 

products turned oul at the top and bottom 
of the system that is, the elementary 
schools and the Universities, especially 
Oxford and Cambridge. The account of 

the older Universities is an amu rica- 

ture rather than an accurate presentment: 
the author writes at second hand only, and 
a good deal of the description might well 
have been the work of Alton Locke after 
preliminary study of the adventures of 
\ i rdant Green. The author speaks, however, 
of the life and studies in the newer Univer- 
sities from more intimate acquaintance with 
them, and certainly with greater sympathy. 
He appreciates highly (and, we think, justly) 
the University of Science slowly and judi- 
ciously evolved at South Kensington, as well 
as the newer Universities, with their splendid 
technological equipment, that have risen 
in the Midlands, the Northern counties, and 
in Scotland : their efficiency is largely 
attributed to the co-operation, in their 
initiation and government, of men of 
business who knew exactly the requirements 
of commerce and industry. Men of this 
kind should undoubtedly have a much more 
powerful . influence in the governing bodies 
of elementary schools (which Matthew 
Arnold insisted should be a municipal, not a 
State, service) and also of higher secondary 
and technical institutions. 

Mr. Lawson hardly knows " whether John 
Bull is at the present moment more worried 
about his army or his schools," i.e., his 
free elementary schools. The imperfections 
of these schools are sufficiently obvious, and 
the results attained in them sadly disappoint- 
ing, so that no exaggeration was necessary 
in the scoring of points against them. In 
some instances Mr. Lawson has overlooked 
this, as, for instance, when he blames 
certificated teachers for teaching the weights 
and measures legally used in the country, 
and he should have known — and in fairness 
have shown the knowledge — that for years 
Whitehall has insisted on the teaching of 
the metric system ; and we can safely 
assert that there are, up and down the country, 
far more rational teaching and judicious 
training of faculties and powers of observa- 
tion than he admits. Still, the appalling 
fact remains that a large proportion of the 
scholars who pass through all the classes 
in our elementary schools sink into casual 
unskilled work. " Evidently," we read, 
" a very small percentage of the three- 
quarters of a million children who leave 
school every year find themselves well 
prepared " for skilled occupations. This 
disappointing condition of things is not so 
much the direct outcome of our public 
elementary instruction as of a system of 
Government organization which leaves 
scholars, at about thirteen or fourteen years 
of age, under no disciplinary control, and 
with no compulsion, or even strong incentive, 
to attend any course of further education. 
No general inquiry has yet been made about 
the career of scholars after leaving primary 
schools : this is equally true in the case of 
higher secondary schools and Universities. 
Isolated inquiries of the kind have been 
made, as in Finchley ; and it was there 
found that of the children leaving the six 
schools of the district, 34 per cent, went 
into skilled trades, 15 per cent, became 
clerks, and 51 per cent, entered unskilled 
trades. If theso percentages be even 
approximately true for the whole country, 
Mr. Lawson's sweeping condemnation of ovir 
primary-school system is to a large extent 
justified. 



Suggestion in Education. By M. W. 
Keatinge. (A. .Mr. Baatii 

deali mt. n itingly and simply with tl 
chology of suggestion ; he adds nothing i 

Lucational theory, but, by inukn 
rou-> usu of the literature of hypnosis and 
psychometry, he shows by implication b 
dull and blundering were the textbooks on 
"method" and "school management" 

familiur in training colleges two d 

and also how def< a teacher's training 

without some study of psychology. If it is 
said that teaching is a ques tion of p< rsonality, 
and that the born teacher has always known 
by intuition what is here laboriously gleaned 
from innumerable psychical experiments, we 
reply that such a teacher will be glad to have 
his practice justified or criticized ; and that 
those teachers — the great majority — who 
have not chosen their profession by predilec- 
tion, will find this book sufficient alone to 
suggest the kind of material they must 
always be searching for in order to fortify 
and improve their principles. 

All educated people know that they were 
influenced by much in their environment, of 
which at the time they were not fully aware. 
In other words, we live a subconscious as well 
as a conscious life. Whilst admitting that 
it is impossible to increase faculty, we recog- 
nize that the subconscious contributes both 
colour and atmosphere to its manifestations. 
It follows, therefore, that the teacher should, 
as Mr. Keatinge says, make " it his first aim 
to see that the subconsciousness of his pupils 
is a mind of meanings not always fully 
realized, but felt as desirable and ready 
at any moment to develope into auto- 
suggestion." This giving of meanings that 
later may determine and direct a child's 
activities is, if not the whole function of 
schools, an essential part of it. 

In the chapter entitled ' Some Practical 
Applications ' the author crosses swords with 
the Herbartians on the question of moral 
instruction : — 

"The too constant pressing upon a boy of 
examples of conduct, or the sententious handling 
of episodes, is certain to arouse suspicion in his 
mind. In fact, the whole doctrine of influence by 
suggestion is wholly at variance with the principles 
that underlie what the school of Herbart calls 
character-forming instruction. : ' 

\Ve must express our disagreement with 
the author on one point. On p. 158 he 
writes ironically, in reference to a sound bit 
of teaching enunciated in Prof. Armstrong's 
1 The Teaching of Scientific Method,' as 
follows : — 

"From the newer subjects, apparently the salt 
of drudgery which would season the boy for the 
drearier situations that life presents may be 
altogether omitted." 

Does Mr. Keatinge suggest, in view of the 
fact that we shall all be bereaved of some 
dear friend some day or other, that the best 
possible preparation for this dreary event 
would be a weekly or monthly attendance at 
funerals ? The author has yet to profit by 
his own teaching. 

The Education of To-morrow. By John 
Stewart Remington. (Guilbert Pitman.) — 
It is argued in this book that the Public 
Schools and the older Universities do not 
turn out efficiont business men and men of 
science, and that consequently we are not 
keeping pace industrially with America and 
Germany. As the Universities of London. 
Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham, and 
Leeds are well equipped on their commercial 
and technical sides, it is regrettable, the 
author thinks, that the stream oi youth is 
not diverted from the Public Schools to these 
institutions. Mr. Remington winds up his 
criticism as follows : — 

"The Education of To-morrow must be the 
education of practical men, by practical men, for 



No. 4186, Jan. 18, 1908 



THE ATHENJEUM 



71 



practical men. It must be hidden behind no bars 
of dead languages, and veiled by no fogs of dead 
social distinctions. It must realize that the present 
and the future are more important than the past. 
It must understand that it is to be the weapon of 
our sons, as the sword was the weapon of our 
fathers, and that its battles are the battles ot 
reality, battles not of muscle, but of knowledge. 



Selected Writings of Thomas Godolphin 
Hoover. Edited by R. G. Tatton. (Blackie 
& Son.)— Thomas Godolphin Rooper was 
always greatly interested in popular 
education; and when he was appointed 
H M Inspector of Schools under Sir Francis 
Sandford, his office supplied him with 
occupation in most respects congenial, and 
gave him a career in which his wide learning, 
deep sympathy with children, and remark- 
able insight into educational methods, as 
well as mastery of the principles underlying 
them, were made available for the national 
advantage. Rooper was appointed in 1877 
second inspector in Northumberland under 
Mr Pennethorne ; he assumed sole charge 
of the Bradford district in 1882, and was 
transferred in 1897 to Southampton. He 
died in 1903, in his fifty-sixth year. 

Rooper's marked charm of manner did 
much in gaining for him a great and, we 
trust, enduring influence in education, 
although, as Mr. Tatton says in speaking 
of Civil Servants generally, " it is not easy 
to explain the exact nature of their services 
or influence." The influence, however ac- 
quired, was recognized and felt most widely, 
and it was invariably beneficial. Rooper, 
although ready to welcome every improve- 
ment, and to receive in a friendly spirit 
all suggestions, was no faddist in education ; 
hence he was trusted by teachers and 
managers of schools, and was heard with 
attention and consideration by the larger 
public whose first desire is that the ele- 
mentary schools of the country shall supply 
the State with young men and young women 
healthy and sound in body, mind, and 
morals. There are few problems connected 
with elementary education that Rooper 
did not discuss and elucidate in his speeches 
and writings; but the subjects in which 
perhaps he took the deepest interest were 
rural schools, and manual training, both in 
towns and villages. He considered sloid 
to be the system of manual training best 
adapted for school purposes, and insisted 
on the value of manual training— as indeed 
of all training of the senses and muscles— 
"not as a part of technical, but of general 
education." The changes that lie wished to 
make in the routine of rural schools would 
involve not so much the elimination ot 
existing studies from the time-table and 
the substitution of others, as an alteration 
of the way in which the teachers regard the 
existing studies. 

Mr. Tatton includes in the volume before 
us the most important of Rooper's con- 
tributions to the literature of educational 
theory and method. They have been 
collected from articles in magazines and 
reviews, and from lectures and addresses, 
for Rooper, so far as we know, published 
no comprehensive important volume on 
school work. He was a thoughtful student 
and an eager and skilled observer of educa- 
tional practice and theory, both in this 
country and abroad; and Mr. Tatton s 
readers will owe to him a debt of gratitude 
for giving them an opportunity of studying 
the results of extended experience and much 
accurate thought. In the essays and ad- 
dresses that form the larger part of the work, 
their author enforces the doctrine of apper- 
ception, and insists on the application, in 
everyday schoolwork, of the principle of 
the correlation of studies ; but education is 
investigated in all its phases and from 



different points of view, and much illumina- 
tion is thrown on most of the difficulties 
that present themselves in practical instruc- 
tion. Nor is there any shirking of the deeper, 
more spiritual problems that beset the 
thorny questions of religious education. 
The essays entitled ' Mothers and Sons 
and ' Reverence ' suggest possibilities ot 
solution by sane persons of goodwill and 
" de bonne foy," and at the same time 
convince us that such possibilities tend to 
vanish amid the tumult of discordant 
parties and the din of political strife 

Germane to the moral rather than the 
material side of the teaching and training of 
children is ' Gaiety in Education, the 
subject of a charming essay— a ''study in 
Augustine and Calvin." It would be well 
for pupils and teachers alike if the spirit of 
this essay pervaded our educational systems. 
Rooper possessed in no small measure two 
of a teacher's most valuable gifts— wide 
human sympathy and a keen sense ot 
humour; so that from his writings Mr. 
Tatton has been able to compile a volume 
which should be carefully read by candidates 
for a teacher's diploma, and copies of which 
should occupy prominent positions on the 
bookshelves in training colleges. 



The Journal of Education (Rice) is now 
a well-established institution. The 800 odd 
pages of Vol. XXIX. (for 1907) form a 
valuable consoectus of the educational 
activities of the year, and reference is made 
easy and ceitain by a capital index. This 
we have tested on certa'n subjects, and 
found to be complete. Among other valu- 
able series is one which has a very practical 
interest for teachers, namely, that entitled 
' Idola Pulpitorum,' illustrating the pitfalls 
of the teachers of different subjects. This 
volume takes the series from No. III. to 
No. XL, including English, French, Science, 
Nature Study, History, Physical Training, 
Drawing, Domestic Science, and Geometry. 
The Journal of Education, which Mr. F. 
Storr has so long and so ably edited, is too 
well known as a trustworthy and representa- 
tive educational organ to need further 
notice. 

FOR SCHOOLS AND STUDENTS. 

A series of small and prettily printed 
books in French was announced a year or 
two ago by Mr. Dent under the title " Les 
Classiques Francais, publics sous la direction 
de M. Daniel S. O'Connor." Several 
volumes, on the whole well chosen, have 
appeared. We now receive from Messrs. 
Bell & Co. the first volume of a new series, 
entitled " Les Classiques Francais Dlustres, 
publies sous la direction de Darnel O'Connor. 
The similarity of titles is likely to be con- 
fusing, and it should be pointed out that 
the books differ much in size and appearance 
the former being small and dainty, and of 
the size to accommodate ' Adolphe,' while 
the latter are large volumes, with illustrations 
which might easily have been more intrusive 
upon the text, the first volume being one 
of the masterpieces of George Sand, Les 
Maitres Sonneurs. It is preceded by an 
unimportant preface by M. Faguet ; and 
' La Mare au Diable ' and ' Les Chouans 
are announced for immediate publication. 
It is a little difficult to seo the aim or inten- 
tion of a series in which the ' Dominique 
of Fromentin _ the only novel t\ . Are the 
volumes to bo bought for their illustrations ? 
The type, certainly, of this five-shilling 
book is better than that of the 3fr. 60 
French original, and it lias gaudily gilt 
covers, which may plor - the English eye. 
But why French novels ould be presented 
to us in the form of gift-books is not clear. 



Another series which is wholly commend- 
able in aim, and on the whole excellently 
carried out, is that of M. Delbos, the ' Oxford 
Higher French Series" (Clarendon Press). 
Each volume contains a carefully edited 
text, with introduction and notes, sometimes 
written in English, sometimes in French. 
The three new volumes contain a selection 
of the poems of Auguste Barbier, a selec- 
tion from ' La Legende des Siecles of 
Victor Hugo, and five of the finest short 
stories of Prosper Merimee. The last, 
which is edited by Mr. J. E. Michell, is the 
most welcome and the most competently 
annotated. The Introduction is an admir- 
able piece of criticism. Hugo is represented 
at his greatest, in the poems chosen out ot 
the whole series of the ' Legende des Siecles ; 
and Auguste Barbier is brought clearly 
before us in the poems selected from the 
'Iambes,' 'II Pianto,' and ' Lazare. 
Barbier is little known in England, though 
one of his books is entirely devoted to the 
miseries of London. His work is that of a 
humanitarian rather than that of a poet, 
and its vigour carries it beyond the limits 
of true art. When he succeeds, he succeeds, 
as Baudelaire said of him, in spite of himself, 
the genuine poetic impulse breaking through 
"lesouci perpetuel et exclusif d'exprimer 
des pensees honnetes ou utiles." 

Poesies choisies de Andre Chenier. Edited 
by Jules Derocquigny.-Poc.sies choisies 
de Francois Coppee. Edited by Leon Delbos. 
(Oxford, Clarendon Press.)— The idea and 
general outline of the "Oxford Higher 
French Series," edited by M. Leon Delbos, 
are equally admirable and original. One 
of the volumes, Stendhal's ' Racine et 
Shakspeare,' has long been out of print in 
France, and few books of French criticism 
more deserve to be made accessible lo 
find Flaubert's ' Salammbo ' as a school- 
book is as reasonable as it is surprising, 
and one of the volumes last issued, ' Poesies 
choisies de Andre Chenier,' can hardly 
fail to do something to acquaint English 
readers with one of the rarest French poets, 
who is certainly no better known in England 
than Keats is" known in France. Chenier 
has been defined as the last of the Classics 
and as the first of the Romantics; in a 
sense, he is both. " La facture de son 
vers " Leconte de Lisle said of him not less 
than sixty years ago, "la coupe de sa 
phrase pittoresque et energique, ont tait 
de ses poemes une ceuvre nouvelleetsavante 
d'une melodie entierement ignoree, dun 
eclat inattendu." He reminds us at times 
of Landor, at times of Catullus ; he warms 
the frigidities of his period with a new flame 
of life Hugo found in his style something 
" incorrect, parfois barbare," and welcomed 
it The last of the Parnassians, Heredia, 
spent his later years in the preparation— 
never brought to an end— of an edition of 
the ' Bucoliques,' which he loved with the 
fervour of a craftsman recognizing a crafts- 
man. And now Chenier exists, incon- 
testable and uncontested, a Vigny before 

his time. ,. . 

M Derocquigny's selection from the scat- 
tered and often unfinished poems of Chenier 
is done with skill and taste, and his notes 
are brief and to the point, concerned with 
just those difficulites which really exist in 
the text A better editor could not have 
been found, and M. Delbos, it is evident, 
ohoosea both his books and his editors with 

discretion. . 

For his personal work there is less to be 
said To turn from Chenier to Coppee 
is a little disheartening, especially when 
we are told that the author of ' Les Humbles 
occupies a place winch is "une des plus 
distingueea parmi lea grands poetes du 
XIX" siecle." M. Coppee is among the 



I 



T II K AT II KX.K T M 



No. 



4186, Jan. 



18, L908 



• »i»it- writers "i <• • rM : 1)'" has ft wide 
audi. -II-. •. more or less like tluit of Long- 

fellow in England or America ; and then- 

would be no great harm in putting ft selection 
of iii, h.'st pieces into the hands of young 
Btadenta of [Trench. But it ■ positively 
harmful to assure these students that a 
ond-ratoe poet is ■ poet of the highest 
rank. Nor is M. Delbos more certain m 
his prosody than in liis literary judgment. 

" Verse incorrectly read," as he justly 
azures us. " loses at once its rhythm, and 
is no longer poetry " ; and he confirms his 
statement by telling us to accentuate the 
Bret part of the line 

I) uis one . liuiilne oil 111:1 f.intaisie t/touffiit 

after this manner : — 

I Vim— u — ne— cham— bre — oil, 

" thus making," as he says, "six syllables," 
but, as he does not see, leaving seven 
syllables to be accounted for in the second 
half of the line of twelve. 

Victor Hugo's Selected Poems. Edited 
by H. W. Eve. (Cambridge, University 
Press. ) — This selection is intended to smooth 
the many difficulties presented to English 
schoolboys by modern French poetry. 
Not the least attractive feature of the book 
is the rich variety of subjects with which 
the poems deal, though naturally history 
claims the first place. The well-known 
plan of the " Pitt Press Series " is adopted, 
the Introduction containing an account 
of the life and literary work of Hugo, while 
the notes, both historical and critical, are 
not too long to be useful. 

Elegeia : Passages for Latin Elegiac Verse. 
By C. H. St. L. Russell. (Macmillan & Co.) 
— Mr. Russell, who is known as a good writer 
of Latin verse, here offers a manual of elegiac 
verse composition which seems to us some- 
what better than any similar book at present 
on the market. It contains about 50 pages 
of hints on composition, divided under 
158 headings ; then follow 140 pages of 
passages for translation, with some attempt 
at gradation, at any rate at the beginning 
and the end ; and finally 100 pages of an 
excellent English-Latin gradus. The whole 
gives abundant evidence that the writer 
is an experienced and skilful teacher of the 
subject. We agree entirely with him that 
the next stage after " nonsense verses " 
should be the translation of real English 
verse. This at first need not be of a high 
order, and should be in small instalments ; 
but the teaching should centre round the 
application of some twenty or thirty obvious 
artifices consciously adopted by such Latin 
poets as Ovid. The first ten exercises — 
in which the pupil is set to expand into 
couplets such ideas as " The sun rises, 
Night departs," " The woods grow dark, 
The sun sinks," " The winds blow, The waves 
rage," &c. — are just the thing. There 
might with advantage have been more of 
them. Coming to the section on hints, 
we find here all the " dodges " with which 
several Latin verse books have made us 
familiar ; but they are well stated and 
exemplified, and the right things are empha- 
sized. Some points we do not remember 
to have seen embodied in such hints before, 
and the few cautions given on the treatment 
of metaphor are judicious. Mr. Russell 
knows thoroughly well where young verse- 
writers go wrong, as, for instance, the mis- 
placing of que, and the mingling of two 
co-ordinate clauses. On p. 47, where he 
writes about a molossus " in the fifth foot, 
and last half of the fourth," he intends to 
say the fourth and latter half of the third. 

But in spite of these favourable points, 
we think that a really good teaching book 
on Latin elegiacs is yet to be written. We 
desiderate first a definite method, and second, 



mors knowledge of tin- actual usage of tin- 
Latin elegiac poets. The first i^ She mow 
important matter. Here we have 168 sec- 
tions of hints, and of course in the p,i 

there are references to these hint-. I'.ut 

one piece refers to section <i, the next to 119. 
What teachers really want is an arrangement 
(as logical as circumstances will permit) 

of such hints under some fifteen to twenty 

comprehensive bondings, and then passages 

arranged so that one or two points at a 
time shall be steadily and persistently 
driven home. Mr. Russell must be aware 
how few of these principles that he has 
clearly stated can be grasped by a boy 
in a term, or even in a year. The constant 
turning over of these fifty pages to find 
the right hint will not, we are confident, 
prove such a good method as the selection 
for a term's work of some dozen points 
to be got home, and the adaptation of small 
pieces of English verse to the teaching of 
these points. 

The second matter concerns the teacher, 
perhaps, more than the taught, for in looking 
over composition how many doubts teachers 
are liable to as to what is the usage of Ovid 
or Propertius in such or such a matter ! 
There is not enough certainty in English 
scholarship on such points of usage, and un- 
doubtedly there is an opening here for a 
useful piece of work. Mr. Russell himself 
suffers from this. In section 59 he touches 
very lightly on the subject of poetic plurals, 
merely stating that we must go cautiously : 
" Thus, while pectora may stand for 'pectus,' 
corda may not, I think, be put for ' cor.' " 
Now there are some 150 poetic plurals 
available for elegiac verse, and a list of 
50 or 60 of the more common would have 
been very useful at this point. Nor can 
we agree with Mr. Russell's acceptance of 
pectora and rejection of corda. The facts 
as to corda are that while Catullus uses only 
the singular, Virgil and Ovid use the plural 
in a singular sense. For Virgil Mr. Russell 
may be referred to Maas, 538 sq.; for Ovid, 
to ' Tristia,' III. ii. 16, cegra corda, where 
he is referring to himself ; and 168, perfida 
corda, where he is referring to his enemy. 
He rarely uses the singular, except to secure 
a short syllable before a vowel, as in P., I. iii. 
32, molle cor (vowel). We give only one in- 
stance out of many to show the need of 
certainty on numerous points of elegiac 
usage. However, if Mr. Russell has not 
risen much above the level of existing 
manuals on Latin elegiac verse, we ought 
not to complain, but rather to congratulate 
him on making some appreciable advance. 

An Introduction to Latin Prose, by G. W. 
Mitchell (Toronto, the Macmillan Company ; 
London, Macmillan), is a useful little book, 
well graduated and arranged. 

Chaucer's Canterbury Talcs : The Nun's 
Priest's Tale. Edited by Alfred W. Pollard. 
(Macmillan.) — In his otherwise extremely 
able Introduction to this excellent edition 
of the tale of Chauntecleer and Pertelote, 
Mr. Pollard, we think, strives unnecessarily 
to refute what he conceives to be the views 
of Tyrwhitt and Ten Brink as to its borrowed 
origin. So far as we remember, neither of 
those scholars has asserted or implied that 
Chaucer was in this case " writing with 
books in front of him" seeing that the former 
only says that the Tale is " clearly borrowed 
from a collection of ^Esopean and other 
fables by Marie, a French poetess," while 
the latter considers it evidently in connexion 
with the ' Roman de Renart ' — statements 
not incompatible respectively with the 
contention here put forward, that the poet 
was drawing from memory. In any case 
the germ of the tale may be said to have 
been borrowed without belittling Chaucer's 



memory. Mr. Pollard bases hi on 

tin- RUcamsr c US. with oertain alterasi 
and Us notes arc adequate and use f u l when- 

points of language or allusi. I : .// 

the unlearnt id ; i -ut > apt to discourse 

concerning matters which should be evident 

to any reader of intelligence, as in the note 
on "and hcrtOS sufhsaunce " (1. 1029 . 
which begins, " It is wonderful how these 
words light u]) their context." I )r. .1 
Payne contrihutes a brief appendix on 
subject of Dame Pertelote'B comments on 
the drcftin of her spouse, dealing with I 
"Four Humours" and their remedies; 
while a second appendix gives the sources 
of the dream stories that occur in the Tale. 
There are also some brief examples of 
Chaucer's grammar, and a full Glossary. 

The Groundwork of English History. 
M. E. Carter. (Clive.) — Candidates at the 
London University Matriculation Examina- 
tion are required to show in their English 
paper a knowledge of " the salient tacts 
of English history." The compiler of the 
volume before us has exercised much judg- 
ment in her selection of what she de> 
to be the salient facts ; but as to whether 
the London examiners would be satisfied 
with the somewhat meagre history here 
recorded we have grave doubts. 

English Composition and Essay Writing, 
by W. S. Thomson, has reached a seventh 
edition (Simpkin & Marshall), which is 
enlarged and revised. Mr. Thomson gives 
specimen essays, and deals with errors in 
style, construction, and language. The 
wealth of examples from well-known modern 
writers affords much interesting matter. 
We should say that the book was excellent 
for examination purposes, but we cannot 
regard it as a guide to the best English. 
When Mr. Thomson remarks that the word 
" folk-lore is now fairly re-established," he 
•seems to regard it as an old word, whereas 
it was the excellent invention of Thorns, the 
first editor of Notes and Queries. As an 
example of foreign words used " when native 
words may be found to express the same 
meaning," Mr. Thomson includes: "Her 
conduct was very outre {sic.) and bizarre 
(gushing and vulgar)," and " You are almost 
as necessary to her as her dachshunds 
(badger-pups)." These definitions seem to 
us wildly wrong, while others are certainly 
deficient. 

Prof. Earle W. Dow has prepared an 
Atlas of European History (Bell), which 
should be an excellent guide to the learner 
of history. The range of the book is wide, 
the thirty-two maps beginning with ' The 
Ancient Eastern Empires,' and ending with 
' Contemporary Europe.' 

In The Elements of the Geometry of the Con ic. 
by G. H. Bryan and R. H. Pinkerton 
(Dent & Co.), the properties of the conic 
are treated as completely as is possible 
without the introduction of analytical 
geometry, and the authors have laid special 
stress on those parts of the subject that are 
requisite for success in higher mathematics 
and physics. A new feature in an elementary 
textbook is the chapter dealing " with 
certain curves occurring in applied mathe- 
matics," wherein the student will find 
presented with commendable simplicity 
the properties of the catenary, cycloid, 
cardioid, &c. Much instruction is condensed 
in small compass, while all the proofs are 
short and lucid. 



OUR LIBRARY TABLE. 

The Social Fetich. By Lady Grove. 
(Smith, Elder & Co.)— Vulgarity, it has 
been wisely and wittily said, is the behaviour 
of other people. This book is an indict- 



No. 4186, Jan. 18, 1908 



THE ATHENAEUM 



73 



ment of some of the defects of speech and 
faults of manner of the " other people." 
How seriously the author takes her own 
warnings, reproofs, and counsel, or how 
seriously her readers will take them, who 
can tell ? To speak well, pronounce cor- 
rectly, and behave pleasingly seems to 
some of us an inherited and uncon- 
scious instinct, the only true guides to its 
attainment being time and good associa- 
tions. But there is a kind of person who, 
strives in all good faith and hope to follow 
the ways of the " best people," as Thackeray 
called them. If the imitators of ideals 
to which they were not born have innocently 
joyed in the possession, the beauty, or the 
utility of such objects as tea-cosies, napkin r 
rings, knife-rests, &c, they are now publicly 
convicted of sin. Such things are formally 
declared " beyond the pale." Cosy-corners 
are probably implicitly, though not actually, 
condemned. To the earnest student diffi- 
culties are presented. How, for instance, 
in common family life, can his own napkins 
be known to the aspirant after better things 
any more than the lover minus his cockle 
hat and shoon in the old song ? And the 
detested knife-rest, must this support go 
too ? It is a mainstay in many worthy 
German households, and for those who, 
in our own country, have to carve, not 
only their own fortunes, but also their 
own dinners. Such counsels of perfection 
are not for the first comer. Why dazzle, 
or sadden, the " other people " by revela- 
tions of the enormous differences in human 
destinies ? Let these be taken for granted, 
nor too closely examined. 

The most captious reader cannot, how- 
ever, fail to agree with some of the judg- 
ments on pronunciation of words. To pro- 
nounce not perfectly, but fairly, is an ideal 
within the reach of most educated and 
observant men and women. The current 
pronunciation of many words is justly 
condemned. And others not mentioned, 
but heard in unexpected places — such as 
" year " for ear, " a tome " for at home, 
" reconise," and so forth — rise unbidden 
to one's mind. The author fears that 
certain commercial terms may be creeping 
into " the home " ; but some of those cited 
are too much the exclusive property of the 
shop-walker to be dreaded. One might 
as well expect to be wounded in the house 
of a friend by the mention of an " occasional 
chair " or a " sample of merv " as " hose," 
" couches," or " mantles." They belong to 
the counter, and one hopes they will stay 
there. A great many other modern in- 
stances of faulty expressions and faulty 
manners are given. The example on p. 32 
relating to a common grammatical mistake 
is not a case in point. 

The book contains many well-known 
stories. One at least is rendered unfamiliar 
by the telling. But that is often so ; the 
best-known stories have the most variations 
on the main theme. One prefers the 
original context and telling. Though on 
general grounds the use of social utterances 
may bo questioned, spoken discussion is 
not always unpleasant. It often enough 
raises an amusing and interesting point, 
and the conversation can be directed into 
another channel should it grow tedious or 
annoying. In black and white it has 
a too authoritative and portentous air. 
" Glissez, mortels ; n'appuyez pas," may 
be quoted as germane to the subject, though 
the present volume has not been much 
influenced by it. 

Mr. Owen Wister's The Seven Ages of 
Washington (Macmillan) forms a pretty 
volume, possessing obvious merits, but open 
to criticism if considered, to use the author's 
words, as " a full-length portrait of Washing- 



ton, with enough of his times to see him 
clearly against." The short list of 
" authorities " modestly described in the 
Preface as " noted in a table at the end," 
but there erroneously magnified into 
' Bibliography,' shows a narrow field of 
reading. Yet this is no sufficient explana- 
tion of shortcoming, for " his own writings 
are the material." A better " portrait " 
could have been drawn by the use only of 
the letters. Sir George Trevelyan's third 
volume (noticed in The Athenceum of 
November 2nd last) contains, indeed, as it 
were by chance, a perfect account of the 
character and military life of Washington. 
The Briton is less fair to the British than 
is our American author. He is, however, 
more just towards the French. Mr. Wister 
gives all his energy to the demolition of 
Jefferson, and puts Lafayette in the back- 
ground, while he omits Guizot from the 
' Bibliography.' Washington was at one 
time ridiculed by a section of the American 
people as " the idol." Lafayette, to whom 
the same term was applied in France in 
the same fashion, has — unlike Washington — 
not regained his universally accepted fame 
of the days of the Valley Forge ; but no 
admirer of Washington should be chary of 
praise of the hero's adopted " son." 
Washington was right to be neutral 
between France and Britain in 1793, and 
to prepare to command the army of the 
United States against France four years 
later ; but the France of Lafayette saved 
the spirit or Washington in his dark hour. 

Studies in Primitive Greek Religion, by 
Rafael Karsten, is issued by J. Simelii Arf- 
vingars boktryckeriaktiebolag, Helsingfors. 
The writer of this pamphlet — for it is 
hardly more — is a Finnish scholar already 
known to the world as the author of an 
academical dissertation entitled ' The Origin 
of Worship.' In his former work (which 
was something of a fragment) two ideas 
were given special prominence : firstly, that 
the religious sense is awakened by the 
mysterious or supernatural ; secondly, that 
primitive religion is inspired by fear rather 
than by love. These same two notions 
provide the pegs on which the present 
study is hung. The standpoint of a purely 
individual psychology is nowhere tran- 
scended. There is no perception of the pre- 
eminently social character of all religion. 
Such points as are made hold good only as 
against the mythological school, which dead 
horse Dr. Karsten flogs almost with 
brutality, stigmatizing as " futile " the work 
of we know not how many distinguished 
Germans. For us, too, the apostles of the 
sun-myth are wrong ; but we maintain 
that the study of myth must be subordinated 
to the study of ritual (as Robertson Smith 
pointed out long ago), not to the study of 
what some hypothetical savage-mind-in-the- 
abstract is likely to feel in the presence of a 
queer-shaped stock or stone. We do not 
deny that the^sense of the mysterious and 
the element of dread are forces, though by 
no means the sole forces, at work in early 
religion ; but they do not in themselves 
amount to religion, which consists in the 
social exploitation of sundry vague impulses 
that the process itself invests with the 
distinctively religious meaning and form. 
If, however, the exegetic value of the essay 
is not high, the collection of facts will be 
found useful, especially in their bearing 
on that fetichistic side of Greek religion 
which has been recently illustrated by Miss 
Jane Harrison, Dr. de Visser, and others. 
The book teems with misprints, but we 
must not be too hard on a Finnish writer 
publishing in English through a Finnish 
press. 



Russian and Bulgarian Folk-lore Stories. 
Translated by W. W. Strickland. (G. 
Standring.) — We are afraid that Mr. Strick- 
land's book of translations from Karel 
Erben is somewhat belated. He seems 
to forget the great strides which Slavonic 
folk-lore and folk-tales have made since 
the publication of Ralston's book. The 
best stories have been translated over and 
over again, and have appeared both in 
scientific and popular works. Collections 
have been issued with all the authority 
of Government publications, as in Bulgaria. 
The scanty details of Slavonic mythology 
have been carefully scrutinized. The plums 
of Erben's book were picked by the late Mr. 
Wratislaw, who published a pretty volume of 
the best tales. Mr. Strickland, unless we are 
greatly mistaken, does not mention Wratis- 
law's book, which appeared about twenty 
years ago. The tales are well translated 
in the present work, but we cannot always 
approve of the strong language used in the 
notes. Mr. Strickland seems to be nuining 
amok against institutions and individuals. 
The misprints are bad ; e.g., " bohumiles " 
for bogomiles, " Shember " (bis) for Sembera, 
and " Pater " for Patera, the scholar who 
detected the forgeries in the ' Mater Ver- 
borum ' codex. Erben's book was good 
for its time, but perhaps the preface, with 
his views of the Slavonic languages and 
dialects — we must be careful how we use 
the latter word — is somewhat out of date. 
We have now Vondrak's theories on the 
subject in the Introduction to his ' Old 
Slavonic Grammar.' 

How to Collect Postage Stamps. By 
Bertram T. K. Smith. (Bell & Sons.)— We 
suppose it is vain at this time of day to 
protest against the extravagances and 
absurdities involved in the mania for collect- 
ing. There is no doubt some interest to 
be obtained by the intelligent collection 
of stamps, and possibly they may prove 
of some use historically in other ages. But 
philatelists have long gone past moderation, 
and treat stamps as if they were of intrinsic 
value. The collection of things because 
they have different watermarks, or are in 
larger or smaller sets, or because their 
perforation consists of this number or that 
number of holes, proceeds, regardless of time 
and money. But if any one is anxious to 
learn the rules of an absurd game, this 
book by Mr. Bertram Smith is as good a 
handbook as we can conceive. 

Hustled History, by the authoi s of 'Wisdom 
while You Wait ' (Pitman), parodies some 
recent journalistic enterprise by a series of 
historical episodes in a modern setting. 
The hits seem to us for the most part both 
fair and witty, though they need an extensive 
knowledge of current journalism to be 
appreciated. The illustrations and comic 
advertisements are amusing, like the text. 
We do not always admire the taste of the 
authors, but to produce a hurdred pages 
of " topical " jests is a feat in itself. 

We have received the New Year issues 
of Whitaker's Almanack and Whitaker's 
Peerage, &c. (12, Warwick Lane), well- 
established annuals which need no com- 
mendation. 

The second volume of "The Humanist- 
Library," Erasmus against War, is a good 
specimen of the work of the Merrymount 
Press, Boston. The typo is one of the beat 
founts that we have seen, and the Introduc- 
tion by Prof. Mackail is both attractive and 
informing, a graceful piece of prose, and a 
worthy compliment to the Tudor translator. 
Erasmus is, wo fear, beyond most modern 
readers, but wo hopo this fragment of his 
thought may induce some classical BOholars 
at least to turn to his excellent Latin. 



74 



T II K AT II I. N .K I'M 



NO. 4180, -Ian. 18, I 



ROBERT ATKINSON. 

'I'm: Fates ur.' gainst Trinity College, 
Dublin. Her great men are bemg swept 
away, mostly before their tunc, and the 

Epigoni arc o! no like promise. Salmon, 

George FitzGereld, Charfaa July, arc gone] 
Bury and Robert Bell have emigrated ; and 
now Roberl Atkinson has been taken from 

lis, if DOt in his prime, at least at an age 

beyond which many have been able to add 

ten yean be their life's record. He was a 
man' such as Universities, and they only, 
oan breed and foster — men whose chief 
glory is their vast and accurate knowledge 
and their sound and attractive teaching — 
men who often despise speaking to the 
public beyond their own classes and 
colleagues. As a linguist Atkinson bad 
hardly any rival. He taugbt with equal 
success Sanskrit, Tamil, Telegu, most of 
the Romance languages, and was moreover 
an adept in Russian, Coptic, and mediaeval 
Irisb ; while recently he had been devoting 
his leisure to Chinese. This catalogue 
sounds like romancing. It is notbing of 
the kind. All that he professed to teach, 
he taugbt with amazing accuracy and 
thoroughness. His pupils in Oriental 
languages, now among the highest officials 
in the India Civil Service, all remember 
with lifelong gratitude his incomparable 
gifts of imparting his knowledge and 
stimulating his pupils. They remained his 
attached friends for life. His pupils in 
French have a similar story to tell. Though 
he came from Yorkshire, he was one of 
those peculiar men whom Trinity College, 
Dublin, trains, or acquires — who are 
specialists in several subjects, and masters 
in them all. He published with elaborate 
glossaries more than one of the old Irish 
MSS. in the Royal Irish Academy, of 
which he became President — the most 
dignified post that a man of learning 
can hold in Ireland, for it has never yet 
been made a prize for politicians, and no 
illiterate man has ever yet been appointed 
to it. His Irish work of course called 
forth criticism. That field of learning 
seems to have the peculiar quality of the 
dragon's teeth in the Greek fable. But he 
never condescended to defend himself, 
knowing that in pioneer's work flaws are 
inevitable, and confident in the honesty and 
usefulness of his labour. Twice only in his 
life his chronic hatred of incompetence 
burst into open flame at seeing men edit 
books which they could not read in the 
MS. before them, and on both occasions 
his critique was never to be forgotten. 
The first case was that of an old French 
* Vie de St. Aubain,' the second that of a 
Coptic homily produced from the French 
school at Cairo. 

The withering censure of these articles 
contributed not a little to the revulsion of 
the feeling with which his College was 
regarded in England, passing, as it has done, 
from good-humoured contempt to respectful 
commendation. The little men at Oxford and 
Cambridge (and there are some) came to see 
that here lay a dangerous volcano, whose 
eruption might make havoc of their preten- 
sions. But possibly he caused the College to 
be as much overrated now as it was under- 
rated of old, for he was a unique specimen, 
and the knowledge he showed of old French 
and of Coptic was indeed a solitary light. On 
these two remarkable papers — one published 
in Hermathcna, the other in the Proceedings 
of his Academy — his fame as a scholar 
stands secure. 

Gifted with a most attractive person- 
ality, a noble head adorned by a golden 
silky beard, with a figure lithe and athletic, 
delicate hands and feet, and in fact 



with every external stamp of refinement, 
in- was by nature a proud and reserved 

man. n«'t seeking general company, and oven 

on the occasion of the Dublin Tercentenary 
of 1802 standing aloof, and taking no part 
(as he should have dom | in the u Itivtttfl . 

for be represented his University both at 
Loyden (1873) and Berlin (1908) on like 

occasions. But to the few friends he had 
chosen, no man ever showed more unflinching 
loyalty and more continual kindness. 
When he came into any sympathetic com- 
pany, the torrent of his conversation 
astonished his hearers, and caused him to 
shine in the very way he often deprecated, 
for lie did not like talkers, unless they had 
good or great things to say. Yet his own 
conversation, up to the day of his death, 
never sank below this high level. During 
his last week he was discussing Bousset's 
• What is Religion ? ' with wonderful keen- 
ness and appreciation. All the political 
and social questions of the day caught his 
attention, though his body was wasting 
with a slow disease, the result of forty 
years' over-arduous work. Compelled last 
summer to resign his duties, and confined to 
his house and garden, he seemed still to have 
some time to love, and be loved by, those 
around him, when death came upon him 
suddenly, silently — the veiy euthanasia 
which he often hoped for as the happiest 
close for any well-spent life. Though ho 
was not seventy, his work was done ; his 
physical enjoyments were gone, but no 
weakness of body ever dimmed for one 
moment the brilliant " candle of the Lord " 
within him. Heu quanto melius est tut 
meminisse, quam cum aliis versari. 

J. P. Mahaffy. 



NOTES FROM PARIS. 

The news of Madame Marcelle Tinayre's 
" decoration," making her a " chevalier de 
la Legion d'Honneur," has met with ironical 
commentary from our journalists and the 
rivals of the novelist. " Feminists " have 
used her first exclamation of surprise in 
order to try to make us believe that she 
has refused the decoration. They have 
misrepresented a mere " movement " of 
feminine modesty as a sign of refusal. If, 
in her witty letter to the editor of Le Temps, 
Madame Marcelle Tinayre has declared that 
she will not wear the ribbon, it is merely 
because she dislikes ostentation. She begs 
me even to tell you that, on the contrary, 
she feels highly honoured at receiving a 
favour which the French still hold in esteem, 
especially for women, as there are so few 
who possess this distinction. It seems sweet 
to her at thirty-five to have her literary 
career crowned with laurels in her own 
country. She passed through a painful 
early period, for hardly ten years ago she 
was obliged to accept a halfpenny a line for 
her stories in magazines. Naturally, what- 
ever people may say, she feels a legitimate 
pride in receiving a coveted reward. 
She will not wear the badge, for reasons of 
discretion which many Parisians cannot 
understand, but which will be clear to your 
readers. 

Two books by Madame Marcelle Tinayre 
will soon appear: ' L' Amour qui pleure' 
and ' L' Ombre de 1' Amour.' The former 
contains four long stories — among them 
' Robert Marie,' published in the Revue de 
Paris, and ' La Consolatrice,' published in 
V Illustration. ' L' Ombre de 1 Amour ' will 
be finished at an early date, and will appear 
immediately in the Revue de Paris. I 
predict for it success, as it belongs to the 
same series as the * Maison du Peche.' It 
is a book of fine and tender psychology, the 



philosophy of which b contained meshnpei 
"case of oonseienee.* < Haas the author 
on ■ ai tin • ■• ■ lot i'. n of pity in woman — 

pity essentially Christian, born of martyr- 
dom. Jiy the morbid attraction . :' -ill:--:. 

pity changes into love, thus confirm 
English adage, " Pity is akin to 1< Thai 

love makes a mother for. ibec duty to 

herself and her children. Where pity ends, 
and love begins, is what Madame MarcHe 
Tinaj re trie- to show in b< r delightful pa| 
not the least cliarrn of which will be the 
view of the pea«ant manners and customs 
of her beloved Correze. 

C. G. 



THE INCORPORATED ASSOCIATION 
OF HEAD MASTERS. 

The Incorporated Association of Head 
Masters held its annual general meeting 
at the Guildhall on Thursday and Friday 
in last week. There was a good attendance 
of head masters from all parts of the country, 
the North of England being particularly 
well represented. 

Mr. R. Cary Gilson (Birmingham) in hia 
presidential address asked whether the 
public realized the extraordinary din in 
which schoolmasters were trying to work 
at the present time. It was exaggerated 
and competitive emphasis — the result of 
a multitude of counsellors all speaking 
at once — that did so much to darken eoun- ! 
All this noise reminded him of a story told 
of a temporary master at Rugby, as to whose 
h's the boys professed considerable doubt. 
This master once called upon a boy named 
Hall, and was surprised to find the whole 
form rising and construing vociferously. 
He was far from saying that the whole of 
this racket, the like of which had never 
been heard in England, was mere sound 
and fury, signifying nothing ; but he pro- 
tested against the amount of the noise, 
and the key in which much of it was 
pitched. On the whole, however, he was 
sanguine of the emergence of common 
sense. As to the problem of public control, 
if that should prove insoluble, it would 
indeed be time to despair of the republic, 
for it was on success in the solution of such 
difficulties that our national reputation 
as a self-governing people was built. With 
regard to curriculum, to " smiling, pass 
the question by " was the proper and only 
possible course to adopt with nine-tenths 
of the things they were asked to do or not 
to do ; but the remaining one-tenth must 
be disentangled, put in shape, and tried, 
not in the debating society, but in the school. 
Was it possible to feel satisfied that, with 
all our machinery, expenditure, and hard 
work, we were producing the right results 
on the right boys ? Suppose a shrewd 
Englishman of a past generation, with no 
special views on education, but with a keen 
interest in the welfare of his country, were 
to revisit us, he would see an alteration 
in the view taken by the majority of parents 
of the nature and extent of their obligations 
to the rising generation. It was not till 
the upper middle class was reached that 
there was to be seen any realization of the 
duty of parents to give their children a 
start in some definite profession or occupa- 
tion. The tendency to put the whole 
responsibility for the children's future on 
the State was a deplorably bad and alarming 
sign of the times. Scholarships were too 
numerous. The true object was to appo- 
int ensive culture to the soil which would 
repay it. He was democratic enough to 
wish to see the right son of the collier or 
chimney-sweep sent to Eton and Oxford, 
and into Parliament at twenty-three ; 
but he could not help recognizing that the 



No. 4186, Jan. 18, 1908 



THE ATHENAEUM 



75 



present system did very little in this direc- 
tion, while it turned innumerable good 
artisans and domestic servants into very 
inferior and wretchedly paid clerks. That 
was the problem to which he would like to 
direct some of the discussion which was 
at present devoted to details of curriculum 
and fantastic proposals about hygiene. 

A vote of thanks to Dr. Rendall (Charter- 
house) for his services as President during 
1907 having been passed, the revised 
Secondary School regulations of the Board 
of Education were considered. On the 
motion of Mr. Chambers (Lincoln), whose 
speech, however, dealt with the general 
question of modern tendencies in education, 
it was resolved 

" That this Association welcomes the new regula- 
tions for Secondary Schools, so far as they remove 
restrictions and limitations which have been found 
detrimental to educational progress under the 
previous regulations." 

The Rev. W. Madeley (Woodbridge) said 
that if it was desired by the Board of Educa- 
tion to revolutionize the whole character 
of Secondary education, their proposals 
should have been submitted to Parliament 
and have received legislative sanction. 
The differentiation of grants was a financial 
screw, and schools were faced with the 
alternatives of sacrificing their independence 
or involving themselves in hopeless financial 
difficulties. He therefore moved, and it 
was carried, that this Association " depre- 
cates the employment of financial pressure 
as a substitute for legislation." 

It was further resolved — 

" (a) That care should be taken to prevent the 
use of these regulations as a means to transform the 
constitution and character of Secondary Schools 
already established under schemes. 

" {b) That in schools established under schemes 
the composition and rights of Governing Bodies 
should be carefully safeguarded in respect of regula- 
tions issued from time to time by the Board of 
Education, and of action taken by Local Education 
Authorities. 

" (c) That it is inexpedient to lay down a fixed 
general rule as to the proportion of free places that 
should be reserved for pupils from elementary 
schools, and that free places in public Secondary 
Schools hitherto reserved for pupils from public 
elementary schools should be open to all duly quali- 
fied candidates, irrespective of the place of their 
previous education. 

" (d) That in estimating the percentage of free 
places, only the number of day-boys admitted 
should be taken into account, and that schools 
largely or wholly dependent upon boarders should 
not be placed on the same footing as schools of a 
more purely local character." 

On the last section, which was moved 
by Dr. Rendall (Charterhouse), there was 
considerable discussion. Dr. Upcott 
(Christ's Hospital) objected to it on the 
ground that it appeared to him to make 
an invidious distinction between the presence 
of the elementary-school boy in a day-school 
and in a boarding-school. After a long 
experience he could say, " Do not be afraid 
of the public-elementary-school boy in your 
boarding-schools." Dr. McClure (Mill Hill), 
however, pointed out that the object of 
the motion had been misunderstood. It 
was intended to safeguard the finances of 
schools composed partly of day-boys and 
partly of boarders from a distance. 

On the motion of Mr. Vaughan (Giggles- 
wick) it was agreed 

"That, having regard to the case of Wright v. 
Zetland, this Association approves of the action of 
the Council in the appointment of a Committee to 
consider with a similar Committee of the Incor- 
porated Association of Assistant Masters tho best 
means of giving to assistant masters a more secure 
tenure of office." 

After the Board of Education had, on 
the motion of Canon Swallow (Chigwell), 



been thanked for its readiness to deal with 
the question of the unification of statistics 
required from head masters by the Board 
of Education, and by Local Education 
Authorities, the reports of the various 
committees were received. The only one 
which provoked discussion was that of the 
Military Training Committee, the rejection 
of which was moved by Dr. Bevan Lean 
(Sidcot), on the ground that while military 
training might or might not have a place 
at a later age, the most suitable physical 
culture for young boys lay on other lines. 
The motion, however, was lost by a large 
majority. 

The proceedings of the first day terminated 
with the re-election of Canon Swallow and 
Dr. McClure as Hon. Secretaries, and of 
Mr. W. G. Rushbrooke (St. Olave's) as Hon. 
Treasurer. 

The second sitting opened with a lively 
debate on ' The Registration of Teachers,' 
which was somewhat remarkable for the 
unanimity with which Column B of the 
old Register was condemned. After Dr. 
McClure (Mill Hill) had explained the present 
position, the Rev. W. Madeley (Woodbridge) 
moved 

" That in the opinion of this Association the pos- 
session of the degree of some recognized University, 
or in the case of women only its equivalent, or in 
the case of teachers of modern languages, music, 
and art, some similar diploma, should be made a 
condition of admission to the Register of Teachers." 

The Register was, he urged, of the first 
importance in obtaining due recognition 
for the teaching profession. If no high 
qualification, however, were imposed, the 
mere fact that a man was a registered 
teacher would carry no weight. 

Mr. Hinton (Hampstead) maintained that 
qualification of a degree was too rigid. It 
was possible that a highly qualified teacher 
might just have failed to get one. He 
moved, as an amendment, the substitu- 
tion of "or other approved evidence of 
general efficiency " for "or in the case of 
women only its equivalent." 

Dr. Gow (Westminster) moved to add 
to Mr. Madeley 's resolution the following 
words : — 

" Provided always that the Registration Council 
shall within twelve months after their first meeting 
have power at their discretion to add to the Register 
persons who are not qualified for registration under 
the conditions above named." 

He referred especially to the number of 
elementary teachers who were, in respect 
of character and qualification, entitled to 
get on the Register, though they possessed 
no degrees. 

Dr. McClure informed the Association 
that the National Union of Teachers were 
entirely in favour of a high qualification 
for admission to the Register. 

An amendment was moved by Dr. Bevan 
Lean (Sidcot) that a University diploma 
in education should be regarded as an 
alternative to a degree as a condition of 
registration. This was, however, rejected, 
on the ground that the policy of the Asso- 
ciation was to insist upon training in the 
theory and art of teaching in addition to, 
and not in substitution for, a degree. 

Mr. Hinton's amendment also was re- 
jected, and Mr. Madeley's resolution, with 
Dr. Gow's addition, was ultimately carried. 

In the absence of Mr. J. L. Paton (Man- 
chester), Dr. Lancelot (Liverpool) moved, 
and it was carried, 

"That in tho opinion of this Association it is 
time that a common understanding between the 
University of London and tho Northern Univer- 
sities and tho University of Birmingham bo arrived 
at as to mutual recognition of matriculation certifi- 
cates on terms of equivalence." 

An amendment substituting " tho Univer- 



sities of the United Kingdom " for the 
Universities named above was rejected 
as impracticable. 

The discussion then turned on specialist 
masters. The Rev. C. J. Smith (Hammer- 
smith) complained that the Board of Educa- 
tion were showing a tendency to insist upon 
an undue proportion of specialist teachers. 
The great work of schools was the shaping 
of character, and the form master was much 
more valuable than the specialist master. 
Other speakers maintained that the employ- 
ment of specialist teachers was not detri- 
mental to the formation of character. Mr. 
R. W. Jones (Pengam) said the specialist 
could also be a form master, and it was in 
the combination of the two that the hope 
for the future lay. The following resolution 
was finally agreed to : — 

' ' That in the opinion of this Association the 
recent tendency of the Board of Education to urge 
the employment of a greatly increased proportion 
of specialist teachers throughout the schools is not 
beneficial to the best interests of scholars in 
Secondary Schools." 

On the motion of Mr. Kahn (Camden), 
Local Education Authorities were urged 
to adopt the bursary system in the training 
of elementary teachers, in preference to 
the pupil-teacher system ; and, on the 
motion of Mr. Hitchcock (Southend), to 
insist on a year's work as student-teachers 
before entry into a training college. 

A motion to the effect that the metric 
system should be definitely introduced into 
Secondary Schools was lost. The proceed- 
ings terminated with the adoption of resolu- 
tions with regard to medical inspection, 
the superannuation of teachers, and the 
formation of a benevolent fund. 



ASSISTANT MASTERS IN 
SECONDARY SCHOOLS. 

Representatives of all the leading 
schools in the country attended the annual 
meetings of the Incorporated Association 
of Assistant Masters, which, by the kind- 
ness of the Head Master and Governors 
of Merchant Taylors' School, were held 
on the 8th inst. and two following days 
at Charterhouse Square, under the presi- 
dency of Mr. R, F. Cholmeley (St. Paul's), 
Chairman of the Association for the current 
year. 

The Annual Report of the Association 
proves how great has been the activity 
of the various committees during the past 
year, and records continued increase of 
membership. New branches have been 
formed, a Benevolent Fund scheme has 
been sanctioned by the Council ; special 
advantages for life assurance have been 
secured for members ; and educational 
inquiries and discussions have been con- 
ducted with success by several of the 
branches. Interest has been awakened 
by the result of the legal decisions concerning 
the Richmond School case, by fighting which 
the Association has roused the Board of 
Education to the conviction that some 
action is now imperative to secure assistant 
masters against the risk of summary dis- 
missal without cause assigned. 

Mr. A. A. Somerville (Eton), tho retiring 
Chairman, in moving tho adoption of tin- 
Report, congratulated the members on the 
increased interest taken in the work of 
the Association, as shown by the fact that 
their membership now exceeded 2,000, 
one-third of this number coming from 
Conference schools. He referred with satis- 
faction to the success that had attend) -< I 
the efforts of the Membership Sub-Committee 
among tho Non-Conference schools. Ho 
appealed to all members to spare no effort 



76 



T II E AT II KN;EUM 



No. U86, -Ian. L8, 1908 



in strengthening the poaitioo of the Anndir 

tion and ^'iviii^ it u proper voice m i-duca- 
• a\ matt. 

On the question of tenure be said that 
the ('curt, of Appeal bad, by its dec 
in the oase of might ». Zetland, made it 

evident that the position of an assistant 
master in u Secondary School was BUCh 
as no efficient and self-reepeoting man could 
ibly aooept. The Board of Education 
in its RepOBt stated that it was carefully 
considering the matter, and the kindred 
associations of teachers were alive to the 
importance of a prompt and satisfactory 
settlement of the tenure question. The 
\--ociation must not rest satisfied until 
assistant masters were recognized as servants 
of the school, and not merely the private 
domestics of an individual. On the subject 
of the Teachers' Register, the speaker 
referred to the efforts made by the Federal 
Council to secure adequate representation 
of assistant masters in the new Registration 
Council, and to the great importance of 
unity amongst all members of the teaching 
profession. In connexion with the new 
Army Scheme, he appealed to assistant 
masters to take up with enthusiasm the 
duties required of them in the training 
of their boys in the elements of military 
defence, and concluded by thanking the 
officers of the Association for their services 
during the year. 

The Report having been adopted, Mr. 
T. E. Page (Charterhouse) moved : — 

" That in view of the intolerable position created 
by the judgment in the Richmond School case, 
whereby Secondary teachers are liable to instant 
dismissal, without appeal and without redress, the 
Board of Education should be called upon to 
promote legislation for the purpose of securing to 
teachers (a) reasonable notice in case of dismissal, 
or salary in lieu of notice ; (b) an appeal to some 
public authority before whom the dismissed teacher 
should have the right of urging his case, in person 
or by his representative." 

Primary teachers were, he said, treated 
with much sympathy by all members of 
Parliament, owing to the influence of votes 
at elections ; but small consideration had 
been given to teachers in Secondary Schools. 
The Association had acted wisely in fear- 
lessly prosecuting the appeal in the Rich- 
mond case. He could only hope that the 
expressed sympathy of the Board of Educa- 
tion would be followed by vigorous action. 
They claimed that, in return for the public 
service they were rendering, they should 
not be liable to summary dismissal " at 
pleasure," except for just cause, and that 
they should have the right to state their 
case before a proper tribunal. The welfare 
of education — that is, of the nation — 
demanded that these rights should be at 
once granted to assistant masters, otherwise 
men of intellect and sound character would 
certainly avoid the profession. Mr. C. H. 
Greene (Berkhamsted), in seconding the 
motion, claimed that it was the duty of 
the Government to step in and rectify 
matters. After a short discussion the pro- 
position was unanimously carried. 

Mr. G. H. Heath (Aske's), the retiring 
Treasurer, produced the annual statement 
of accounts, which was satisfactory, the 
expenses of the recent legal action having 
been covered by guarantee funds. 

Mr. W. A. Newsome (Stationers') spoke 
of the increasing and successful work of 
the Joint Agency, and urged members to 
advertise it among non-members. 

The following resolutions, which had been 
passed by the Council on the previous day, 
were submitted and approved : — 

"1. Sickness and Accident Insurance. — That 
the Essex and Suffolk Office be selected for an 
annual policy, and the Profits and Income Office 



for ■ ] mi tn.i iM-n t policy doo oanoeUsblc til) the age 
od M ; and that at, l<-a^t ohm In avecy year the 
attention of members ai thi ttion be drawn 

through the medinn of 'The A.M. A.' to the 
■pei ill advantage! offered by those ofl 

" •_'. Inspection and Examination <>t Sohools, — 
(1) Thai in order to command the oonfidanos "i 
assistant masters, it is nssontiinl that the inspectors 
and examiners appointed should have had oon< 
■iderable and successful experience as school- 
masters. 

" (2) That the inspections should be bo arranged 
as to allow an opportunity for quiet personal 
conversation between the inspector and the 
assistant master — not in the presence of the class, 
but when criticism can be candid, confidential, and 
sympathetic. 

" (3) That the suggestions of the inspector can 
be more freely offered and more freely considered 
if they are put forward in the first instance as 
recommendations only. 

"(4) That, when possible, it would be con- 
venient for the master to know at the beginning of 
the lesson whether the inspector wishes to be 
merely a spectator, or to intervene in the conduct 
of the lesson. 

" (5) That the inspector's formal report on the 
work of the staff should be placed in the hands of 
each master." 

The Rev. J. LI. Dove (Durham) in an 
earnest speech moved 

" That, the Territorial Army Bill having become 
law, it is the duty of every Secondary School to 
contribute to the supply of officers, and to this end 
assistant masters in such schools are called upon to 
work in every way possible. " 

Mr. Somerville seconded. After some dis- 
cussion the motion was carried, with the 
rider, 

"But this work should be considered as quite 
voluntary, and should not be imposed on assistant 
masters generally as one of the ordinary duties of 
the profession." 

The afternoon meeting was open to all 
teachers, and a large assembly gathered 
to hear Prof. M. E. Sadler read a paper, 
the subject of which was ' Should Secondary 
Teachers be Civil Servants ? ' The advan- 
tages and disadvantages that would accrue 
to teachers were lucidly set before the 
meeting. Among the former would be 
increased and reasonably progressive salaries 
with pensions, and consequently an in- 
creased supply of competent men teachers. 
This would bring enforced professional 
training, and would involve changes in 
the present tenure of assistant teachers. 
The unfair disproportion between the 
salaries of head masters and assistants 
would be removed. On the other hand, 
there would be serious disadvantages. There 
would be increased Government control 
of the inner working of a Secondary School, 
interfering with the necessary freedom 
of experiment and development. Schools 
would lose their individuality of character, 
and teachers would have their freedom 
of utterance and organization curtailed. 
There was the danger lest, in the conditions 
imposed for training of teachers, the intellec- 
tual side might be highly developed, and 
the other essential qualifications of the 
office neglected. The teaching profession 
was a quasi-public and quasi-private service, 
and the subordination of the individual, 
salutary in public administration, would 
be injurious to the moral influence of the 
teacher. In England special difficulties 
would arise in dealing with Primary teachers, 
women teachers, private schools, and the 
great Public Schools. Then University 
teachers would also have to be included. 
An estimate of 6,000,0007. per year was 
given as the sum required for Secondary 
teachers, but school fees would considerably 
reduce this amount. To sum up, he thought 
it would not be conducive to liigher education 



to make Secondary rvante, 

hut advocated niereased balance for both 
men and women, with Mali - Oi movement 

and penaiona. As a holution of • '.I'll 

of appeal, he huggested the formation of a 

email Committee of Appeal under 

pa ndenoy of a trustworthy lawyer, and 

composed Of four representatives of head 
masters, head mistresses, assistant matt. 
and assistant mistresses respectively. 
very existence of such a committee would 
prevent cases of unjust dismissal. Although 
he could not foresee an early solution 
all their problems, he encouraged the Asso- 
ciation to go forward in its work. 

A Bhort discussion followed the reading 
of the paper, for which a hearty vote 
thanks was passed to Prof. Sadler. 



THE MODERN LANGUAGE 

ASSOCIATION. 

At the meeting of the Modern Language 
Association held at Queen's College, London, 
last week the two most important topics 
discussed were the position of German in 
English schools and the right use of transla- 
tion in teaching foreign languages. The 
tale told by Mr. E. L. Milner-Bany about 
German was a lamentable one. The general 
opinion is that the language as a school 
subject is losing ground. Certainly the 
number of boys and girls who study it is 
remarkably small. Statistics collected by 
the Association show that, in 119 Secondary 
Schools from which figures have been 
obtained, only 3,224 pupils are taught 
German, while 16,668 are taught French ; 
and in 40 girls' schools only 765 girls are 
learning German, as against 5,291 learning 
French. The last Report of the Scotch 
Education Department states that the same 
tiling is happening in Scotland, and adds : 
" Inquiry shows that in England the phe- 
nomenon is even more strikingly apparent." 
The recently published Report of the 
Board of Education declares that " German, 
in Wales as in England, is finding difficulty 
in maintaining its position, for it is taught 
in only 10 schools." Curiously enough, no 
authoritative information on the curricula of 
English schools is available ; the 120 pages 
of the Report just referred to contains 
scarcely a single paragraph on the actual 
work being done inside Secondary Schools. 
But if the Board keeps the public in the 
dark about the work of the schools, it is 
candid enough about its own policy, winch 
is to enforce the teaching of Latin in as 
many schools as possible. As it is generally 
allowed that in schools where the leaving 
age is sixteen or seventeen not more than 
two foreign languages can be profitably 
taught, this policy involves the exclusion 
of German from the great majority of such 
schools. Institutions of the type of the 
German Oberreahchule, in which two modem 
languages are taught, but no Latin, are 
made almost impossible in this country. 
Taking this view, the meeting passed with 
three dissentients the following resolution : 

"That this meeting, considering it desirable 
that greater encouragement should be given to the 
study of German in schools, urges the Board of 
Education to reconsider its policy that where only 
two foreign languages are taught in a school, one 
must be Latin, unless good reason can be shown 
for its omission." 

On the morning of the second day the 
meeting, with the new President, Lord 
Fitzmaurice, in the chair, discussed for 
two hours and a half the use and abuse of 
translation in modern language teaching, 



No. 4186, Jan. 18, 1908 



THE ATHENAEUM 



77 



a subject which had already been debated 
in print throughout the year in the columns 
of the Association's magazine. There is, 
indeed, scarcely any question of pedagogics 
which is at the present moment exciting 
more controversy than the extent to which 
it is necessary, or desirable, to make the 
learners of a language practise translation. 
The extreme reformers hold that the atmo- 
sphere of the foreign tongue should be main- 
tained from first to last during the lessor, and 
no word of the mother tongue spoken. Such 
extremists are, however, rare — in this 
country, indeed, they perhaps scarcely 
exist ; and Mr. F. B. Kirkman, who opened 
the discussion and who is a keen advocate 
of modern methods, disclaimed any such 
doctrinaire opinions. But he, and nearly 
all the speakers who followed him, held that 
translation should be avoided as far as 
possible, and used only when no other 
method of making clear the meaning of the 
foreign text was available. The feeling of 
the meeting, as far as could be judged, was 
with the speakers. Translation for the 
sake of translation, translation as an end in 
itself, found little favour ; translation should 
be regarded, not as a pair of legs for ordinary 
locomotion, but rather as an alpenstock to 
help children up the difficult slopes. In the 
first stage of language teaching it is out of 
place altogether ; in the intermediate stage 
it has only a restricted use ; in the advanced 
stage alone it has intrinsic value as a literary 
exercise. Nor must it be supposed that this 
view of the right place of translation is in 
any way connected with utilitarian aims in 
the teaching of languages. Nothing was 
more noticeable through the whole course 
of the meeting than the applause with which 
every reference to literary culture as the 
worthiest object of linguistic study was 
received. If translation is being deposed 
from its proud position, it is not because the 
reformers think it unnecessary that boys 
and girls should read French and German 
classics, but because they believe that 
French and German classics are better 
understood by those who do not feel the 
necessity of rendering them into English 
in order to comprehend their thought. 
No doubt we must have more experience 
of reformed methods of teaching before the 
justness of this view can be considered fully 
established ; here it can only be recorded, 
and commended to the thoughtful considera- 
tion of language-teachers. 

This subject leads one naturally to say 
a word on Mr. Francis Storr's delight- 
ful presidential address, the subject of which 
was the translation of poetry. Mr. Storr 
opposed, with a wealth of illustration and 
argument, the dictum of George Henry Lewes 
that all translation of poetry was doomed 
to failure. As conspicuous instances of 
the contrary he cited Rossetti's rendering 
of Villon's ballade, with its refrain of "Where 
are the snows of yester-year ? " William 
Johnson's translation of the famous epigram 
of Callimachus, Clough's version of one of 
the odes of Horace, and Du Bellay's ' Song 
of the Winnowers.' He held that verse 
must be rendered by verse, and dissented 
from Mr. Andrew Lang's view that a prose 
translation of the ' Odyssey ' might convey 
the meaning of Homer more faithfully than 
a verse rendering. Incidentally, he com- 
pared the English of the Revised Version 
in several famous passages with that of the 
Authorized Version, much to the disad- 
vantage of the latter, and expressed regret 
that no place had been found on the Revising 
Committee for some masters of English. 
This brief summary can do no justice to 
what was a charming literary causcrie by 
one who has made a special study of his 
subject. 



THE L.C.C. CONFERENCE OF 
TEACHERS. 

The annual conference for three days 
organized by Dr. Kimmins, Chief Inspector 
to the County Council, began on January 
2nd. Mr. J. T. Taylor (Chairman of the 
Education Committee) being absent owing 
to illness, the chair was taken by Mr. 
Baxter Forman (Vice-Chairman of the 
Education Committee). 

The opening session was devoted to 
1 Nature Study.' Dr. Percy Nunn read a 
paper on ' The Place of Nature Study in 
the School Curriculum.' He regarded such 
study as a striking example of the organic 
connexion which should mark the parts of 
the curriculum as a whole. Topics 
admirably chosen received adequate treat- 
ment, but were then allowed to drop. 
Thus the simple study of rainfall should 
lead on to the dew-point in hygrometry, 
the measurement of vapour pressure, solids, 
and gases. Mr. H. E. Turner followed with 
a paper on ' School Excursions,' and spoke 
of his own experience. Mr. J. T. Winkworth 
contributed a paper on ' The Use of the 
School Museum in Nature Study,' advocating 
the absence of labels for objects, in order 
that children might find out names for 
themselves, and consider their significance. 
A discussion followed. 

The second session was devoted to the 
teaching of botany. Dr. Forman, who pre- 
sided as before, pointed out that botany 
was not specifically mentioned in the Govern- 
ment Code as a subject which should be 
included in the curriculum of elementary 
schools. It was, however, included under 
the general heading of science and 
nature study. In the ordinary Council 
schools there were 16,841 pupils, and in the 
non - provided schools 2,332, who took 
botany. In view of the present crowding of 
subjects the course should be as simple as 
possible, and conversational rather than 
formal. Young students should not be 
frightened by the vastness of the subject. 
Eminent men of science, as a recent con- 
troversy in The Times showed, took too 
much for granted in their lectures. 
Simplicity and clearness were not easily 
attained. In the year which ended last 
March 7,500 boxes, containing over five 
and a half millions of botanical specimens, 
were sent out for the use of schools. 
Facilities were afforded for observation in 
the parks of London, but a real love of 
nature was best inculcated in the country 
itself, where flowers were not labelled and 
arranged in their natural orders. 

Miss Lulham then read a paper on 
' Nature Study as a Preparation for the 
Study of Botany,' and Miss L. B. Clarke 
another on ' Botanical Laboratories and 
School Gardens,' with limelight views. 
At the James Allen School for Girls, 
Dulwich, they had taught botany for years 
by means of observations and experiments 
made by the girls themselves, with the aid 
of a special laboratory and school gardens. 
The laboratory was the first of its kind, and 
at the present time more than 120 girls had 
gardens in which they carried out experi- 
ments concerning pollination, soil, &c. 
Miss von Wyss then read a paper of • Sug- 
gestions for the Practical Teaching of 
Botany to Large Classes in Elementary 
Schools,' and a discussion followed, in 
which Miss Clarke's methods were recognized 
as the best, and the lack of time and want 
of sufficient subjects were mentioned as 
drawbacks. 

The third session, on the Friday, was 
devoted to ' Commercial Education,' under 
the presidency of Sir Albert Spicer. In 
his opening address he summarized the 



work of the London Chamber of Commerce, 
which was the first public body to organize 
a movement in favour of improved com- 
mercial education in schools. Now there 
were thirty-six Chamber of Commerce 
and thirty educational authorities working 
in co-operation with the London Chamber 
of Commerce. There were also no fewer 
than thirty-six evening continuation com- 
mercial schools, in addition to the various 
polytechnics under the L.C.C. giving special 
attention to commercial subjects. The 
importance of commercial education was 
emphasized, success being a rivalry of 
brains. The nation which gave the best 
training was the most likely to succeed. 
Since the Chamber of Commerce began its 
scheme of examinations, 18,358 candidates 
had secured certificates of proficiency, the 
work being carried out at the cost of 27,0002., 
towards which the business men of London 
had contributed 14,5002. 

Mr. A. Kahn then delivered an address on 
' Commercial Education in Day Schools.' 
He pointed out that instruction in shorthand 
and bookkeeping — indispensable subjects — 
was not sufficient, and quoted a rather 
foolish paragraph from Ruskin. The claims 
of German, though Latin was awarded 
preferential treatment by the Board of 
Education, were to the future man of busi- 
ness irresistible. The history taught might 
well include the modern history of Europe 
and the study of economic developments. 
Arithmetic was often taught by sums 
opposed to commercial practice. The centre 
of interest in the course should be " descrip- 
tive economics," by which he meant some- 
thing very different from the traditional 
treatment of political economy. 

Mr. Sinclair read a paper on ' Commercial 
Education in Evening Schools,' which began 
in 1898. Commerce, on which we prided 
ourselves, had too long been the Cinderella 
of our educational system ; but the evening 
continuation schools now taught a great 
many subjects with that end in view, 
including precis-writing, company law, and 
practical banking. In commerce a career 
was often indefinite, and this led to a want 
of definiteness in the teaching of commercial 
centres. 

Mr. B. Dumville, Lecturer in Education, 
gave his experience of the higher com- 
mercial schools of French Switzerland. The 
two points worth special notice were that 
if the average marks of a student were low, 
he could get oral examination to increase 
them ; and if the average marks for the 
term's work of a student were good, the 
student was excused examination. Thus 
those who were good all round got their 
holidays some days earlier than the others. 
Later, each student represented a business 
house, carrying out the actual routine. 
There were also " improvisations " in which 
the students were required to speak con- 
tinuously in some modern language for 
five or ten minutes. Mr. T. C. Jackson 
opened the discussion which followed. 

For the fourth session the chair was taken 
by Sir A. K. Rollit, who said that teaching 
tended to become too theoretical. More 
co-ordination in commercial education was 
needed, but he did not believe in early 
specializing. He went on to show how and 
why in the past English clerks had been 
ousted by foreigners. Mr. Douglas Owen 
dealt with the right training for business 
men. Among other points he attached 
great importance to English, and the boy 
who could write rapidly good terse English, 
well expressed and well spelt, would start 
with one first-rate commercial qualification. 
The education for clerks should not bo con- 
fused with that desirable for leading men 
in a business. 



7.s 



T II B A T II EN A: U M 



Nm. U88, Jam, 18, 1908 



Prof. L W . Lyde gave bo addn 
ography in Commercial [netruotion.' 
Buoh teaching had as its object the training 
of imagination in kha sphere of space. 
Material should be presented in a definitely 
u nif orm order. Mr. Kahn spoke on the 
teaching of modem languages foe com- 
tnereia] purposes. Such instruction eras 
i>,^t founded on a literary and oommeroial 

basis. A discussion followed, which elicited 

the fad that about 70 per cent, of bankrupts 

kepi no hooks, while the remaining 30 per 

cent, kept i hem badly. 

The tilth session was devoted to ' Hand 
and Eye Training.' Sir John Cockburn 
occupied the chair. Dr. Slaughter delivered 
an address on handicraft in the lower 
standards. From scientific investigations 
two facts had emerged : the human body 
was not separated from the human mind, 
and in practice there were two stages of 
development. Up to the age of six the 
child was supposed to be making a series 
of contacts with his environment. At six 
he was regarded as ready to enter on the 
intellectual and spiritual heritage of his 
race. Manual training ought to cover a 
broad range of activities, especially as we 
were increasingly sedentary as a race. Mr. 
J. C. Hudson followed with an address on 
hand-training in American schools ; and 
Mi. P. B. Ballard delivered another on the 
manual occupations of the first four standards 
of the senior department of the London 
elementary schools. 

The final session was devoted to the 
experiments of teachers in dealing with 
the ordinary subjects of the curriculum. 
The chair was taken by Dr. Kimmins, who 
looked forward to the time when there 
would be special experimental schools in 
London. Mr. W. Green read a paper on 
' The School Library.' To interest the 
children in the books, he read extracts 
from good authors on the anniversaries 
of events to which they referred. Mr. 
J. A. White then gave an address on a four 
years' course in the teaching of English 
literature. In the fourth year a special 
period, centring in Dr. Johnson and ending 
with the ' Lyrical Ballads,' was taken. 
Mr. W. J. Hazlitt read a paper on ' Open-Air 
Geography,' and a discussion followed, 
which included the suggestions that the 
school and public library should work more 
closely together, and that books were now 
so cheap that children should be encouraged 
to buy them for themselves. Dr. Kimmins, 
the founder and present organizer of the 
Conference, was thanked for his services, 
and announced that 1,200 persons had 
attended the various sessions. 



< SHAKESPEARE'S WARWICKSHIRE 
CONTEMPORARIES.' 

I have no wish to contest any of the 
dicta of your friendly reviewer, but I would 
like to say a word or two concerning his 
desiderata. I made no allusion whatever to 
the marriage licence of Anne Hathaway, or 
I would certainly have mentioned a sug- 
gestion which does seem to bring " us 
nearer the solution of the mystery of 
Anne Whatelcy," which suggestion I would 
have borrowed from ' Shakespeare's Mar- 
riage,' by Mr. J. W. Gray, the only reliable 
authority on the subject. 

The reviewer has let me off more gently 
than I feared, for he begins, " It is not 
to be expected that such a book should 
be without errors," and only notes one 
self-evident oversight in proof-correction, 
an alternative spelling of the name 
" Somerville " ; and expresses doubt as to 
the validity of some of my inferences. I 



mils Q0f aware oi >ui\ ' I. He' of Sir Thomas 

Lucy, certainly of none on the lines I 
have worked out, as I do not believe him 
to be the original of Jo tice Shallow. 1 
certainly mentioned the valuable hook 

' Shakespean ana ( lenealogicu.' by Mr. 

French, wherever i referred to it or bor- 
rowed from it; but all my Arden work is 
from original BOUT 
The reviewer further sugges ts expansion 

of several chapters. I can assure him I 
have very much material crowded out by 
the exigencies of space and the need of 
contraction. 

I also have always encouraged workers 
to hope to find important points, even at 
this late date ; but I hardly think we 
shall bo able to associate the poet with 
the University of Oxford on the lines now 
laid down. C. C. Stopes. 



THE AIM IN CLASSICAL TEACHING, 
i. 

A great deal that was written during 
1907 on the subject of classical teaching 
shows anything but a clear and definite 
conception of what should be the aim of a 
complete school course in the Greek and 
Latin classics ; and if this is the case with the 
better men who find their way into the 
columns of important journals, and leave 
their influence on the reports of learned 
committees, we may fairly assume that the 
practice of classical teaching in our great 
schools is in a haphazard condition. It 
would be an interesting experiment suddenly 
to put to each member of the classical staff 
of a great school the single question, " What 
is the aim of the classical teaching of this 
school ? " and allow five minutes for the 
answer. We venture to think that com- 
paratively few would be able to give a 
reasonable explanation of their classroom 
methods, and the differences between the 
different teachers would be most amusing, 
if they did not painfully suggest the want 
of co-ordination (to say nothing of pre- 
paratory schools and Universities) in a 
Public School. We do not mean to suggest 
that any one aim is the right one, for there 
are two or three competing systems of 
classical education which are nearly equal 
in point of merit, and possibly a com- 
promise between them might result in an 
improvement upon any one. How im- 
perative is the necessity of clarifying our 
views on this subject was made plain by 
a recent discussion between Mr. Lyttelton 
and Dr. Rouse in the pages of The Classical 
Review. Do we teach boys Latin in order 
that they may learn the language, or that 
they may read and appreciate^Latin authors, 
or that their minds may be trained to 
think ? These were some of the current 
views discussed with reference to the so- 
called oral method, which after all is not a 
fundamental matter. Happily Mr. J. L. 
Paton and Mr. Frank Fletcher have come 
to the rescue of befogged schoolmasters 
with their admirable Board of Education 
reports on classical teaching in Prussian 
schools. These two writers show a remarkable 
agreement as to the aims of the English 
system on the one hand, and the German on 
the other. It is well to consider the points 
made by them in favour of or against either 
ideal, and see in what respects the aim of 
English Secondary Schools might be im- 
proved. A reasonable aim once established, 
it would be a comparatively easy matter 
to determine several questions of method 
which are often prematurely and illogically 
discussed. 

In order the more easily to get to the 
kernel of the matter, we propose to limit 



the d n to the study of Latin in 

■ oompli te PuMie School • and to 

me that we have sifted out the right bo 
to profit by a clai ioal ooarae, and that the 

e is framed to benefit B0 ]»r cent. 

rather than tin- 10 pi t cent, oi exceptionally 

brilliant pupils. If we can determine what 
Cod m these circumstance*, it might 
be possible to tell within a little what 
modifications should be made in other cases. 
To this end, we shall consider fir ( .it- 

man aim with its pros and cons, then the 
English aim, and finally what improvement 
might be made in the Kmgliah sy>t< m. 

The aim of the German Reform Gym- 
nasium is at any rate precise : — 

" On the sure basis of grammatical discipline 
secure that a pupil understands the mere important 
classical authors, and is thereby intnxluced to the 
intellectual life and civilization of antiquity." 
A mental atmosphere is the aim ; literature 
is subsidiary to that ; and, in its turn, 
grammar is subordinate to the reading of 
authors. This is something broader, and, 
to our mind, more inspiring that what we 
in England mean by "scholarship : : it 
spells the possibility of culture, gained by 
means of a wide range of information acting 
on the imagination, for the many, rather 
than a " delicate sense of refinement in 
the use and appreciation of language " 
for a few. But at the same time the course 
allows opportunities for the development 
of aesthetic and linguistic powers to those 
who have them. In trying to give a short 
formula for the German aim, " their aim 
is information," we think both Mr. Paton 
and Mr. Fletcher go wide of the mark : 
the end is rather a plastic and ready attitude 
of mind to the broad problems of humanity 
and history, and the German teacher knows 
that it matters little, a few years after the 
leaving examination, whether a pupil can 
remember the facts of Livy, if he has become 
imbued with the spirit of his history. In 
balancing the product of the English and 
German systems it is important to remember 
this point. To this end a study of the 
content of the authors read contributes, 
while correctness and logical acumen are 
secured by the instruments, grammar, 
composition (subsidiary to translation), 
and translation into the mother-tongue. 
The subjects in order of importance, then, 
are grammar, translation, content, as instru- 
ments ; culture, as the end. Here, again, 
the relative importance of departments 
cannot be too strongly insisted upon. The 
educative value of each of the three instru- 
ments is as follows. Latin grammar and 
translation give the best possible insight 
into the essential nature and laws of lan- 
guage, which is " the most wonderful 
creation of human genius " ; translation 
from Latin into English compels minute 
comparison of the two languages, and so 
affords the best possible means for appre- 
ciating the structure of the mother tongue 
and using it with accuracy and facility. As t o 
content, its two main divisions are, for the 
purposes of German education, history and 
literature. The factors of Roman history 
are comparatively simple, and cause and 
effect are calculable ; we are so far detached 
from its problems that we can study them 
without bias ; the influence of Rome is 
deeply felt all over modern Europe. For 
these reasons Roman history (studied in 
the originals) is the best primer imaginable 
of the social and political questions of our 
own times. The Roman literature read is 
instinct with broad humanity ; has in its 
record of brave deeds and patriotism a 
moral quality which is peculiarly adapted 
to the needs of growing lads ; and in expres- 
sion is simple, direct, and weighty beyond 
anything written in any modern language. 



No. 4186, Jan. 18, 1908 



THE ATHENAEUM 



79 



In carrying out their scheme of study the 
Germans entirely neglect verse composition, 
and lay stress on good translation rather 
than on good prose composition. A con- 
sideration of the German aim and the 
methods working up to it compels us to 
assent to Mr. Paton's conclusion : — 

"It is impossible to deny that the German ideal 
is considerabty broader in its human aspect and 
less academic than the English, and, because it has 
these larger relations to modern life, is more likely 
to impress and fertilize the mind of the average 
boy.'" (The italics are ours.) 

If the German system succeeds in awakening 
a broad, imaginative interest in life, it 
does indeed achieve a desirable end. 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS. 
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Theology. 
Abbott (E. A.), Indices to Diatessarica, 2/6 net. With a 

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Campbell (Eev. R. J.), Christianity and the Social Order, 6/ 
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Mission Preaching for a Year, Part II., 2/6 net. Edited by 

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Peabody (F. G.), Jesus Christ and the Social Question, 6d. 

New Edition. For former notice see Athen., April 6, 

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Seeley (Sir J. R.), Ecce Homo, 1/ net. New Edition. 
Slattery (C. L.), Life Beyond Life : a Study of Immortality, 

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Watson (F.), The Christian Life Here and Hereafter, 5/ net. 

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Frankfort, 1554-8, 5/ net. The first issue of A Christian 

Library, a popular series of religious literature, edited 

by Prof. E. Arber. 

Fine Art and Archaeology. 
Armorial China : a Catalogue of Chinese Porcelain with 

Coats of Arms in the Possession of F. A. Crisp, 42/ net. 
Calvert (A. F.) and Hartley (C. Gasquoine), The Velazquez, 

an Account of his Life and Works, 3/6 net. With 136 

reproductions from his pictures. 
Catalogue of Lowestoft China in the Possession of F. A. 

Crisp, 21/ net. 
Ely (T.), Roman Hayling, 3/ net. A contribution to the 

history of Roman Britain, with 2 plans and illustra- 
tions. Second Edition. 
Robinson (Rev. Stanford F. H), Celtic Illuminative Art in 

the Gospel Books of Durrow, Lindisfarne, and Kells, 

42/ net. 
Rotherby (G. Cadogan), Decorators' Symbols, Emblems, 

and Devices, 3/ net. 

Engravings. 
Royal Windsor, 21/ on India paper. Etched by C. O. 

Murray after the painting by Niels M. Lund. 
Poetry and Drama. 
Allen (P.), Songs of Old France, 6/ net. 
Bell(M), Weeds and Wild Flowers, 1 doL 25. 
Bonacina (C. M. R), Preludes and Harmonies, 2/6 net. 
Dillon (A.), The Heir's Comedy, 3/6 net. 
Farquhar, George, 3/6. In the Mermaid Series, edited, 

with an Introduction and notes, by William Archer. 
Field (Michael), Wild Honey from Various Thyme, 5/ net. 

A collection of short poems. 
lord (W. J.), Leelaand Bertram!, 1/ 
Fotheringham (D. R.), War Songs of the Greeks and other 

Poems, 3/6 net. 
j Hawksley (MA Poems and Verses, 1/ 
Jones (II. A.), The Middleman, 2/6 net. A play in four 

acts. 
Osmaston (F. P. B.), Poems and Lyrics, 5/ net. 
Robbina (H.), Verse Fancies and Facts, 2/6 net. 
Travers fit.), The Two Arcadias, 2/6 net. Plays and poems, 

with Introduction by Richard Garnett. — Thyrsis and 

Fausta, a pastoral, with other Plays and Poems, 3/6 

net. 
I Wedmore (M. T), Pilgrim Songs, 2/ net. 

Music. 
Memories and Music, 3/6 net. Consists of letters to a fail- 
unknown. 

Bibliography. 
Reader's Index. January and February. The bi-monthly 

magazine of the Croydon Public Libraries. 
Philosophy. 
Wood (M. If), Plato's Psychology in its Bearing on the 

I )i elopment of Will, 2/6 net. A thesis approved, in its 

original form, for the degree of Master of Arts in the 

University of London. 

Political Economy. 
1 i-k (O. M.), International Commercial Policies, 5/ net. 
Porritl (E.), Sixty Years of Protection in Canada, 1846-1907, 

5/ net. Written from the point of view of a student of 

political science and industrial and economic deve- 
lopment. 

History and Biography. 
kbbott (K. M.), Old Paths and Legends of the New Eng- 

liind Border, 15/ net. Illustrated. 
Coleridge (S. 'I'.), Biographia Literarla, 2 vols., B/ net. 

Edited, with Ids ASsthetical Essays, by J. Shawcross, 
Baton (.1.), Grant, Lincoln, and the Freedmen, 9/ net. 

Reminiscences of the Civil War, with a History of the 



work for the Contrabands and Freedmen of the 
Mississippi Valley, 1862-5. 
Macaulay (G. C), James Thomson, 2/ net. In English Men 

of Letters. 
Miller (Hugh), Selections from his Writings, 3/6. Chosen 
and arranged, with Introductions and explanatory 
notes, by W. M. Mackenzie. Illustrated. 
Nolhac (P. de), Petrarch and the Ancient World. No. III. 

in the Humanists' Library. 
Robinson (J. H.)and Beard (C. A.), The Development of 
Modern Europe : Vol. I. The Eighteenth Century, the 
French Revolution and the Napoleonic Period, 6/6. 
An introduction to the study of current history. 
Tschudi (Clara), Ludwig; the Second, King of "Bavaria. 
Translated by Ethel Harriet Hearn, with coloured 
portrait. 
Whitaker (R. Sanderson), Whitaker of Hesley Hall, 
Grayshott Hall, Pylewell Park, and Palermo. 31/6 net. 
Contains family records collected and arranged. 
Willcock (J.), A Scots Earl in Covenanting Times, 10/ net. 
The life and times of Archibald, 9th Earl of Argyll 
(1629-85). 

Geography and Travel. 
Davis (R. Harding), The Congo and Coasts of Africa, 6/ net. 
Walpole (G. H. S.) and Barton (C. E.), Handy Atlas of 
Church and Empire, 1/6 net. Contains 119 coloured 
maps, descriptive list of provinces and dioceses, &c. 
and six coloured diagrams. 
Watney (C), Motor Tours Abroad in Winter and Spring, 
2/6 net. 

Education. 
Remington (J. Stewart), The Education of To-morrow, 
2/ net. See p. 70. 

Philology. 
Deinhardt (K.) and Schlomann (A.), Technical Dictionary 
in Six Languages. Vol II. Electrical Engineering, 
including Telegraphy and Telephony, 25/ net. Edited 
by C. Kinzbrunner, with about 4,000 illustrations. 
School-Books. 
Coleman (W. M.), Lessons in Hygienic Physiology, 3/. New 

Edition. 
Coquelin (J.), First Italian Course, 2/6 net. In the Rational 

Study of Modern Languages. 
Thomson (W. S.), English Composition and Essay Writing. 

Seventh Edition. See p. 72. 
Weaver (F. J.), English History illustrated from Original 
Sources, 1603-60, 2/6. With illustrations. 
Science. 
Brown (S.), Alpine Flora of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, 

12/6 net. Illustrated. 
Bruce (E. M.), Detection of the Common Food Adultera- 
tions, 5/ net. 
Dall(W. H.)andBartseh (P.), The Pyramidellid Mollusks 
of the Oregonian Faunal Area. Reprinted from the 
Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum. 
Dowd (J.), The Negro Races, Vol. I., 10/6 net. 
Gunther (C. A.), Integration by Trigonometric and Imagin- 
ary Substitution, 5/ net. 
Jordan (D. S.) and RichardsonfR. E.), Description of a New 
Species of Killiflsh, Lvcania brovmi, from a Hot Spring 
in Lower California : List of Fishes collected in the 
River at Buytenzorg, Java, by Dr. D. Houghton Camp- 
bell. Reprinted from the Proceedings of the U.S. 
National Museum. 
Lea(F. C), Hydraulics, 18/ net 

Lockwood's Builder's, Architect's, Contractor's and Engi- 
neer's Price-Book, 1908, 4/ 
Lyon (M. W.), Mammals collected in Western Borneo by 
Dr. W. L. Abbott. Reprinted from the Proceedings of 
the U. S. National Museum. 
Mackenzie (N. F.) Methods of Surveying used in the'Compi- 
lation of Large-Scale Plans of Small Areas, 5/ net. 
Illustrated. 
Melick(C. W.), Dairy Laboratory Guide, 5/ net. 
Neil (J. S.), British Minerals and Where to Find Them, 2/. 
In Murby's Science Series. Preface by J. Allen Howe. 
Nutting (M. A.) and Dock (L. L), A History of Nursing, 
2 vols., 21/ net. Treats of the evolution of nursing 
systems from the earliest times to the foundation of the 
first English and American training schools for nurses. 
Ridgeway (W.), Who were the Romans? 2/6 net. Reprinted 

from the Proceedings of the British Academy, Vol. III. 
Science Progress in the Twentieth Century, January, 5/ net. 

A quarterly journal of scientific work and thought. 
Stejneger (L.), A New Geckoid Lizard from the Philippine 
Islands. Another reprint from the Proceedings of the 
I'.S. National Museum. 
Stuart (H.), The Doctor in the Schools, 1/ net. Notes on 
the medical inspection of public elementary school 
children under the Education (Administrative Pro- 
visions) Act, 1907. 
Taylor (D. W.) Resistance of Ships and Screw Propulsion, 

10/ net. 
Waddell (J. A. L.), Specifications and Contracts, 4/ net. 
Walker (Sydney F.), Electric Wiring and Fitting for 

Plumbers and Gas-fitters, 5/ net. 
Wilson (C. B.), North American Parasitic Copepods be- 
longing to the Family Caligida. Also reprinted from 
the Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum. 
Firtion. 
Brown (Helen Dawes), Mr. Tuckerman's Nieces, 6/ 
Character Portraits from Dickens, 3/6 net. Selected and 

arranged by Charles Welsh. 
Chorley (II.), Cleeves I'.ml, fi/. A realistic story of Kentish 

life and morals. 
Dudley (Kosetta), The Emerald Cross, 6/ 
Durham (E. Burton), Florence Island, (!/. Tells bow it was 
peopled, and converted from an .uninhabited island 
into a sportsman's paradise. 
Gunter(A. C), Dr. Burton's Success, 6/ Illustrated. 
MacNaughtan (S.), A Lame Dog's Diary, 7d. net. New 

Edition. 
Mitford (C. Guise), The Paxton Plot, 6/ 
Perfect (Rev, II. T.), Lady Beauclerc at Home, 6/ A 

romance of life, with illustrations, 
Praed (Mrs. Campbel]),iStubble bufore the Wind, 6/. Four- 

t ecu ihort stories. 
RosenkrontB (Baron P.), Magistrate's Own Case, 6/ An 
interesting story of a trial for murder and circum 
stantial evidence. 



Runciman (Sir W.), Looking Seaward Again, 3/6. Six 

short sketches. 
St. Barbe (R), The Golden Fleece. 
Stacpoole (H. de Vere), The Blue Lagoon, 6/ 
Wales (H.), Cynthia in the Wilderness, 6/. Second Edition. 

For former notice see Athen., Nov. 30, 1907, p. 684. 
Warden (Florence), A Devil's Bargain, 6/ 
Wishaw (F.), A New Cinderella, 6/ 
White (F. M.), Craven Fortune, 6/. Illustrated by Howard 

Somerville. 

General Literature. 
Baden-Powell (Lieut.-General, R.S.S.), Scouting for Roys, 

id. net. An Illustrated handbook for instruction in 

good citizenship. 
Heart of the Rose, No. I. A small quarterly magazine of 

verse and prose, issued at Melbourne. 
Hustled History, by the Authors of ' Wisdom while You 

Wait,' 1/ See p. 73. 
Investor's Blue- Book for 1908, 2/6 net. 
Leith (W. Compton), Apologia Diffidentis, 7/6 net. 
Marble (A. R.), Heralds of American Literature, 6/6 net. 
Mathiesons' Highest and Lowest Prices, 2/6. 
New Mediaeval Library : Of the Tumbler of Our Lady, and 

other Miracles ; The Chatelaine of Vergi, New Edition, 

translated by Alice Kemp-Welch, leather, 5/ net each ; 

pigskin, 7/6 net each. 
Pitman's Secretary's Handbook, 5/ net. A practical guide 

to the work and duties, edited by Herbert E. Blain. 
Peaga (Mrs. A.), Dainty Dinner Tables, and how to Decorate 

Them, 1/. With 4 illustrations. 
Roes (E. Roberta), High-Class and Economical Cookery 

Recipes, as used in the Westbourne Grove Cookery 

School, 4/6 net. 
Shaw (A.), The Outlook for the Average Man, 5/ net. 
Sims (G. R.), The Black Stain, 1/ net. With 13 illustra- 
tions. Articles, re-published from The, Tribune, con- 
cerning the neglect and ill-treatment of children in 

London and other great cities. 
Wagner (E.), Recipes for the Preserving of Fruit, Vegetables, 

and Meat, 5/ net. 
Willing's Press Guide, 1908, 1/ 

Pamphlets. 
Brice (A. M.), New Ways with Old Acres, 1/ net. Advocates 

the application of co-operation in connexion with the 

Small Holdings Act. 
German Peril, The ; The Free Trade Delusion, by Akaroa, 
Harris (S. Hutchinson), The Will of the People and the 

Referendum, 6d. Reprinted from The Westminster 

Review. 
Winbolt (S. E.), Sir Robert Clayton, Knt. A sketch of one 

of the benefactors of Christ's Hospital. 

FOREIGN. 

Fine Art and Archteology. 
Agresti (A.), I Prerafaellisti : Contribute alia Storia dell' 

Arte, 15 lire. Freely illustrated with reproductions of 

characteristic pictures. 
Petersen (E.), Die Burgtempel der Athenaia, 4m. 

History and Biography. 
De"prez (E.), Etudes de Diplomatique anglaise de l'Avene- 

ment d'Edouard I. k celui de Henri VII. : le Sceau 

prive", le Sceau secret, le Signet, 5fr. 
Guardione (F.), II Dominio dei Borboni in Sicilia dal 1830 

al 1861 in relazione alle Vicende nazionali con Docu- 

menti inediti, Vol. I., 8 lire. No. 129 in the Biblioteca 

storica. 
Laborie (L. de L. de), Paris sous Napole'on : La Religion, 

5fr. 
Quentin-Bauchart (P.), Lamartine et la Politique etrangere 

de la Revolution de Fe'vrier, 5fr. 
Revue historique, Janvier — Fevrier, 6 fr. 
Rousse (E.), La Liberte" religieuse en France, 1880-1904, 6fr. 

Geography and Travel. 
Atlas universe! de Geographie : Carte 74, Etats-Unis 

d'Am^rique, Feuille Nord-Est, 2fr. 
Gli Inglesi nella Vita moderna: Osservati da un Italiano, 

31. 50. 

Philology. 
Bulletin international de l'Academie des Sciences de 

Cracovie: Classe de Philologie, Classe d'Histoire et de 

Philosophie, Nos. 3-4, 5, and 6-7, Ofr. 90 each. 

Science. 

Bulletin international de l'Acadernie des Sciences de 
Cracovie: Classe des Sciences mathematiques et natu- 
relles, Nos. 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, Ofr. 90. 

Lindau (G.) et Sydow (P.) Thesaurus Litteratune Myco- 
logies, Vol. I. Parti., 31m. 25. 

Martel (E. A.), Involution souterraine, 3fr. 50. 

Panetti (M.), Prove dei Metalli, 5 lire. No. 11 in the 
Raccoltadi Memorie e Rassegne tecniche. 

General Literature. 
Chabrier (C), (Jens de Bien, 3fr. 50. 
Fastrez (A.), Ce que 1'Armee pent etre pour la Nation. 

No. 12 of the Aetualites soeiales. 
Gontier (F.), Le Proces de M. Pipe, 3fr. 50. 

*»* All Books received at the, Office up to Wednesday 
Morning mil be. included in this List unZgM previotutly 
noted. f\iblishers are requested to state prices when 
sending Books. 



Ittoarp ©osstp. 

Messrs. Longman arc publishing two 
volumes on ' English Local Government 
from the Revolution to the Municipal 
Corporations Act: the Manor and the 
Borough,' by Mr. Sidney Webb and his 
Wife. This new instalment of their survey 
of English local government is complete 



80 



T II E AT II KN\K i: M 



\... j 1m;. Jan. 18, L908 



in itself, and <:ives for the first time an 
a i i.il \ 1 1. and descriptive account of the 
administrations between 1689 and 1835 
of the rural manors and municipal 
boroughfl of Kngland and Wales. New 
light Lb thrown upon the manor, its courts, 
it.s juries, and its relation to other authori- 
ties ; in particular, upon the way in which 
the common-field agriculture of the village 
was — in some places even down to the 
nineteenth century — administered by the 
jury at the lord's court. To the Corpora- 
t ion of the City of London are devoted 
over a hundred pages. 

Mr. Murray announces some import- 
ant books in biography and history. 
'J. T. Delane, 1817-79,' by his nephew, 
Mr. A. I. Dasent, will include much 
correspondence of the famous Times editor 
with the leading men of his day. ' The 
Correspondence of George Canning and 
some Intimate Friends,' edited by Josceline 
Bagot, should also be unusually interest- 
ing, for there is still much unpublished of 
Canning's papers. Miss Lillias Campbell 
Davidson is writing the life of ' Catherine 
of Braganca,' which involves a good deal of 
the history of Charles II. ; and Miss M. F. 
Howard is editing a ' Memoir of Lettice, 
Lady Falkland,' which was written by 
her chaplain, Dr. John Duncan, in 1647. 

' Modernism : a Record and Review,' 
is the title of a book which Sir Isaac Pit- 
man & Sons will publish immediately. 
The author is the Rev. A. L. Lilley, Vicar 
of St. Mary's, Paddington, whose house is 
a rendezvous for continental Modernists, 
and who has had special opportunities for 
getting into close touch with the move- 
ment. The book is dedicated by per- 
mission to Father Tyrrell, and consists 
chiefly of articles and reviews by the 
author which have appeared during the 
past seven or eight years, an Epistle Dedi- 
catory, and a useful Bibliography. 

Mr. Unwtn will publish this spring 
1 The Statutes of Wales,' collected, 
arranged, and edited by Mr. Ivor Bowen, 
barrister- at-law of the South Wales Cir- 
cuit. In this volume all the important 
Acts of Parliament relating exclusively or 
principally to Wales which have been 
passed since the time of Magna Charta by 
the British Legislature will be reprinted 
in full. Most of these statutes are to be 
found only in volumes not easily accessible, 
and Mr. Bowen's work will, for the first 
time, present these interesting constitu- 
tional documents in a convenient form. 
There will be a long introduction dealing 
with the history of the legislation affecting 
Wales and the Welsh Church. 

The Bishop of Durham, Bishop 
Welldon, Principal Fairbairn, and 
others contribute to the February number 
of The Sunday at Home in a symposium on 
1 How I became a Preacher.' Prof. R. E. 
Welsh writes on Holman Hunt's ' Shadow 
of Death.' Tomb-copying in Egypt is 
described by Jessie Mothersole. The Hon. 
M. Cordelia Leigh gives an account of 
1 The Schools' Mutual Aid Scheme,' a 
recent experiment in bringing town and 
county schools into contact. 



Mk. J. Walter Smith, irho has bees 
one of the editors of .Messrs. Newnes since 
1890, lias been appointed chief editor of 
Messrs. Ca88ell & Co. Mr. Smith, who is 
now thirty-nine, was educated at Harvard 
University, and came to England as the 
special correspondent of The Boston Tran- 
script and of The Literary Era, Phila- 
delphia. 

A new county is now included in 
Messrs. Phillimore's " Parish Register 
Series," as next week the first volume of 
Cambridgeshire will be issued to sub- 
scribers ; it will contain the Marriage 
Registers of St. Edward's, Cambridge, 
1558 to 1812, and two rural parishes, Fen 
Drayton and Knapwell. The second 
volume, now printing, will deal with 
St. Sepulchre's and others. 

Messrs. Putnam have in preparation a 
book entitled ' The Twentieth-Century 
American,' which is the work of an Eng- 
lishman, Mr. H. Perry Robinson, who has 
been in the United States for twenty 
years, and travelled extensively in the 
country. 

Messrs. Constable & Co. are about 
to issue in one volume a popular edition of 
Mr. Charles Swynnerton's ' Indian Nights' 
Entertainment' and 'Romantic Tales from 
the Punjab.' 

At the annual meeting of the Edin- 
burgh Faculty of Advocates on Wednes- 
day the Keeper of the Advocates' Library, 
Mr. W. K. Dickson, reported that the 
accessions to the library in 1907 numbered 
45,785. The total in ten years had been 
439,877. The alterations at present being 
carried out, and the new south wing in 
course of erection, will give mere room 
for book storage and a new manuscript 
room. 

Mr. A. H. Mtllar has been appointed 
Librarian of Dundee Public Library in 
succession to the late Mr. John Mac- 
lauchan. Mr. Millar, who has been on the 
staff of The Dundee Advertiser for twenty- 
seven years, is author of several works, 
including ' The History of Rob Roy,' 
' Castles and Mansions of Ayrshire,' 
• Quaint Bits of Glasgow,' ' The Roll of 
Eminent Burgesses of Dundee,' and ' The 
Historical Castles and Mansions of Scot- 
land.' 

The Glasgow Ballad Club is some- 
thing of a unique institution, candidates 
for membership having to submit samples 
of their work and be voted upon there- 
after by ballot. A third volume of the 
Club is about to be issued by Messrs. 
Blackwood, with a portrait of the founder, 
the late Mr. William Freeland, several of 
whose poems will be included. The pre- 
vious publications of the Club are ex- 
tremely scarce. 

The four thousandth volume of the 
Tauchnitz English Series, which is about 
to appear, will be a ' Manual of American 
Literature.' It has been written by Mr. 
Theodore Stanton, assisted by several pro- 
fessors of English in Cornell University. 

Mr. Murray is publishing for Mr. R. E. 
Prothero ' The Pleasant Land of France,' 
essays dealing with life in a provincial 



town, and including discussions of French 
farming ; folk-lore gathered in Touraine, 
Herri, Poitou, and Perigord ; Rabelais ; 
and the associations of Fontainebleau. 

Sir .John <o>rst has written, and Sir 
Isaac Pitman & Sons will ■hortly publish, 
a book of Recollections, called ' New 
Zealand Revisited.' In 1906 Sir John 
was invited by the British Government to 
represent it at the opening of the Inter- 
national Exhibition at Christ Church, New 
Zealand. This was his second visit to 
the colony. The first was in the early 
sixties, the period immediately preceding 
the outbreak of the Maori War, when be 
first served in an official capacity as Com- 
missioner of Waikato under Sir George 
Grey. Naturally, his recent visit sug- 
gested contrasts between old and new 
conditions. 

The arrangements of University College, 
London, include a course of public lectures 
by Mr. Fitzmaurice-Kelly on ' Spanish 
Literature,' which began on Thursday last 
with ' The Cid.' On the same day Prof. 
W. P. Ker continued his course on ' Eng- 
lish Literature in the Fifteenth and 
Sixteenth Centuries.' The public Barlow 
Lectures on Dante's ' Paradiso ' will be 
given by the Rev. E. Moore on Wednesday 
and Thursday afternoons, February 5th 
and 6th, 12th and 13th. 19th and 20th. 

The Right Hon. A. H. D. Acland has 
been elected President of the English 
Association for 1908. He was the chief 
guest at the annual dinner, where there 
was some admirable speaking. The 
Master of Trinity, the outgoing Presi- 
dent, dwelt on the necessity of teachers 
being able to fire the imagination of their 
pupils concerning literary study. Among 
the other speakers were Mr. Acland, Prof. 
C. H. Firth, Prof. C. A. Bradley, Mr. 
P. A. Barnett, and Prof. Potter of Brown 
University, U.S.A. 

At the sessions on Saturday, in addition 
to the papers arranged for, interesting 
speeches were made by Prof. Raleigh, who 
defined the introduction to literature in 
any full sense as an introduction to life 
itself ; and by Prof. Mackail, who declared 
that to deal with literature in vital fashion 
the teacher must efface himself. Mr. 
Sidney Lee, in speaking on the teaching 
of Shakspeare, pointed out the great 
influence the study of the great dramatist 
should exert on the mind and heart of the 
pupil, and urged that all care should be 
taken to prevent Shakspeare becoming 
the " drill'd dull lesson." Prof. Boas, Mr. 
Valentine, and others took part in the 
discussion. A leaflet, ' A Shakespeare 
Reference Library for Teachers,' prepared 
by Mr. Lee, will be shortly issued by the 
Association. 

A Commission has been appointed to 
make an inventory of ancient and his- 
torical Scottish monuments and construc- 
tions illustrative of contemporary culture, 
civilization, and conditions of life of the 
people in Scotland from the earliest times 
to the year 1707, and to specify those which 
seem worthy of preservation. Sir Herbert 
Maxwell is Chairman, and other members 
of the Commission are Lord Guthrie, Prof. 



No. 4186, Jan 18, 1908 



THE ATHENilUM 



81 



G. Baldwin Brown, Dr. Boyce, Mr. F. C. 
Buchanan, Mr. W. T. Oldrieve, and Mr. 
Thomas Ross, with Mr. A. G. Curie as 
Secretary. 

The inaugural meeting of the newly 
formed Association for the Promotion of 
Classical Learning in Ireland was held in 
the Lecture Theatre of the Royal Dublin 
Society on Tuesday last. Mr. Justice 
Madden took the chair, and Mr. S. H. 
Butcher, M.P., delivered a presidential 
address on the importance of classical 
studies. 

The official returns from the German 
universities show an increase of 1,335 
students, as compared with the winter 
session of the preceding year. There were 
46,471 matriculated students. There was 
an increase of nearly 1,000 in the students 
of philology and history, and a decrease 
of over 200 in the law students ; while 
the number of those who study agricul- 
ture is steadily rising. Berlin heads the 
list with 8,220 students, Munich has 5,943, 
Leipsic 4,341, Bonn 3,209, Gottingen 
1,857, Strassburg 1,709, Heidelberg 1,676, 
Marburg 1,670, Wiirzburg 1,382, Jena 
1,375, Giessen 1,144, Konigsberg 1,105, 
and Kiel 1,025. 

We note the publication of the follow- 
ing Parliamentary Paper : Special Reports 
on Educational Subjects, Vol. 21, dealing 
with School Excursions and Vacation 
Schools. This includes notes on two 
French experiments, on Vacation Schools 
in England, on country schools for back- 
ward children, on school journeys taken 
by Jena boys and by English schoolboys, 
a ' Note on Foreign Travel,' &c, (5^d). 
We also name another paper under 'Science 
Gossip.' 

SCIENCE 



OUR LIBRARY TABLE. 

Health in the School ; or, Hygiene for 
Teachers. By J. S. C. Elkington. (Blackie 
& Son.) — Going to school is not a natural 
proceeding, but it is a necessary one. The 
physical restraints of the schoolroom, and 
the conditions under which lessons are carried 
on, are not in general conducive to health, 
but, unless the claims of hygiene are fairly 
and adequately considered, distinctly in- 
jurious. This becomes a serious matter, 
mid one of national importance, when it 
La remembered that, during term time in a 
public elementary school, children are in 
their classes for at least five hours out of 
twenty-four on five consecutive days in 
each week : in boarding schools of all 
tirades weekly school attendance is longer. 
It must moreover be remembered that the 
immature frames of boys and girls are far 
more susceptible to the influences of environ- 
ment than are the full-grown bodies of adults; 
also that the stress of schoolwork falls 
most heavily on children's most delicate 
organs, their nervous centres and organs 
of sense. Dr. Elkington directs attention 
to the circumstances of school life, and shows 
how much teachers themselves may do, 
even in unsatisfactory premises and under 
unsympathetic or injudicious management, 
to maintain and improve the health, both 
in body and mind, of the scholars committed 
to thoir charge. He considers the hygiene 
of the body in his earlier chapters (and, in 



our opinion, he has taken the subjects in 
the right order) ; and he emphasizes 
the value of the work done in the nursery or 
kindergarten, for "it is in the infant rooms 
that the material is most delicate and most 
plastic, and that it is above all at the age of 
habit-formation." Dr. Elkington's treatment 
of " Health in the School " deserves high 
commendation. He uses no unnecessary 
words, and has succeeded in compressing 
into fewer than 200 pages all that the 
ordinary schoolmaster and schoolmistress 
need know about the matter, shows them how 
to apply the knowledge, and impresses upon 
them the fact that it is their duty to apply it. 
He wastes no chapters in discussing investiga- 
tions into psychology and physiology, but 
being himself an expert in these subjects, 
selects the undoubted results and recognized 
facts of these sciences, and applies them at 
once to the arrangement of premises, organ- 
ization of studies, and amelioration of the 
conditions of school life. The foundation 
of school hygiene is, as the author frequently 
insists, " just plain common sense " ; he 
assumes the same basis for his treatise, and 
has produced a handy little volume at once 
practical and suggestive. 

The ventilation, lighting, warming, and 
furnishing of schools are fully treated ; 
and teachers are clearly shown how much 
the efficient maintenance of these processes 
when the apparatus is of the best quality, 
and their amelioration when the apparatus 
is old-fashioned or defective, depend on 
them, i.e., on their common sense and desire 
to make the best of things. They are also 
told how much the present and future 
welfare and intellectual and moral develop- 
ment of their pupils depend on the right use 
of premises as they exist — structural im- 
provements, however needful, being beyond 
the teachers' control. A discussion of 
school ailments and the commoner accidents 
to scholars follows that of the buildings, 
and the advice given is clear and definite, 
teachers being told what to do at the 
time of emergency rather than what to 
think or study before or after it. A useful 
chapter is devoted to defects of special 
senses, tests of sight, hearing, &c. ; and 
another to such interesting questions as 
the personal factor, fatigue, recreation, 
sleep, and the like. 

The question of the " curriculum and its 
hygienic arrangement " is judiciously con- 
sidered. Age being " perhaps the dominant 
factor of school life," the scope and methods 
of infants' schools are first reviewed ; and 
then we learn that the " fatigue values of 
subjects," the arrangement of the time- 
table, the necessity of " intervals for physical 
occupation and recreation," the advisability 
and duration of homework, shotild be sub- 
mitted to the judgment of the doctor as 
well as the schoolmaster. In fact, the 
collaboration of physiology with pedagogy 
is essential to the maintenance of the highest 
efficiency of a school. Not only, according 
to the author, should hygiene be considered 
in the drawing-up of a judiciously arranged 
time-table, but he also enforces the ex- 
pediency and practicability of introducing 
the subject into the daily routine of class- 
work. 

Lessons in Practical Hygiene. By Alice 
Ravenhill. With Preface by Prof. M. E. 
Sadler. (Leeds, Arnold & Son.) — Any one 
who worked through the exercises recom- 
mended and described in Miss Raven- 
hill's ' Lessons in Practical Hygiene ' would 
gain a sound knowledge of life in all its 
phases of health as well as of those factors 
which lead to longovity. But it is unlikely 
that any individual or school class could find 
time for so extended a course of study 



as is here prescribed, and the value of the 
book will consist, therefore, in the sugges- 
tions which it contains for the use of teachers. 
A judicious selection from its several parts 
will not only vary the monotony 
of class work, but will also enable the 
teacher to give correct answers to many 
awkward questions. The first part treats 
of biology and some of the simpler charac- 
teristics of air and water. The succeeding 
parts deal with anatonvy, physiology, and 
dietetics, with some exercises on personal 
hygiene, first aid, and principles leading 
respectively to healthy and unhealthy 
dwellings. There is a bibliography for those 
who desire to advance their knowledge 
still further in any subject of which the book 
treats, a glossary for those who are unskilled 
in the classical languages, a good index, 
and two pages of introduction by Prof. 
M. E. Sadler, one of the most enlightened 
exponents of modern education. The book is 
throughout sufficiently illustrated. 

Miss Ravenhill 's method consists in de- 
scribing an experiment to show some definite 
point, the details being sufficient to enable 
the whole to be accurately carried out 
by any moderately careful person. 
Cautions are added where necessary ; and 
at the end of each experiment is a note 
ext laining the principles involved and 
elucidated. 



SOCIETIES. 



Astronomical. — Jan. 10. — Mr. H. F. Newall, 
President, in the chair. Sir Robert Ball read a 
paper on the single equation which comprises the 
theory of the fundamental instruments of the 
observatory. He showed that all the ordinary 
formula? used in connexion with the different 
instruments can be deduced as particular cases of 
the general equation. — Prof. Kapteyn gave an 
account of his investigation on the number of stars 
of determined magnitude and determined galactic 
latitude. Previous researches in this direction had 
been more or less vitiated by not being based on a 
trustworthy photometric scale, and by depending 
on stars of too small a range of magnitude. He 
presented a copy of his full investigation, just 
published by the Groningen Astronomical Labora- 
tory. — The Astronomer Royal read a paper on 
observations of the ninth satellite of Saturn 
(Phoebe) from photographs taken at the Royal 
Observatory in 1907. — Mr. Stratton gave a short 
account of a paper on the proper motions of faint 
stars in the Pleiades, Prof Turner also contributing 
a short note on the same subject. — Mr. Crommelin 
read a second paper, by Mr. Cowell and himself, 
on the perturbations of Halley's comet in the past, 
the present communication dealing with the 
apparition of 1222. They concluded that Hind's 
identification was incorrect, and had found a 
comet recorded in the annals of the Chinese, which 
was probably an appearance of the comet of Halley. 
They had not completed their calculations with 
regard to the comet of 1066, represented on the 
Bayeux tapestry, but believed it would prove to 
be also an appearance of Halley *s comet. — The 
Astronomer Royal presented a paper, by himself 
and Mr. Harold Christie, on an improved illumina- 
tion of the field in a transit instrument, and showed 
a number of data exhibiting the improved results 
of this illumination on the discordance in reversed 
positions of the instrument. 



Mathematical. — Jan. 9. — Prof. W. Burnsido. 
President, in the chair. — Mr. T. J. Garstang was 
elected a Member. — Prof. A. E. H. Lore spoke on 
'The Distinctive Chamoter of Lord Kelvin's 
Mathematical Investigations,' and moved a reso- 
lution of condolence with Lady Kelvin. This was 
seconded by Sir W. I). Niven, and carried unani- 
mously. — Communications were made as follows : 
' On a Formula of Interpolation,' by Mr. C. S. 
Jackson, — ' Hilbcrt's Invariant Integral in the 
Calculus of Variations," by Mr. T. .J. PA. Broin 
wich, — and ' An Operator related to q Series,' by 
the Rev, P. H. Jackson. 



82 



T II E AT II ENJEUM 



No. 4180, Jan. 18, 1908 



MliniXl.S NKXT nn 
m Loodoe institution. ■ - ' Bmmti bM m Dm* Bm Mrlaft' Mr. 

— Bodot) of ArU - -Tli. Th.-.nv mi.l Pnutlrcof eiixknmking,' 

i i.i Mr ll. II Cunynibania iCantoi La tun I 
_ h.~ i. 'v.- 'Infant Mortality,' Dr It II ut« hlson, 

Ti.-. Royal imtltutlon. s.— 'Tin Internal Knot DUhrwl Am 
m ,1- 1... lure II . It A A Gray. 

— Suti-tu il II -'Home Unooniidared Factors uffi-ctlnir the 

Birthrate,' Hi Reginald Dudfleld. 

— Institution of c nil Engloeen, 8 'Experimental InTettlga 

ttoni ,.( tin- Btreaeea m Haaonrjr I>nms aulm-ctecl to Wuter 
re. Sir .1 W Ottlej and Dr. A. w. Hrlphtniorc ; 
M iii Dami: an F'xi«riiiientul Inveatiirtition hy 

meaiia of India-rubber Models, Ueam J. 8. Wflaonandw. 
'Straws in Moonrj Dama, Mr. K. Preeoot Hill. 

— Society of Artii. 8,— "The Art of Jewellery,' Mrs. Hadawoy. 

.Applied Art Section. I 
Win. Hoyul Society of Literature, 8.— 'Tolstoi as Shakespearean 
Critic.' Prof. J. B. Mayor. 

— Geological. 8 —'Tile Hrigin of the Pillow-Lava near Port Isaac 

in C or nwall.' Messrs. 0. Itcid and H. Dewey'; '(In Bob 
■ liv i-i<-r» of the Chalk of TrlminiiiKhuiii, Norfolk.' Mr. M. 
Brydona, 

— Society of Aits. 8.— 'Siam an.l its People,' Mr. It II Hillman. 
Tin us. Itoyal Institution. 3.— 'Recent Lioht on Ancient Physio- 
graphies,' Lecture II., Prof. W. W. Watts. 

— Royal Society. 4.30. 

— London Institution. 6 —'The Furniture of an English House 

a Century Ago,' Mr. C. J. Tabor. 

— Institution of Electrical Engineers, 8,— ' Standard Per- 

formances of Electrical Machinery,' Mr. R. Goldschini.lt. 
Society of Antiquaries. 8.30. 



Fill. 



Sat. 



Physical, 5.— ' Recalescence Curves,' Mr. W. Rosenhain ; 'An 
Experimental Examination of Gihhs' Theory of Surface 
Concentration, anil an Application to the Theory of Dyeing,' 
Mr. \V. 0, M. Lewis. 

Institution of Civil Engineers, 8.—' A Cost Theory of Itein- 
foreed-Concrete Beams,' Mr. J. R. Wade ; The Neutral Axis 
In Reinforccd-Concrete Beams,' Mr. E. I. Spiers. (Students' 
Meeting. I 

Royal Institution, 9.— 'The Extinction of Malta Fever,' 
«'ol. D. Bruce. 

Mathematical Association. 2.30.— Annual Meeting : Presi- 
dent's Address. Papers: 'On the Teaching of Elementary 
Mechanics.' Mr. W. ,T. Dorhs ; ' On the Teaching of the 
Elements of Analysis,' Mr. 0. O. Tuckey ; 'On the 
Geometrical Treatment of Series in Trigonometry.' Mr. 
F. J. W. Whipple; 'On a New Treatment of Similarity in 
Elementary Geometry,' Mr. W. E. Bryan. 

Royal Institution, 3.— 'The Electrification of Railways,' 
Lecture II., Prof. G. Kapp. 



SScunze (Sosstp. 

Mr. A. E. Shipley is republishing with 
Mr. Murray, under the title of ' Pearls and 
Parasites,' a number of essays which have 
for the most part appeared in The Quarterly 
Review. The book will include an account 
of life in the deep-sea abysses, the British 
fishery question, and the work of Pasteur in 
elucidating the origin of disease. 

Mr. Murray is also publishing ' From 
Peking to Sikhim,' by Count de Lesdain, the 
record of a journey carried out by him and 
his wife through the district of the Ordos 
Desert, which lies in a bend of the Hoang- 
Ho ; thence, by the province of Kansu, across 
a high mountainous district into the valley 
of the Yangtse, and so to Tibet. 

' The Origin of Vertebrates,' by Dr. 
Walter H. Gaskell, which Messrs. Longman 
have in the press, is the outcome of twenty 
years' work. In it is put forth a theory of 
the origin of Vertebrates which is based upon 
two propositions : ( 1 ) that the essential 
factor for the upward evolution of all 
animals is growth of brain-power ; (2) that 
each higher group of animals has arisen 
from some member of the highest group 
evolved up to that time, and not from a 
lower group. A special chapter is devoted to 
the consideration of the difficulties presented 
by current embryological doctrines. 

We note the issue as a Parliamentary 
Paper of the Annual Report of Proceedings 
under the Sale of Food and Drugs Acts, 
1875 to 1899, the Merchandise Marks Act 
1887 to 1894, &c. {Id.). 

At a meeting of friends of the lale John 
Samuel Budgett, held in Cambridge on 
February 8th, 1904, it was decided to per- 
petuate his memory by the publication 
of a memorial volume with reprints of his 
various zoological papers, and descriptions 
of the more important material brought 
back by him on his various expeditions. 
The Syndics of the Cambridge University 
Press undertook the responsibilities of 
publication, the heavy expenses of illustra- 
tion being met by a fund subscribed by 
Budgett's friends. The volume has been 
edited by Prof. Graham Kerr. Mr. A. E. 
Shipley has acted as Hon. Treasurer of the 
fund, lias contributed a biographical sketch, 



and helped in many ways towards the 

bringing out of the volume. 

DtraixG the last "few months many in- 
teresting specimens have been added by 
gift to the collections in the Natural 
History Department of the Royal Scottish 
Museum. In the course of the excavations 
recently carried on at the old Roman 
military camp at Newstead, near Melrose, 
many bones of dogs, deer, and horses were 
discovered. From the remains of the 
last, an almost complete skeleton of a Koman 
horse has been built np, and is now exhibited 
in the Small Mammal Hall. Note should 
also be made of the specimens of a small 
" leaf-footed " crustacean, the shield-shrimp 
(Apus cancriformis). This tiny creature, 
scarcely two inches long, was discovered in 
185 in some ponds in England, but since 
that date had not been recorded for Britain, 
and was regarded as extinct, until, in Sep- 
tember last, examples were discovered in 
a pond in Kirkcudbrightshire. 

Photographic registrations of Encke's 
periodical comet, which has never failed 
to return since its period was determined 
in 1818, were obtained by Prof. Max Wolf 
at the Astrophysical Institute, Konigstuhl, 
Heidelberg, on Christmas Day and again 
on the 2nd inst., the brightness on both 
occasions being estimated to be of only about 
the thirteenth magnitude. It is situated 
in the constellation Pisces, moving in a 
north-easterly direction towards Aries. The 
perihelion passage will not be due until 
about the end of April ; the last took place 
on Janaury 4th, 1905. 

Two faint small planets were photo- 
graphically discovered by Mr. Metcalf at 
Taunton, Mass., on the 27th of November 
and the 11th of December respectively ; 
one by Prof. Max Wolf on the 3rd inst., 
and two (the second remarkably bright for 
a recent discovery, being nearly equal to a 
star of the ninth magnitude) by Herr Kopff 
of Konigstuhl, on the 3rd and 4th inst. 
respectively. In No. 4226 of the Astrono- 
mische Nachrichten is given a list of the 
results of a large number of observations 
of small planets obtained by Father Tsut- 
sihashi at the Observatory of Z6-se, China, 
which is situated near the coast, to the 
south-east of Nanking. 



FINE ARTS 



THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF 

PAINTERS, SCULPTORS, AND 

GRAVERS. 



At the New Gallery the eighth exhibition 
of this Society contains few examples of 
the lasting interest that attaches to work 
of the best period of art, and although this 
gives to the show an unsatisfactory look 
of flippancy, yet it should be remembered 
that experimental art and the passing 
attractiveness of topical and journalistic 
motives have a legitimate claim on our 
attention. In England the policy of illus- 
trated journals in filling their pages with 
photographs has almost abolished the kind 
of draughtsman of whom Renouard may 
be cited as a typical example, and this 
freak of fortune has pressed hard on some 
of the artists of the " International." 
Discouragement has settled on the illustrators 
who formed a large part of the original 
strength of the Society, and there is a 
temptation for them, as for other artists 
of the brief brilliance proper to journalism, 
to spend their talent in the production of 
flimsy exhibition works. Such a picture, as 



distinct from that painted for the intonate 
pleasures of possession, is difficult 
criticize, because it hats no rctieon d- 
except as an introduction to something else. 

It is fair to only a certain propor t ion, 
therefore, Of these arti-t- to judge of their 
work by its success or failure according 
to the older standard which seeks a picture 
in a serious, complex thing wherein are 
many strands of interest mysteriously 
interwoven. Among the others may be 
many men excellently adapted to do the 
transient work of the hour — work which 
the world needs, but does not know that 
it needs, if we may judge by the decline 
of fine illustrated journalism on the one 
hand, and the absence of any general use 
of decorative painting on the other. These 
two branches of their profession are what 
most of these artists should be practising, 
were art playing its proper part in the 
national life, and they are fitted for one 
branch or the other according as their gift3 
lie in the direction of close actuality or a 
more generalized treatment of life. 

The small " Illustrators' Gallery," with 
which the exhibition opens, while it is the 
most interesting of the three, brings home 
to one the extent to which draughtsmen 
are despairing of any worthy career strictly 
in the domain of journalism. How much 
lively observation straight from life we 
should have found here eight years ago ! 
To-day the space is so largely given up to 
work not illustrative, but pictorial, that 
one lithograph, Sam of Sorrow Corner, by 
Mr. A. S. Hartrick, remains almost the sole 
representative of that vigorous naturalism 
which then promised so rich a store of raw- 
material for the future historian. In this 
sort of work Mr. Hartrick is a master, and 
we regret that the superb series of topical 
drawings that appeared in the early numbers 
of The Daily Graphic is not being continued 
to-day. Excellent in another fashion, his- 
other two prints of more permanent and 
general appeal, Tlie Crucifixion and Caliph 
Vathek, do not give quite the same impres- 
sion of being the productions of a man born 
to do this work and no other. Mr. E. J. 
Sullivan's best exhibit, Old Darkie, is in 
similar vein, but shows slight leanings 
towards the pictorial. Mr. Joseph Pennell 
sends some etchings which may tempt 
the collector more, but cannot compare 
in brilliance and charm with the everyday 
pen drawings he has produced in such 
profusion ; nor are the coloured drawings 
of Elizabeth Shippen Green examples of 
the best way in which illustration can be 
influenced by painting. In England and 
America an illustration, owing to the in- 
vention of the three-colour process, tends 
to appioximate in appearance to an easel 
picture — not to its advantage. In France, 
on the other hand, thanks to a public that 
relishes draughtsmanship of some lightness 
and continuity— thanks also to the develop- 
ment of the cartoon as a serious work of 
art — illustrators glide naturally and suitably 
into decorative painting of the lighter kind ; 
for a fine cartoon demands just that power 
of generalization, of abstraction which 
marks off the decorator from the illustrator. 
Willette might be cited as an instance, or 
Forain, whose work we shall see here later. 
It is a disappointment, therefore, to find that 
well-known caitoonist M. Charles Leandre 
responsible for A Design for the Decoration of 
a Brasserie of entirely vulgar and realistic 
aim ; the more so as his small drawing 
beneath it, Les Spares, has just that easy 
and stylish design which we hoped to see in 
his decoration. Jean Veber has a coloured 
etching which is also disappointing. Hover- 
ing on the borderland between illustration 
and decoration, and not thorouglily satisfac- 



No. 4186, Jan. 18, 1908 



THE ATHENiEUM 



83 



tory as either, Louis Legrand's large pastels 
are extraordinarily clever. The lady getting 
out her glasses in La Debutante may be 
mentioned as the most daring and dainty 
passage of draughtsmanship, his oil paintings 
in the exhibition being flagrant examples 
of how unwise even so masterly a draughts- 
man may be when he allows himself to be 
seduced into picture painting. Even in 
the drawings he is somewhat uneven, the 
ballet subjects being noticeably coarser 
in feeling ; while Le vieux Berger, in which 
he attempts greater elaboration, is metallic 
and commonplace. Sir Charles Holroyd's 
William Strang, A.R.A., and Mr. E. Zak's 
portrait are better examples of hard, careful 
portraiture in imitation of early masters, 
but these are a little stiff and laboured. 

The Femme a la Fenetre by Degas is more 
truly archaic than these in its fine delibera- 
tion of touch, and here we come to a more 
intimate painting, claiming kinship with the 
marvel of stipple that represents the art 
of Matthew Maris. Miss Elaine Lessore 
as a Child is typical of that artist in the 
way in which it renders the mystery of 
life, yet renders apparently very little 
else ; it is as though we were conscious 
of the presence of the child peering at us 
through a dirty glass. Of the same 
order of quiet, penetrating work are Mr. 
Muhrman's pastels The Old Cottage and 
Snow Scene, Meissen, and the excellent water- 
colours by Mr. Livens of scenes at Hastings. 
Of the coloured prints in the room, Charles 
Cottet's Deuil Marin is a decent, unpreten- 
tious rendering of one of his own pictures ; 
while P. Nordfelt shows himself a real 
master of that art of printing which is 
technically the most difficult part of the 
Japanese woodblock process, but utilizes 
it to produce a beautiful bit of stuff rather 
than for purposes of expression. Of Mr. 
Morley Fletcher this is not so true, and 
he depends less on Japanese inspiration, 
but is still too intent on the preciosity of 
the objet d'art to attain any generous degree 
of creative power. 



Jfiru-^ri (gossip. 

Messes. Ernest Brown & Phillips will 
hold during the coming season an exhibition 
of the works of the late J. Buxton Knight. 
It will include paintings and water-colours. 

In the Art Section of the " Entente- 
Cordiale " French Exhibition to be held 
in London between May and November 
of this year, of which we wrote last week, 
there is to be a Retrospective division. 

Yesterday, at University College, Lon- 
don, Prof. E. A. Gardner began a course of 
lectures on ' The Theatre of the Greeks.' 

The death in his seventy-sixth year is 
announced from Berlin of the well-known 
German caricaturist Wilholm Busch, whose 
' Max und Moritz,' of which he was botli 
author and illustrator, has taken its place 
among the classics of the German nursery. 
His ' Munchner Bilderbogen ' enjoyed a 
great reputation, and the accompanying 
verses have in many cases become household 
words. He was a master of the art of 
writing nonsense verses, and in the grotesque 
style of drawing which he practised. Among 
the best known of his ' Bilderbopen ' were 
tin' comic pictures of ' Der Virtuoso 1 and 
' Diogenes und die bosen Buben von Korinth,' 
with its often-quoted moral, " Das kommt 
von das." 

M. Theodore Jourdan, whoso death at 
the age of seventy-five is announced this 
•week from Marseilles, where he was a 



professor at the Ecole les Beaux-Arts, was 
an animal painter of considerable merit. 

M. Camille Groult, of Paris, whose 
death is announced at the age of seventy- 
six, was an enterprising collector of a type 
which would have delighted Balzac. Thanks 
to a prosperous business, M. Groult was 
able to buy most things that he wanted. He 
once declared that he bought a whole col- 
lection in order to secure five articles in it. 
His own collection contains many fine tilings 
of the French eighteenth-century school, and 
his mistakes in purchasing early English 
pictures are counterbalanced by some 
examples of the first rank — the beautiful 
Gainsborough of Lady Mulgrave, and the 
charming Hoppner of Mary Benwell, and 
several fine Turners. 

Some interesting particulars are now 
available about the discovery a month ago 
of an extensive Frank cemetery at Haine- 
St. Paul in Belgium, At the present time 
45 separate tombs have been opened, and 
in 25 of them have been found ornaments 
as well as a good deal of the black pottery 
typical of the Merovingian period. Three 
of the tombs seem to have been reserved 
for women, to judge from the ornaments 
found in them, which include bracelets, 
brooches, and rings. The cemetery must 
have been in use for a long time, as several 
different ways of placing the bodies are 
noted. 

EXHIBITIONS. 

Sit. (Jan. 18).— Camsix Art Club Exhibition of Pictures, Private 
View. Goupil Gallery. 

— French Engraved Portraits and Mezzotints by Xanteuil, 

Vaillaut. anil others, Mr. Gutekunst's Gallery. 

— Gardens by G. S. Elgood, R.I., Private View, Fine-Art 

Society. 

— Life Work of the late Sir Noel Paton, R.S.A.. Pore Gallery. 

— Pictures of Brittany and the Isle of Skye, by C. Lillian 

Sheppard. and small Landscapes, mostly Euglish, by Rose 
Aspinall Syers. Dore Galleries. 

— Royal Society of Miniature Painters, Thirteenth Annual 

Exhibition, Modern Gallery. 

— Sunshine in Greece, Italy, and Albania, Water Colours by 

Stephen Simpson, and Etchings and Music Pictures by 
Pamela Colman Smith, Baillie Gallery. 



MUSIC 



iKusical (gossip. 

Madame Liza Lehmann's new song-cycle, 
' Nonsense Songs,' from ' Alice in Wonder- 
land,' was performed for the first time at 
the Chappell Ballad Concert at Queen's 
Hall last Saturday afternoon. In her 
settings of Lewis Carroll's delightful lyrics 
the clever composer again shows that she 
can write music which is both melodious 
and diverting. Madame Lehmann has 
dealt in her most entertaining manner with 
" You are old, Father William," which, 
planned as a duet for tenor and baritone, 
exhibits pleading strains for the youth 
contrasted with firm and dignified utterance 
on the part of the old man. Very humorous, 
too, is the setting of " They told me you had 
been to her," interrupted by recitatives, 
in the style of old - fashioned Italian 
opera. Of the songs, ' Mock-Turtle Sou]) ' 
and ' The Queen of Hearts ' — the one for 
tenor, the other for soprano — show special 
refinement and charm. An admirable per- 
formance was given by Miss Caroline 
Hatchard, Miss Palgrave - Turner, Mr. 
Gregory Hast, and Mr. Hamilton Earle, 
with the support of the composer in the 
pianoforte accompaniments. 

At a meeting held last Monday at New- 
castle-on-Tyne, with the Lord Mayor in the 
chair, it was resolved to establish a 
Triennial Musical Festival on a scale similar 
to those of Birmingham, Leeds, and 
Sheffield. The Duke of Northumberland 
was unanimously elected President. 

Thk prize of 500/. offered by Messrs. 
Ricordi for an opera in English has been 



won by Dr. Edward Woodhall Naylor. 
Messrs. Joseph Bennett, Percy Pitt, Tito 
Ricordi, and Sir Charles Stanford were 
the adjudicators. Dr. Naylor is organist 
and Lecturer in Music at Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge. 

Verdi's ' Falstaff ' will be performed by 
the students of the Royal College of Music 
at His Majesty's Theatre, under the direction 
of Sir Charles V. Stanford, on Tuesday 
afternoon. 

' Fidelio ' was announced for yesterday 
at the Vienna Hofoper, the first performance 
there under the new director, Felix Wein- 
gartner. 

Die Musik states that the Municipal 
Museum of Erfurt has recently acquired a 
portrait of the first half of the eighteenth 
century, at the back of which is the following 
inscription : " Joh. Sebast. Bach, born 
March 21, 1685, at Eisenach.*' It was at 
first supposed to be the portrait which Kittel, 
a pupil of Bach, is known to have possessed ; 
but it does not agree either in age or dress 
with certain known details concerning that 
picture. 

M. Henri Marteau, Professor of the 
Violin at the Geneva Conservatoire, has 
been appointed successor to Dr. Joseph 
Joachim as Professor of the Violin at the 
Hochschule, Berlin. According toLcMene- 
strel of last Saturday, however, M. Marteau, 
in a letter to the Journal de Geneve, states 
that though negotiations have been opened, 
and though he has signed a protocol, the 
matter will have to be submitted to the 
Prussian Minister of Finance, and afterwards 
to the Prussian Diet. 



a™. 



Mon. 
Toes. 



Wko. 
Tiichs 



PERFORMANCES NEXT WEEK. 

Concert. 3.30. Albert Hall. 

Sunday Society Concert, 3.80, Queen's Hall. 

Sunday League Concert, 7, Queen's Hall 

The Illuminated Symphony, s.15. Queen's Hall. 

'Falstaff' by Students of Royal College of Music. 2, His 

Majesty's. 
Miss Daisy Hansell's Violin Recital. B.80. Bechstein Hall. 
Twelve o'clock Concert, noon. .Eolian Hall, 
.loachim Memorial Concert. 8. Queen's Hall. 
Broadwood Concert. 8.30, .Eolian Hall. 
t'happell's Ballad Concert, 2.30, Queen's Hall. 
Popular Concert for Children and Young Students, 3, Steinway 

Hall. 
Miss Myra Hess's Recital, 3.15, ..Eolian Hall. 



DRAMA 



THE WEEK. 

Lyric. — A White Man : a Romance of the 
West, in Four Acts. By Edwin Melton 
Royle. 
There is always room on the stage for 
first-rate melodrama — and such, in its 
American scenes, ' A White Man ' may 
be considered. The play is prodigal 
of romantic incidents, emotional crises, 
and theatrical situations containing the 
element of surprise ; and the setting 
of its story is at once picturesque 
and, for English playgoers, more or less 
novel. It is only by depicting faith- 
fully an unfamiliar environment that 
a writer of melodrama can show originality 
or give the appearance of getting close to 
life. Compelled by the conventions of 
his form of art to adopt, as the springs of 
the action of his characters, extravagant 
motives of chivalry and self-sacrifice on 
the one hand, and of jealousy, envy, and 
hatred on the other, he can in the main 
present but one unchanging picture — that 

of the ultimate triumph of virtue over 
vice, and of true love over the tyranny 
of circumstance. But it is possible for 
him to secure variety or an aspect of 



,X4 



T II E AT II EN -i: (' M 



X<>. U86, .Ian. 18, L908 



actuality for the external.- of that picture. 

Be may, for inatanoe, if bii play lias a 

military <»r naval colour, realise vividly 
the routine of cither of the services. Or 
v hen, as is the case with Mr. Milton Royle, 
his choice falls on the life of a pioneer 
settlement in the Far West, he may sketch 
in natural manner the superficial features 
cf such rough civilization. Mr. Royle not 
only enlists our interest in his cowboys 
and ranchers and " toughs " and Red 
I lulians, in his scenes of banter and quarrel 
and revolver-shooting laid in a makeshift 
drinking saloon ; he also contrives to 
render the whole atmosphere of his play 
extraordinarily realistic. No wonder, 
then, that this American piece, which 
boasts, besides, an exciting plot and makes 
a strong sentimental appeal, received 
a more than friendly first-night reception. 
The plot is compact of quixotry. For 
example, the hero — a young officer who 
is heir to a peerage — consents, out of love 
for a married woman, to plead guilty by 
flight to having committed a fraud which 
is the work of that lady's husband, his 
titled cousin. Once arrived out West, 
Jim Carston, as he calls himself, gives 
further proof of his chivalry by marrying 
an Indian girl who has saved his life, and 
by becoming in consequence a "squaw- 
man," a type of settler unpopular and 
socially ostracized in the States. So when 
the inevitable message comes telling him 
that his cousin has died, making full con- 
fession, and that he himself has succeeded 
to the title, and might perhaps marry his 
cousin's widow, the news arrives too late. 
Not only has he his Indian squaw to 
consider, but also a little son, whose 
sudden entry with the cry of " Daddy ! " 
just as his father has learnt of his change 
of fortune, furnishes one of the most 
dramatic moments of the piece. Jim 
decides that he must play the " white 
man " still, and so refuses to leave his 
wife, but makes arrangements for his 
boy's education in England. The father's 
grief at parting with his child would con- 
stitute the most affecting scene of the 
play, were not the pathos overstrained. 
As it is, Jim has not, after all, to give up 
Ms boy, for the mother, in despair at 
losing lier son, kills herself, and so cuts 
the knot of her husband's embarrass- 
ments. 

Mr. Lewis Waller has provided a cast 
that is agreeably efficient. He himself, of 
course, in the titular part, is the most 
gallant and resonant of self-sacrificing 
heroes. His ringing voice and hand- 
some presence have rarely shown to better 
advantage, and he lends a pretty touch 
of sincerity to the emotional scenes. 
Hardly less effective is Mr. George 
Fawcett in the character of a deli- 
berate, contentious Yankee. Miss Nora 
Lancaster is a trifle artificial as the 
Countess, Miss Dorothy Dix producing 
much more effect as the Indian squaw, 
though her acting is almost entirely con- 
fined to pantomime. But perhaps the 
most interesting performances are given 
in the Indian parts by real Indians em- 
ploying a still-extant dialect which has 
to be translated to the English-speaking 



oharaotem, as well as to the audience, by 
an interpreter. 



The Playa of Moliere. 8 vols. (Edin- 
burgh, John Grant.) — The publication of 
this edition of Moliere'i plays, which ■ 

begun and left unfinished by another firm, 
has been successfully taken over by Mr. 
John Grant, the result being that Un- 
complete set of eight volumes is now avail- 
able. Alongside the French text, which is 
based upon the edition of MM. Eugene 
Despois and Paul Mesnard, is an English 
rendering by Mr. A. R. Waller, preceded 
by a critical introduction by Prof. Saints- 
bury, and illustrated by 31 etchings after 
Leloir. Published at a moderate price, 
the edition is designed to meet the require- 
ments of those playgoers and playlovers 
whose purse is limited, or who wish to 
supplement their knowledge of French 
by an adequate English rendering. 

To describe the English portion as a 
translation is hardly correct ; it is rather 
a literal rendering in English prose, and the 
delicacy of diction which marks the French 
text is hardly retained. To do that, how- 
ever, would require supreme gifts, and we 
readily admit that Mr. Waller has accom- 
plished his task with discretion and ability ; 
the result, though hardly inspired, is a sound 
and sensible version. The substitution of 
the French equivalent of " sir " in the 
English translation, occurring as it does 
continually, is irritating. Thus we read : 
" Ah ! Monsieur de l'Armenie, you shall 
be well tanned," &c, and again, " So, 
Monsieur impostor, you have," &c. On 
occasion there is a coarseness in expression 
which might have been avoided. Taking 
an example at haphazard, we find that in 
' Les Precieuses Ridicules ' Portibus ex- 
claims : " Truly, it is very necessary to 
spend so much money to grease your mugs," 
as a rendering of "II est bien necessaire 
vraiment de faire tout de depense pour 
vous graisser le museau." 

The etchings after Leloir with which the 
various volumes are embellished are ad- 
mirable. In vol. i. is Prof. Saintsbury's 
lengthy Introduction, in which an admirable 
sketch is given of Moliere' s career, together 
with an appreciative and critical analysis of 
the principal plays. In discussing the oft- 
repeated insinuation that Moliere was not 
too particular as to whose ideas he annexed 
in order to form a foundation for his own 
plays, Prof. Saintsbury touches upon con- 
troversial matter, and his conclusion is as 
follow r s : — 

"As to the charges, direct or indirect, of pla- 
giarism, it cannot at this time of day be necessary 
to say much. It is practically acknowledged by 
all critics whose opinion is of the slightest value 
that such charges are only valid against bad writers, 
that the good writer may take his property (in 
Moliere's own attributed, and very likely genuine 
words) where he finds it." 

This is to state the matter too lightly. 
The fact is that Moliere belongs to the 
greatest ; and we are bound to forgive the 
greatest whatever they do. 



HOLGER DRACHMANN. 

Denmark has lost her greatest poet, 
and Danish literature a picturesque figure, 
by the death of Holger Drachmann on the 
14th inst., at the age of sixty-one. 

Few writers have been so prolific as 
Drachmann, who in all published some fifty 
volumes of romantic plays, dramas, lyrics 
and epics, tales of fishermen, novels, and 
travel sketches, often illustrated by his own 



a -pinti-'l v>-r-i'.!i in Dam 

of ' Don Juan.' He ha- often been nai 
tin- Penith Byron, En view r>oth of I 

■ nality and bin choice of subjects. 
The sea had a perpetual attraction for him. 
and he devoted himself to it a* an ar 
before he changed the palette for the pen. 

In 1872 appeared his first ' \ 
inspired by a prolonged stay in Land 
and by the Commune in Paris, the sub. 
of several poems. For sonc Drach- 

mann acknowledged the leadership of 
Hrandes as one of the chief men <>i the 
"awakening"' of modern Danish litera* 
in the severities. ' Songs by the S> 
' Venezia,' ' Vines and Roses,' and ' Youth 
in Poetry and Song,' as well as his popular 
tales of fishermen with their stru;.-. 
existence, belong to this period. Lat- 
a series of romantic plays and poems, a 
his descriptions of the last proviace of 
Sleswick showed that his radicalism had 
matured into nationalism. But reaction 
soon set in again, and in the eighties Drach- 
mann was once more to be found in the nu 
of the opposition, fighting like a free lanee. 
as he loved to describe himself in his poet 

He then travelled abroad, visiting Ham- 
burg (where he braved the cholera epidemic 
of 1892), Skagen, the picturesque fish 
town at the meeting of the North Sea and 
the Kattegat, and various towns in Denmark 
and Norway, and paying a second visit to 
London in 1900. 

Scathing attacks on the Copenhagen 
bourgeoisie and officialdom appear in his 

novel ' Pledged to ' (1890), perhaps his 

most characteristic prose work. 

He is best known to England as a dra- 
matist, and published a dozen or so of 
romantic plays (' Volund the Smith,' 'Halfred 
the Scald,' ' Renaissance,' ' Once upon a 
Time,' ' Gurre '), all of which gained a 
success on the Copenhagen stage. In the 
four ' Melodramas,' among other romantic 
plays, Drachmann may be said to have 
caught the spirit of the Danish ballads and 
the light nights of the Danish midsummer. 

His sixtieth birthday in 1906, the culmina- 
tion of his poetic career, was celebrated as a 
national event in Denmark. He died, after 
having been in poor health for some time, at 
a little fishing village. 



To Correspondents.— C. G.— J. E. B. M.— G. N 
T. R. E. H.— O. A.— H. W. T.— A. R. B.— Received. 

J. B. T. — Not suitable for us. 

We cannot undertake to reply to inquiries concerning the 
appearance of reviews of books. 

We do not undertake to give the value of books, china, 
pictures, &c. 

No notice can be taken of anonymous communications. 



INDEX TO ADVERTISERS. 

— * — 

Authors' Agents 

Beli. & Sons 61 

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Cambridge I "nivkrsity Press 69 

Catalogues 68 

Clowes & son- SS 

constable a co ' ♦ 

Cove 

educationai 

kxiiiuitions 

Burst a Blackett 6* 

I.UK1K 

Macmii.lan A CO 60,64 

Magazines, Ac 

mercuke de Francs 

Miscellaneous 

Murray 

Notes and Queries 86 

Printers £8 

Provident Institutions 

Sales bt Auction 

situations Vacant 

situations Wanted 6. 

smith, Elder A Co 

Sonnknschein A Co 

Tyte-writers, Ac 

Unwin 

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No. 4186, Jan. 18, 1908 



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NIVERSITY OF OXFORD. 



PROFESSORSHIP OF ENGINEERING SCIENCE. 

The ELECTORS to this PROFESSORSHIP will proceed to an 
ELECTION in the course of MARCH or APRIL, 1908. 

Candidates are requested to send in their applications, with such 
evidence of their qualifications as they may desire to submit, to the 
Registrar of the University, Old Clarendon Building. Oxford, so as to 
reach him not later than March 1, 1908. If Testimonials are sub- 
mitted, seven copies of each should be sent. The Professor will be 
elected for a period of five years, but will be re-eligible. He will 
receive a sura of not less than 600(. nor more than 700(. per annum 
from the University Chest. He will in addition receive the sum of 
260J. per annum, the emoluments of a Fellowship at New College 
attached to the Professorship. 

It will be the duty of the Professor to lecture and give Laboratory 
instruction in the subjects of Engineering Science. He will also tike 
charge of any Engineering Laboratory which may be assigned to him 
bv the University. 

"He will be subject in respect of residence and duties to the General 
Regulations laid down in Statt. Tit. IV. Sect. 1, §3 ('Oxford University 
Statues,' ed. 1907, pp. 57, 58) ; and also to the Particular Regulations 
applicable to the Professors enumerated in Schedule C {ibid., 
pp. 69, 60|. 

C. LEUDESDORF, Registrar. 

University Registry, Old Clarendon Building, Oxford. 
January 20, 190S. 



Q 



U E E 



N ' S 

HARLEY 



COL 

STREET, W. 



LEGE, 



The PROFESSORSHIP of ENGLISH LANGUAGE and LITERA- 
TURF is VACANT. 

Applications 'should be sent in by FEBRUARY 22, addressed to 
THE WARDEN, who will furnish particulars. 



T 



HE UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS. 



Applications will be received up to FEBRUARY 15th for the 
appointment of ASSISTANT PROFESSOR of EDUCATION. Salary 
4007.— Particulars may be obtained from THE REGISTRAR. 

KING'S COLLEGE, LONDON. 
(UNIVERSITY OF LONDON.) 
The COUNCIL invite applications for the post of LECTURER and 
DEMONSTRATOR in GEOLOGY. Salary 200/. Applications should 
be sent in by FEBRUARY 17.— For conditions apply to Secretary. 
WALTER SMITH, Secretary. 

BEDFORD COLLEGE FOR WOMEN 
(UNIVERSITY OF LONDON), 
YORK PLACE. BAKER STREET, W. 
The COUNCIL are about to appoint a LECTURER in BOTANY, 
who will be Head of the Department. The appointment is open to 
Men and Women equally, and will take effect at the beginning of the 
Easter Terra. . . , , , , , 

Applications, with twenty five copies of Testimonials, should be 
sent not later than JANUARY 81, to the Secretary, from whom 
further particulars may be obtained. 

ETHEL T. McKNIGHT, Secretary. 



THE ROYAL AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, 
CIRENCESTER. 
A new PRINCIPAL of the COLLEGE will be REQUIRED at the 
END OF THE ENSUING SUMMER TERM.— Applications for the 
poll accompanied by copies of not more than six Testimonials, 
must be addressed forthwith to E. II. HAYOARTII. Becretary to 
the R A. College, Cirencester, from whom all particulars may be 
obtained. 



I 



LFORD URBAN DISTRICT COUNCIL. 



APPOINTMENT OF LIBRARIAN. 

The ILI'oRD URBAN DISTRICT COUNCIL are prepared to 
receive applications from competent imtsoiis for the position of 
LII'.RARIAN of their PUBLIC LIBRARY, at present in course of 
erection at High Road, Reven Rings. 

Commencing Salary loot, per annum. 

AnpUoatloni, With copies of three recent Testimonials, to be 
en. lose, 1 in an envelope marked " Librarian." -mil addressed and sent 
to the undersigned on or before noon on TUESDAY. February n. isos. 

Canvassing Members of the Council, directly OI indirectly, will be 
deemed ■ disqualification. 

.mil\ \v BENTON, clerk Ic the Council. 

Town Hall, liford. Essex, January 18, I80B 



Yearly Subscription, free by post, Inland, 
15s. 3d. ; Foreign, 18s. Entered at the New 
York Post Office as Second Class matter. 



T l 



'HE GOVERNMENT of CEYLON require a 

JL SCIENCE MASTER for the ROYAL COLLEGE, COLOMBO, 
to teach Chemistry and Physics for London University Pass Examina- 
tions, including the Inter. B.Sc. Salary 3X1., rising to 4501. by annual 
increments of 251., subject to deduction of 4 per cent, as contribution 
to pensions of widows and orphans of Government officers. Free 
passage to Colony. Post pensionable. Candidates should be between 
•24 and 35, Honours Graduates in Science of a University of the 
United Kingdom, with not less than three vears' teaching experience. 
Applications should be sent before FEBRUARY 15 to THE 
ASSISTANT PRIVATE SECRETARY, Colonial Office, S.W., and 
envelopes should be marked with the name of the post applied for. 
Copies only of Testimonials (not more than six). 

T>RISTOL EDUCATION COMMITTEE. 

FAIRFIELD SECONDARY SCHOOL. 

WANTED. FIRST ASSISTANT MISTRESS, experienced in 
Secondary School Work. Must he a Graduate of an approved 
University, or hold an equivalent Diploma, and will be required to 
exercise general supervision over the Girls and their Games. Ability 
to teach Hygiene is desirable. Salary 120Z. per annum, rising by 51 
annually to 1407. In calculating the initial Salary credit will be given 
for half-length service in a Secondary School— Forms of Application, 
which must be received here not later than WEDNESDAY, January 29, 
1908, may be obtained by sending a stamped addressed foolscap 
envelope to THE SECRETARY, Education Offices, Guildhall, Bristol. 

January 20. 1908. 

MUNICIPAL SECONDARY SCHOOL AND 
PUPIL-TEACHER CENTRE, ACCRINGTON. 

WANTED, an ASSISTANT MISTRESS. Applicants must be 
Graduates, and have good qualifications for the teaching of French. 
Latin, and English. Previous teaching experience essential. Salary 
to commence at 100Z., and rise by iol. a year to 170!. The Scale 
provides an allowance for previous teaching experience, and also for 
possible non-automatic increments between 170?. and 2001. 

Forma of Application (returnable not later than FRIDAY, 
January 31) to be obtained from JNO. RHODES, Secretary. 

THOROUGH OF BARROW-IN-FURNESS. 

PUBLIC LIBRARY. 

The COMMITTEE invite applications for the position of 
ASSISTANT (Malel in the above LIBRARY. Age not to exceed 22. 
Training and experience in a Public Library essential. Preference 
will be given to Candidates holding Certificates of the Library 
Association. Salary 50?. per annum. 

Applications in Candidates' own handwriting, stating full name 
ami address, age, experience, when available, and accomjmnied by 
three Testimonials of recent date, to reach the undersigned not 
later than 12 o'clock noon on MONDAY', February 3. 1908. 

C. W. GABBATT, Librarian. 

Librarian's Office, Town Hall, Barrow. 



Situations WLtmUto. 

GENTLEMAN, 24* years, M.A. (Scotland), 
refined, of unquestionable character and integrity, fine appear 
seeks post as SECRETARY'. Home or Abroad. " 



anoe and mann 

suit married preferred. References 

Office, Lugar, Ayrshire, N.B 



-Address K, care of 



To 
Pest 



SECRETARY (LADY) REQUIRES POST to 
M.P. or other. Skilled Correspondent, Research, Precis Writing, 
Reports, Committee Work, Book-Keeping. Several years' experience. 
Educated Public Schools anil Abroad— Box 1334, Atheureum Press, 
18, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.C. 

LADY, with much experience in CATERING on 
a large scale, and ORGANIZING generally, wishes to find 
siniilarwork under a County Council or in a Factory Special capacity 
for Organizing. Good Salary required.— Box 1330, Athen.Tum Press, 
13, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.C. 



Iftisccllaruoiis. 



PRIVATE TOURS FOR GENTLEWOMEN — 
SUNNY ITALY'. FEBRUARY' 28, One Month, Rome. Naples, 
Capri Sorrento. Pompeii, Florence. Venice, Milan. Genoa. References 
exchanged. — Miss BISHOP, 27. St. George's Road, Kilburn. 

TO PUBLISHERS. — Distinguished Scholar, 
exceptional Linguist, Professor of Literature in leading 
English university, with considerable experience of Editorial 
responsibilities, would ENTER INTO PARTNERSHIP with, or 
control Educational Department for. a well-established Firm of 
Publishers -Write, in the first instance, to T. B., care of Willing's. 5 
Knightsbridgo, S.W. 

TO PUBLISHING HOUSES.— An old-estab- 
lished FIRM oilers the PART SERVICES of their RF.PRI' 
sentative. covering the East. South, and West of England. 
Terms Part. Expenses and Commission. — Address TRAVELIJK 
cars ol Baxter A Son. 38, Paternoster Square, B 

A UTHORS Me to WRITE POPULAR 
x\_ HANDBOOKS on scientific or TECHNICAL SUBJECTS, 
about 25 000 words length, are Invited to conuuuniiatc by letter, 
naming SuMectS and Terms. VUTIKiRH also RK<>1 IREH to 
WRITE Bright interesting RIOOR APHIKH of WORLD'S GREAT 
MEN and WOMEN, earb 27.000 words- PUBLISHERS. Box 1335, 

Athenaeum Press, 18, Bream's Buil dings, Chancer; Lane), EC. 

CJIR CHARLES GRANDISON, 8 vols. leather 

IO bound, published i7.m. vicAR OF WAKEFIELD, cloth, 1822, 

Illustrated. Also First Editions by Maria Bdgewortb and tVhMe 
Mclvilb • IRELAND, Box 1*37, Athcmrum Prow, 13, Bream's 
Buildings, Chancery Lane I I 



!MI 



T ii !•: at 1 1 i:\ .i:r \i 



No. 4187, .Jan. 35, L908 



THE 

AUTOTYPE COMPANY, 

74, NEW OXFORD STKKET, LONDON. 

MONOCHROME COPIES 

BY T1IK 

PERMANENT AUTOTYPE CARBON 

PROCESS OF PICTURES BY 

OLD MASTERS, 

From the Principal Collections of Note. 

NUMEROUS EXAMPLES OF WORKS 

BY MODERN ARTISTS. 



1 UK AUTOTYPE COMPANY'S PROCESSES OF PER- 
MANENT PHOTOGRAPHIC HKPKODUCTION are 

extensively employed l>y the Trustees of the British 
Moieiim, the Local Government Board, many of the 
Learned Societies, and leading Publishers. 

COPIES OF COINS. SEALS, MEDALS. 
MSS., DRAWINGS, ENGRAVINGS. ART 
OBJECTS, MICROSCOPIC WORK, &C. 



Inquiries are invited from those requiring Book 
Illustrations of the very highest quality. 

SPECIMENS AND ESTIMATES SUBMITTED. 

THE AUTOTYPE FINE-ART 
CATALOGUE. 

ENLARGED EDITION, with Hundreds of Miniature 
Photographs and Tint Blocks of Notable Autotypes. 

For convenience of reference the Publications are 
arranged Alphabetically under Artists' Names. 

Post Free, ONE SHILLING. 
A VISIT OF INSPECTION IS INVITED TO 

THE AUTOTYPE FINE ART GALLERY, 
74, NEW OXFORD STREET, LONDON, W.C. 



(Kaialonws. 



CATALOGUE No. 48.— Drawings of the Early 
English School— Turner's Liber Studiorum anil other Engravings 
after iTurner— Etchings by Turner. S. Palmer, Whistler— Japanese 
Colour-Prints— Fine-Art Books— Works by Ruskin. Post free, Six- 
pence.— WM. WARD, 2, Church Terrace, Richmond, Surrey. 

BOOKS.— ALL OUT-OF-PRINT and RARE 
BOOKS on any subject SUPPLIED. The most expert Book- 
finder extant. Please state wants and ask for CATALOGUE. I make 
a special feature of exchanging any Saleable Books for others selected 
from my various Lists. Special List of 2,000 Books I particularly want 
post free.— ED W. BAKER'S Ureat Bookshop, 14-16 John Bright Street, 
Birmingham. Oscar Wilde's Poems, 21a., for 10s. 6<f. ; Ballad of 
Reading Gaol, S«. Who's Who, 2 vols. 1907, lis. net, for 5s. 

ANCIENT and MODERN COINS.— Collectors 
and Antiquarians are invited to apply to SPINK & SON. 
Limited, for Specimen Copy (gratis) of their NUMISMATIC CIRCU- 
LAK. The finest Greek, Roman, and English Coins on View and for 
Bale at Moderate Prices.— SPINK A SON Limited, Experts, Valuers, 
and Cataloguers, 16, 17, and 18, Piccadilly, London, W. Established 
mpwardi of a Century. 

A G G S BROS.. 

109, Strand, London, W.C. 

DEALERS IN RARE AND VALUABLE BOOKS, 

PRINTS, AND AUTOGRAPHS. 

CATALOGUES sent post free to all parts of the World. 

Export Orders solicited. 

Telegraphic and Cable Address : " Bibliolite, London."— Telephone 

"Gerrard 4664." 

WOODCUTS, EARLY BOOKS, MSS., 4c. 

LEIGHTON'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, 
Containing 1,350 Facsimiles. 
Thick 8vo, art cloth, 25a. ; half-morocco. 30«. 
Part XIII.. Cal-Chrys, with 164 Facsimiles, Including Beruers's 
Froinart. Cambridge Bindings, Capgravc, 1016, Ceplo, 1477. and a 
large collection of Early Chronicles. I Now ready. l*ricc 2s. 

J. & J. LEIGHTON, 
40, Brewer Street, Golden Square, London, W. 



M 



For Type-writers and Magazines, &c, 
see pp. 112, 114. 



^ahs by ^Auction. 



Engraving* and Etching*. 

MESSRS. SOTHEBY, WILKINSON* HOTXJK 
wiU SELL by AUCTION, at their House. No. IS, Wellington 
8trcc-t. Strand. W.C, on MONDAY. January 27. at 1 o'clock precisely 
ENGRAYINGS and ETCHINGS, Framed ami in the Portfolio. com- 
pnr'-- 
\Vi 
the 

Tomkin 

—French Engravings by J. M. Mmoaii. N. ae Litoiiay,' N.~PouOft 1' 1' 
Cniiffard. VoyM, Blmonet, 4c„ after P. A. liandouin. N. LVaTretnce 8 
Frendeburg, i,. BoiUy, J. is. Qrauxe 0. BHaen, F. Bouoher Lancret 
and uther«— Modern Etchings and Engravings byJ.McN. Whistler 
D. l. Cameron. Hellcn. anil others, 4c. 

May be viewed. Catalogues may be ad. 



Kngrai ingt and l U i 

MKssks. su'i HEBY, WILKINSON* HODGE 
will HKI.LI.y AUCTION, at th.-ir Houm. So I i. YVrllliiyum 
ml, W c. ..,, HI I'M HDA"i I 
Following Days, at I o'clock precisely. KNGKAYINUH K T< II : 

DRAWINGS, A. . Framed and In the Portfolio, .rialiu 

an. I Htii.|i|e I'mtiaita afin Mr .1 Reynolds. Kir T. Isswi 
Koeller. dil 1" Lei*. R. Coaway. Blr A Vandyck. and otliers i 
BubjacU of the Kmdii.li Bchool. altar O. MorUnd. A K 

ini, K Wliintl.y. J Conatabla, J. M. W Turner, fc Kl 
and Bngravinn bv Barly and Modern H Including A i 

w Hollar, J Wlnail.-r. Seymour Haden, and others— Topographical 
Prints -Drawings by old Mart an Japanoae Prints and Drawii 

Coll.-.ti .t Drawings in Water-Colours of old Inns. byJ.T. WiU.m 

lOd a tew Oil Paintings, ho. 

.May Im ilewed two days prior. Catalogues, may be bad. 

A Portion ft the Library of (he. late Rrr. HEN It ) H.I /. 

POLE PRBDBRICR Mains HARRIS. 

ME88RS.BOTHEBY. WILKINSON fc HODGE 
will SELL by AUCTION at tie it 1Ii.uk.-. No. 13. Wellington 
Street. Strand. W.C . on MONDAY, February ;:. at I o'clock precisely, 
Books and MANUSCRIPTS, comprising the Property of the late 
A. W. UAODONALD, Esq., Aberdeen; the Property of Mi 
KENNEDY, a Portion of the I.iiikaky of the late Bet HENRY 
WALPOI.K FREDERICK MOHUN HARRIS .sold by order of the 
Administratrix.!, and othai I'roiiertles. iucluding Natural History 
Book! -Work! on Ireland— Privately printed Registers, by F. A. 
Crisp— Art Books— Hennepin's New Di». overy in America, 1698— 
llerrera, General History of America, 6 vols., 1725-U— Latham's 
Falconry, 1633— Killigrew, Comedies and Tragedies, iwrtrait, 1064— 
Llnscbotcn. Voyage*, 1698— Holinshed's Chronicles— First or Shake 
■paaxean Edition, 2 vols., ir>77— Purchas. Hakluytus Postliminy. 
B vols., 1625-1). fine copy, 4c— including a large number of Books in 
old 0al( bindings, with the fine Book-plate, dated 1896, of Francis 
Fulfoid. 

May Im- viewed two days prior. Catalogues may lie had. 

Tht Collection of (i reek Cuius funned by the late Rev. 
HENRY ELLIOTT, and the valuable Collection of 
Em/Huh Coins, the Property of REGINALD E. BAH- 
COMBE, Esij. 

MESSRS. SOTHEBY, WILKINSON & HODGE 
will SELL by AUCTION, at their House, No. 13. Wellington 
Street. Strand. W.C, on TUESDAY, February 4, and Following Day, 
at 1 o'clock precisely. COIN'S and MEDALS, including a COLLEC- 
TION of GREEK COINS of Italy, Sicily, Greece, and Asia Minor, 
in Gold, Silver, and Bronze, collected by the late Rev. HENRY 
ELLIOTT; the valuable COLLECTION of ENGLISH GOLD and 
SILVER COINS, the Property of REGINALD E. BASOOMBE, 
Esq., comprising Nobles of Henry V. and VI.— Unite and Half-Unite 
of the Commonwealth — Cromwell Broad — Five-Guinea Pieces of 
Charles II., James II., William and Mary, Anne, and George I., in 
Mint state— Two-Guinea Pieces of same Reigns— Specimen Mint Sets 
of George IV.. William IV., and Victoria. In Silver: Oxford Half- 
Pound of Charles I.— fine Crowns of Edward VI., Elizabeth. James I. 
of First Coinage, Charles I. of the Tower, Exeter, and Oxford Mints. 
May be viewed two days prior. Catalogues may be had. 

Silver Plate and Old English Porcelain and Pottery. 

MESSRS. SOTHEBY, WILKINSON & HODGE 
will SELL by AUCTION at their House, No. 13, Wellington 
Street, Strand. W.C. on THURSDAY. February 6. at 1 o clock 
precisely. OLD ENGLISH PORCELAIN and POTTERY. Oriental 
and Continenta China, Glass, 4c, from various sources— Silver Plate, 
Enamels, fee. 

May he viewed two days prior. Catalogues may be had. 

Valuable Miscellaneous Books. 
ESSRS. HODGSON & CO. will SELL by 

AUCTION, at their Rooms, 115, Chancery Lane, W.C. on 
THURSDAY. January 30, and Following Day, at 1 o'clock, VALU- 
ABLE MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS, including SELECTIONS from 
the LIBRARIES of TWO GENTLEMEN, comprising a setof Gouj.il s 
Historical Monographs, 18 vols., including Creighton's Queen Eliza- 
beth, and Skelton's Mary Stuart— Hayleys Life of Roinney. original 
boards— Frankau's J. R. Smith, and W. and J. Ward— J. H. 
Fragonard, by Pierre de Nolhac— A set of The Studio from the com- 
mencement to 1907— Catalogue of the Slade Collection of Glass, and 
other Books on the Fine Arts— The Victoria History of the Counties 
of England, 32 vols.— Walpole's Letters, by Cunningham, 9 vols.— 
The best edition of Keats's Works, 4 vols.— Mrs. Delany's Auto- 
biography, the Two Series, 6 vols.— A complete Set of the Dictionary 
of National Biography. 68 vols.— Books relating to Napoleon— Works 
on Angling— Orme s Military and Naval Anecdotes, Coloured Plates— 
Howitt's Foreign Field Sports— Warburton's Hunting Songs, the rare 
Original Edition— Goldsmith's Vicar of Wakefield, with the Coloured 
Plates by Rowlandson, 1817— Ainsworth's Jack Sheppard, First 
Edition, 3 vols., cloth, uncut— The First Edition of Scott's Waverley, 
3 vols., uncut— Goldsmith's The Traveller. Retaliation, She Stoops to 
Conquer, and the Good Natur'd Man, First Editions— Gray's Odes. 
First Edition. 1757— A Few Specimens from the Early German and 
Dutch Presses— Books, Maps, and Engravings relating to America — 
Early Documents and Manuscripts— An Album of Old Portraits, 4c. 
To be viewed, and Catalogues had. 

Curiosities. 

MR. J. C. STEVENS'S NEXT SALE of 
CURIOSITIES will take place on TUESDAY. January 28. at 
half-past 12 o'clock, and will include Weapons, Carved Clubs, Paddles. 
4c, from New Guinea, Samoa. New Zealand, and other parts— Antique 
Guns and Pistols, Metal Lamps, Candle Holders, Tinder Boxes, 4c— 
Baxter and other Prints— Wooden soled Shoe supposed to have been 
worn by Thomas iv Becket— and the usual Miscellaneous Assortment. 

On view day prior 10 to 5 and Morning of Sale. Catalogues on 
application to the AUCTIONEER, 38, King Street. Covent Garden, 
London W.C 

Sales of Miscellaneous Property. 

MR. J. C. STEVENS begs to announce that 
SALES are held EVERY FRIDAY, at his Rooms. 33, King 
Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C, for the disposal of MICRO- 
SCOPES, SLIDES, and OBJ ECT1YES — Telescopes-Theodolites- 
Levels — Electrical and Scientific Instruments— Cameras, Lenses, and 
all kinds of Photographic Apparatus— Optical Lanterns, with Slides 
and all Accessories in great variety by Best Makers— Household 
Furniture— Jewellery— and other Miscellaneous Property. 
On view Thursday 2 to 5 anil morning of Sale. 

MESSRS. CHRISTIE, MANSON, & WOODS 
respectfully give notice that they will hold the following 
SALES by AUCTION, at their Great Rooms. King Street, St. James's 
Square, the Sales commencing at 1 o'clock precisely. 

On MONDAY, January 27, PiCTURES by 

OLD MASTERS, the Property of a GENTLEMAN and Others. 

On WEDNESDAY, January 29, and THURS- 
DAY'. January 30, The COLLECTION of OLD ENGLISH SILVER 
PLATE of the late E. J. STANLEY, Esq. 

On THURSDAY, January SO, OLD ENGLISH 

SILVER PLATE of Miss M. I. WILSON, deceased, HERBERT 
l'EEL, Esq., and others. 

On FRIDAY, January 31, The COLLECTION 

Of PORCELAIN and DECORATIVE FURNITURE of the late K. J. 
STANLEY. Bat, 

On SATURDAY, February 1, PICTURES and 

DRAWINGS, the Property of the late Mrs. HANNAH ENTW1STLE 
and Others. 



M 



MR. HEINEMANN'S NEW BOOKS. 



Mr. Ih'innnnuu begt (0 UMUnmCt '<'■"' hi wQl 

publish n> it im l. n work of ijrvit §odai and 

■ lit. 

MEMORIES OF 

EIGHT PARLIAMENTS. 

By HENRY W. LUCY. 

With Portrait. 1 vol. demy 8vo, 8*. M. net.* 

Speaking at Kpsoin on Dec. 18, 1S'.»9, LORD RosKUKKI 
saiil : — " On anything relating to Parliament Mr. Loci 
expert. There is perhaps, no man living who Ins had so 
000 -'ant and M close observation of Parliamentary life in 
its many aspects." 

MEMOIRS OF THE 

C0MTESSE de BOIGNE 

The THIRD Volume (1820-1830), completing the 
work, is now ready. Demy svo, 10*. net. 

"The second and third volumes are even more interest in; 
than the first. The excellent translation will introduce 
these to a large number of readers." — Spectator. 

Uniform with the above, 10s. net each.* 
Vol L, 1781-1814, and Vol. IL, 1815-1819. 

FATHER AND SON. 

With Frontispiece. Demy 8vo, 8s. 6d. net. 

[Third Impression. 
"This book is unique. It is at once a profound and 
illuminating study in the concrete of the development of 
a child's mind, and also an historical document of great 
value." — Atheiuv/i hi. 

MEMOIRS OF 
SARAH BERNHARDT. 

Illustrated. Demy 8vo, 15*. net.* 
"Sarah Bernhardt all over."— Time*. 

Mr. HEINEMANN begs to announ ce the com- 
pletion, with the publication of Vol. I. (croici. 
48. ) of the first collected edition of 

THE WORKS OF 

HENRIK IBSEN. 

Edited by YVILLIAM ARCHER. 
11 vols., 21. is. the set. Each volume sold separately.* 

NEW SIX-SHILLING NOVELS. 
THE HISTORY OF 

AYTHAN WARING. 

By VIOLET JACOB, Author of ' The Sheepstealers.' 

THE EXPLORER. 

By W. S. MAUGHAM, Author of ' The Merry-go-round.' 

[Second Iwtprwm 

"A story which stirs the heart as well as the interest to 
its very